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3 1761 




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EK, CAPPS Pua.D., LL.D, T. E. PAGE, Litr.D. W. H. D, ROUSE, Litr.D, 










Of the classification of under-shrubs: the wild kinds : 
the chief distinction that between spinous and 
ON ante a) os RGR e5t a> Sp we ered 

Of spineless under-shrubs and their differences 

Of certain specially important spineless under- pe 
silphium and magydaris—belonging to ferula-like 
ARG i.4k oP Ia. Crea eons 

Of spinous under-shrubs and their differences. . . . . 

Of cultivated under-shrubs (coronary plants), with 
which are ineluded those coronary plants which are 
oe yo: a at 0 ar a ar aa ie Sie peer 

Of the seasons at which coronary plants flower, and of 
Seovenptn ot ther liie=.. . . .S . se es 







Of the times of sowing and of germination of pot-herbs 

Of the propagation of pot-herbs, and of differences in 
REE POOOES 6-9-0 eR ee ee eee CE eas 

Of the flowers and fruits of pot-herbs ........ 
Of the various forms of some pot-herbs. . ...... 
Of the cultivation of pot-herbs ; manure and water . . 
Of the pests which infest pot-herbs ......... 
Of the time for which seed of pot-herbs can be kept . 
Of uncultivated herbs: the wild forms of pot-herbs . 


Of other uncultivated herbs, which may be classed with 
pot-herbs 551.00. . a. "hs sls eee 103 
Of the differences in stem and leaf found in all herba- 
ceous: plants ee.) See 107 
Of other differences seen in herbaceous plants in general, 
as compared with one another and with trees. . . 111 

Of the seasons at which herbs grow and flower . . . . 115 

Of the classes into which herbaceous plants may be 
divided, as those having a spike and chicory-like 

plente. og. 0 Wis: s See 119 
Of herbs which have fleshy or bulbous roots ..... 125 
Of certain properties and habits peculiar to certain 
herbaceous plants. 6). 2. eis eie a ore ele 135 


Of the three classes and the times of sowing and of 

BOVTMINALION oe a> +)» "sles oe 143 
Of differences in the mode of germination and of subse- 
quent development 652°. oct Rene) ec 149 

Of differences in development due to soil or climate . . 155 
Of differences between the parts of cereals, pulses, and 

summer crops respectively ........+.24.4-. 159 
Of the differences between cereals .........., 165 
Of the differences between pulses .......... 173 
Of sowing, manuring, and watering ......... 177 
Of the degeneration of cereals into darnel ...... 183 
Of the peculiar character of chick-pea ........, 183 
Of special features of ‘summer crops’ ........ 185 

Of treatment of cereals peculiar to special localities . . 185 
Of cereals which grow a second time from the same 

| i en Sen Te 187 
Of the effects of climate, soil, and manuring ..... 189 
Of different qualities of seed ........ Ba) 8h =n ae 


EE ae 



Of degeneration of cereals, and of the weeds which 
Intest: particular erope:y so siiageteiis Se xized Rene 193 

Of the conditions in the seeds of pulses known as. 
‘cookable’ and ‘ uncookable,’ and their causes . . 197 

Of the grains and pulses which most exhaust the soil, or 
WME SENIROV OSI eso «ce ata. a «> oe Rape eee 199 

Of the diseases of cereals and pulses, and of hurtful 
SR 5 <5 aps Race cota ens 21 < + sel ea Da, nel poe ces 201 
Of seeds which keep or do not keep well... .... 205 
Of the age at which seeds should be sown ...... 209 
Of artificial means of.preserving seed ........ 211 
Of the effect of heat on seeds. . . 1. 2.45 + ees 211 

Of certain peculiarities of the seed of lupin and aigilops 213 



Of the various kinds of plant-juices and the methods of 

eollecking them. -.. sg. qcais i205 Walle 5 Ga whadite 217 
Of resinous trees and the methods of collecting resin 

SEE PIMC: |... 6 0 rea Stns oc hs EEC TB) WiC 223 
Of the making of pitch in Macedonia and in Syria. . , 229 
Of frankincense and myrrh: various accounts ... . 233 
Of cinnamon and cassia: various accounts ...... 243 
OF bataierol Mecca. .:.:) S4e5e ih gus> Ghar. kee ere suis 245 

Of other aromatic plants—all oriental, except the iris . 247 
Of the medicinal juices of plants and the collection of 

them: general account i. Ried ee 251 
Of the cutting of roots for medicinal purposes, and of 

certain superstitions connected therewith . . 255 
Of the medicinal uses of divers parts of plants .. . 261 
Of hellebores, the white and the black: their uses ‘aie 

RBEORNREMARAOIN, oo) oo 5 oc dal ened POL ee 8a EE Bates Ble 265 
Of the various kinds of all-heal ........... 269 
Of the various plants called strykhnos ........ 271 

Of the various kinds of tithymallos. . , . .. 2... 275 



Of the two herbs called dibanotts. . 2... 1... 277 

Of the two kinds of chamaeleon. . ..... we ETT 

Of the various plants called ‘poppy’. ........ 279 

Of roots possessing remarkable taste or smell . . . . . 281 
Of the time for which roots can be kept without losing 

their vittie 9. sehen 8. S* ee 287 

Of the localities which specially produce medicinal herbs 289 

Of the medicinal herbs peculiar to Crete ....... 295 

Of wolf’s-bane and its habitat, and of meadow-saffron . 299 
Of two famous druggists and of the virtues of hemlock . 303 

How use diminishes the efficacy of drugs, and how 
they have not the same effect on all constitutions . 305 

Of plants that possess properties affecting lifeless 

GUMCUE +6 RG eee Sos See ee 4 te U8 
Of plants whose properties affect animals other than 

WHER Ss eo eg ee oe en ee 309 
Of plants possessing properties which affect the mental 

OWES: Se ce neta). waar, te ceases io ae 311 
Of plants said to have magical properties. ...... 313 
A problem as to cause and effect .......... 313 
Of certain plants, not yet mentioned, which possess 

special properties. 3.6 os ys. aye Le 315 



Introductory: Of odours in general and the classifi- 

cation-of them’ 955 68 262.496) Sa 327 
Of natural odours ; of those of animals and of the effect 

of odours on animals). o! )./ai« aide Gees 329 
Of smell and taste |... .....s is. 2-5. sessiee he acl ee 331 
Of odours-in plants... .. ...../ 4S eG 333 
Of artificial odours in general and their manufacture : 

especially of the use of perfumes in wine... . . 333 



Of the oils used as the vehicle of perfumes ...... 

Of the spices used in making perfumes and their treat- 
MOG a bcc. <. 6 Weg ato ad eeel ae Ro 88 Seat 

Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and of 
the composition of various notable perfumes 

Of the properties of various spices... ....... 
Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes . . . . 

Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing of 
AEE OXIME. 5 Suara sw eee ey ol eB) as 

Of the properties of certain perfumes ........ 

Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes 

Of the making of perfume-powders and compound per- 
1008 ose RTE Oe ee Son ee eh ee, 

Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain 
curious facts as to the smell of animal and vegetable 
WLOGROS Ps Seo, ae A te tee FPO ees 

Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions. , 

Introductory: general principles .......... 
oe By ee ne a em aoe RTA eS 
ney CANE CS SEOL, Su) Peheeete Was,  S ee s 
ene menn Of tar weather 05543. es 
TENORN WANE os Sees alse. oe Me ees 

INDEX GF “PUANTS «is: 6 oe mtg ere 8 A ir are ey nah ee 

I.—List of plants mentioned in the Enquiry under 

RIGCRIOML PINOR: 62 Si TSA oe ce aoe Ge ne 
II.—List of plants mentioned in the oaths unde 
popular names... ...+. + ee. : . 





neh seas, hes 


— +4 





- VOL. Ti B 



T. Tlept pév ody dévdpav cai Oduvov elpnrat 
TpOTEpov" Errouevov © Eltrely TEpL TE TOV Hpvyai- 
KOV Kal TroLwo@V Kal el Tives ev TOUTOLS ETEpaL 
cuptTepirAapPavovrar dices: olov } ye oiTnpa 
Towwons éoTi. 

IIpa@rov bé Néywpev rept ths Ppvyavixhs: abry 
yap éyyutépw TOV Tpoerpnuevoy Sia TO EvAwdSHsS 
elval. TavTayov pev ovv iaws aiel TO aypLoV 
ToD pépou mAciov, e& Sé uy, Tepl ye THY Ppv- 
yavikny ovoiav: odtyov yap TO tuepov avThs, 
émep oyedov ev Tois ctepavwrtiKois eat, olov 
podovia iwvia SvdcavOos auapaKkos nmepoKkadnrés, 
ére O€ EprvAXos oicvpBpiov ér€éviov aBporovor. 
dnavTa yap Tatra Evriwdn cal pixpodvrra, Ov 

26 xal dpuvyavuxa. Kal éml tav AaxYavnpav 

ef G. 6, A, 
2 This hardly corresponds to the definition of ¢ptyava 





Of the classification of under-shrubs: the wild kinds. the chief 
distinction that between spinous and spineless. 

I, We have spoken already of trees and shrubs, 
and next we must speak of under-shrubs and 
herbaceous plants and of any other natural classes 
which are included with these; for instance, cereals 
come under herbaceous plants. 

But first let us tell of under-shrubs, for this class 
comes near those mentioned above because of its 
woody character. Now it may be said that with all 
plants the wild kinds are more abundant than the 
cultivated, and this is certainly true of the under- 
shrubs. For the cultivated kinds of this class! are 
not numerous, and consist almost entirely of coronary 
plants, as rose gilliflower carnation sweet marjoram 
martagon lily, to which may be added tufted thyme 
bergamot-mint calamint southernwood. For ll 
these are woody and have small leaves; wherefore ? 
they are classed as under-shrubs. This class covers 

given in 1, 3. 1, nor do some of the plants here mentioned 
come under the description. St. considers the text defective. 

B 2 


omoiws, olov padavos myavov Kal 6oa Tapa 
TAHT LA TOUTOLS coriv. vmrEp @V OVX ATTOV | iows 
cpporrer KATA TV olKetay Tpoonyopiav elTrety, 
éTav Tepl orepavapatov wal ax aver TovmpeBa 
pvetav. vov o€ ™ p@TOV mepl TOV aypiov éywpev. 
eoTw aAvuTa@V eld Kal pépn Treo, & de? dvarpetv 
Kal Tois Kal’ ExaaTov yévos Kal Tots Gdols Eldect. 

Meyiorny 8 av tis AaBot Stahopav toy brwv 
yev@v, OTL TA pev avaxavOa Ta dé axavOwdn 
Tuyyave. mwdduw 8 év éxatépw TovT@Y Toda 
Siadopal yevov Kai eidov, vrép wv Kal? Exatepa 

Pen PS 8 
Tevpatéov eiTreiv. 

Tay axavOtxov 61) Ta bev aThas elo axavOau, 
aoTep aapapayos Kal oKopTios” ov yap éyouat 
pvrAXov ovdev Tapa THD axavar. Ta O€ pur- 
Adkavéa, Kabdmep a aK avOS nh puyyLov KviKos* Taba 
dxavOay, Oe 0 Kal purdaxavOa KQNELTAL. 7a dé 
Kal Tapa THD axavdar é er Epov EXEL pudnror, MOTrEp 
7 ovavis Kal Oo TptBoros Kat 0 péas, O ov 6 TLWeES 
Karovar otaBnv. o 6é _TplBoros Kal TrEPLKALp- 
mudKav0os éoruy" exel yap axavOas év TO Tept- 
KapTip, dc 6 Kal Todt idtov mpos amavta as 
el Trey émel mrophaxavdd ye TOG Kal TOY 
dévdpov Kat TOV Oapvwdav eat, olov aypas poa 
mantovpos Batos podwvia KadmTapis. €v meV ov 
tois axavOixois tavtTas adv Tis ws cimely TUTO@ 
AdBou Tas Svadopas. 

1 rw... eldeor: text needlessly altered by Sch. and W. 
Sch. himself shews that T. uses efSos and yévos almost in- 
discriminately. Here tév dAwy yevav means the same as Tois 



also pot-herbs, such as cabbage rue and others 
like them. Of these it is perhaps more appropriate 
to speak under their proper designation, that is, 
when we come to make mention of coronary plants 
and pot-herbs. Now let us first speak of the 
wild kinds. Of these are several classes and sub- 
divisions, which we must distinguish by the char- 
acteristics of each sub-division as well as by those of 
each class taken as a whole.! 

The most important difference distinguishing class 
from class which one could find is that between the 
spineless and the spinous kinds. Again under each 
of these two heads there are- many differences 
distinguishing kinds and forms, of which we must 
endeavour to speak severally. 

2Of spinous kinds some just consist of spines, as 
asparagus and skorpios; for these have no leaves 
except their spines. Then there are the spinous- 
leaved plants, as thistle eryngo saflower ; these and 
the like have their spines on the leaves, whence 
their name. Others again have leaves as well as 
their spines, as rest-harrow caltrop and pheos, which 
some call stotbe. Caltrop is also* spinous-fruited, 
having spines on the fruit-vessel. Wherefore this 
peculiarity marks it off from almost all other plants ; 
though many trees and shrubs have spines on the 
shoots, as wild pear pomegranate Christ’s thorn 
bramble rose caper. Such® are the general dis- 
tinctions which may be made among spinous plants. 
dAos efdeor; and below yevéy and eidéy both refer to the 
smaller divisions called uépn above. 2 Tlin. 21. 91. 

3 6 méws dv conj. Sch.; 6 gAews 6 Ald. H.; Kal 6 54 ries Kar. 
or. Py. of. 6.5. 1 and Index. 

Kal mepixapraxavdos conj. Sch,; «al % mepixapria puddd- 

kavOov UMVAId, ef. 6. 5. 3, 5 ov add. Sch. 


"Ev 6€ tots avaxavOolts ov« éotw otTws S1a- 
lal al / lal 
NaBelv toils yéveow: 7 yap TOY PUAN dvoparia 
peyéeOes Kal puKpoTnTL Kal oXHwacW aTeLpos Kal 
adcadys' adnra Set retpaicbar Kat addov TpoToOY 
a / / 
Siaupety. TrElw O€ €ott TA yévN TA TOUTwY Kal 
Siahopas éxovra peyddas, olov xicBos pyndw@Opov 
/ / 
épevedavov omretpala Kvéwpov opiyavos Ovu8pa 
/ , / / , 
opdKxos €dXediohaxos mpdotov Kovula pedoco- 
durdov Erepa Towadra* mpos TovTos ete Ta 
/ \ > / / / 
vapOnxnadn Kai évvevpokavra, Kabatep pwapabov 
e / / / \ \ 4 
immounapabov vapOnxia vapOnE Kal rd Kadov- 
pevov U6 TLVwY pvopovoy Kal Goa Gmota TOUTOLS. 
amavTa yap av Tis Kal tadta Kal Odws el TL 
vapOnxadés éote THs Ppvyavixhs Vein picews. 
Il. Eién 5€ kal Stapopai nal’ Exactov tav 
eipnuévov eiol tov pev havepwrepac tav 6é 
/ 4 fal 
abavéotepat. Kai yap KiaOov dvo yévn Statpodeou, 
\ \ ” \ be OAr A \ \ an \ 
TO pev appev TO O€ OFAV, TO TO pev petfov Kal 
oKANpOTEpov Kal NuTrapwrepov eivar Kal TO aVvOos 
> / BA \ oa al > , e/ 
érritrophupifov: audw dé dora Tols aypiors podois, 
Try ENaTTO Kal docpa. 
Avo Sé ei8n nal Tod Kve@pou: 6 péev yap NevKOS 
6 5é pédas. exer 5€ 0 pév RAEevKOS TO PUAXOV 

1 j.e. there is a gradation. 

2 xla@os conj. Sch.; xioods Ald. H. 

3 gmreipala conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 53; ounpéa Ald.G. 

4 @buBpa opdxos conj. Sch.; @uBpas paxds UMVAId. 

5 of. 6. 2. 5. 

6 yap0nx#dn =hollow-stemmed, évvevpdxavAa=plants with a 
plain unjointed stem, solid with ‘immersed’ fibres, In the 


l thomsen Whew Veh Viren (5S 


Ann tA An. } Po ce To beh tke *h At fe rt 


With spineless plants it is not possible to make 
such ‘generic’ distinctions; for the variation of 
the leaves in size and shape is endless, and the 
differences are not clearly marked!; but we must try 
to distinguish on another principle. There are many 
classes of such plants and they differ widely, as 
rock-rose* bryony madder privet® kneoron marjoram 

savory sphakos* (sage) elelisphakos® (salvia) hore-— 

hound konyza balm, and others like these; and in 
addition to these we have the plants with a ferula- 
like stem © or with a stem composed of fibre, as fennel 
horse-fennel’ narthekia (ferula) narthex (ferula) and 

the plant called by some wolf’s-bane,® and others / 

like these. All these, as well as any other ferula- 
like plants, may be placed in the class of under- 

Of spineless under-shrubs and their differences. 

II. The various forms and the differences between 
the above mentioned plants are in some cases more, 
in some less easy to distinguish. Of rock-rose ® they 
distinguish two kinds, ‘male’ and ‘female,’ in that 
the one is? larger, tougher, more glossy,! and has a 
crimson flower; both however are like the wild 
rose,!2 save that the flower is smaller and scentless. 

There are also two kinds of kneoron, one white, 
the other black. The white has a leathery oblong 
examples given here the two classes are taken together, 
vapOnxla being vapOnxodns, the others évvevpdxavaa; hence the 
article is not repeated. 7 of. 6. 2. 7. 

8 Lit. ‘mouse-bane’: for other Greek names see Index. 

® «te@ov conj. Sch., cf. 6 1.43 xioood Ald.H.; Plin. 24. 81; 
Diose. 1. 97. 

10 efva: conj. W.; éxew UMVAIA. (7d PvAAov Exewv conj. Sch.). 

ll 7.e. has more glossy leaves. 
12 of. Plin, 21, 55; Theocr, 5. 131. See Index. 



Sepuatades T popnxes Spovdaxnpov TpoTov Tiva 
TH éhda, 0 O€ pédas olov 1 puplen oapK aces 
émiryevos 5é paddov O AeuKos* éort be do w@dns, 
6 6é pédas doo 10s. THY e piSav THY els Bdos 
dpeo peyahny éxouer Kal Tous axpepovas Ton- 
Aovs Kal maxets Kal Evrwders am’ adths THs ys 

 pixpov ava ayfopevous, Evtwdeotdtyny Oé. 


yrioxpov é opoopa, &2 0 Kal Xpavrat T pos TO 
KaTadely Kal mepthapBavew, _@aomep T@ ola. 
Bracraver dé kai avbet per’ ionpepiav peTto- 
Tepiwiy Kab avbet ToNvy Xpovor. . 

Kai TIS optyavou 6e ” pédawva, aKapTos y) 6é 
AevKy KapTrim“os. Kal Ovpov TO méev NevKOV TO dé 
pérav evavbes 5€ apodpa: tepl TpoTras yap avOet 
Gepwas. ad’ od Kal uy) pédutTa Aap Paver TO were, 
Kal TovTm gacly oi pehutroupyol Ojdov eval 
TOTEPOV ebpedtTodar ) Ov’ KaX@s yap atrar- 
Onoavtos evpediteiv' Brame S€ Kal awoAdvoL 
THv avOnow éav bSeop em UyEVATAL. 

2m éppa 6é KapTLpov ev OvpBpa Kal ért 
HadXov 1) opiryavos EXEL pavepov, ToD Ovpov 
ovx éoTt AaBeiv, arr ev TO avOe. Twas avae- 
HLKTAaL’ OTTELpOVEL yap ToOvTO Kal avaBdacTdvet. 
tntovor 6é Kal ANapwBavovow ot eEdyew “AOnvyae 
Bovdopevor TO ‘yéVOS. idvov dé éxer Kal mpos 
Taira Kal axedov mpos Ta d\Na TO KaTA TOUS 
Tomous: ov yap gace SvvacPa dvecOar kal 

1 of. 1. 10. 4. 
2 Apparently an afterthought, suggested by the mention 
of the woodiness of the branches. 
8 mepitAauBdve: conj. W. from G; meprrauBdvew Ald, 
* Plin. 21. 56, 




leaf, somewhat like that of the olive; the leaf of 
the black is like that of the tamarisk! and fleshy; 
the white grows more on the ground and is scented, 
while the black is scentless. In both the root, which 
runs deep, is large (and the branches which divide at 
the ground level are numerous thick and woody), 
and the root is also very woody.? It is also very 
tough, wherefore it is used for binding and to put 
round things, like the withy. It grows and flowers 
after the autumnal equinox, and remains in flower a 
long time. 

4 Of marjoram the black form is barren, the whine 
bears fruit. ° There is a black and a white thyme, 
and it flowers very freely: it is in bloom about the 
summer solstice. It is from this flower that the bee 
gets the honey, and by it ® beekeepers say that it is 
made known whether they have a good yield of 
honey or not ; for, if the thyme flowers abundantly,’ 
_ they have a good yield, but the bloom is injured or 
even destroyed if it is rained upon. 

Savory, and still more marjoram, has a conspicuous 
fruitful seed, but in thyme it is not easy to find, 
being somehow mixed up with the flower; for men 
sow the flower and plants come up from it. ® This 
plant is sought and obtained by those in Athens who 
wish to export such herbs. But it has a peculiarity 
as compared both with similar plants and with most 
others, namely the kind of region which it affects ° 
they say that it can not be grown or become 

5 Plin. 21. 56 and 154. 

€ rovTw conj. Sch.; rovro Ald, 

7 kad@s mBod.; &AAws UMVAId H. 

8 Plin. 21. 57. 

9 +b Kata tovs témovs conj. W.; Kal xara Tovs Tr. Ald.; rai 
kara témous P, 




NapBaverv O7rou 1) avaTrvon Svixvetrat ” ATO THS 
Oararrns: dz’ 0 ov’ év “Apkadia yiverau OvpBpa 
dé kal dpiryavos Kal ta TolavTa TOANG Kal TON- 
Aaxyov. TapaTda}ovov ovv 70 oupu.Baivoy TOUTO 
Kal é7i Ths érdas' ovdé yap ovd éxelyn Soxel 
Tplakociwy atadiiov and OarattTns émdve 

_2pdos dé Kal edeMapaxos diag épovew @oay 
TO [ev Tjpepov TO 6€ yptov: AevorEpov yap TO 
pvdRov TOU apaxou Kat €XNaTTOV kal avy unpote- 
pov, TO 0€ Tob éhedua Paxov TPAXUTEpOD. 

Avo 6é evn Kab TOU mpactov" TO pev yap exer 
mo@des 70 pUrrov Kal adrov émixexaparyLevor, 
ETL 6é Tas évytouas évdndovs apodpa Kal Babeias, 
@ Kal ot pappaxoTm Arar XpOvrat mpos évia* TO 
88 Srepov oTporyyuNoTEpov Kal aux pades opodpa, 
cabarep TOU opakou, Kal Tas evTopLas apaupo- 
Tépas exov Kal em iKeX apary LEVOV TTOV. 

Kovutns dé TO pev dippev TO O€ Ofrv. d1a- 
popas 5é Eyer Kabamep Ta GNAA TA OUTH Scau- 
povpeva: TO pev yap Onru AemropuANOTE pov Kal 
EvvertnKos paddov Kal To O6Xov édXaTTO?, 70 
dé dppev petfov Te Kal TAX UKAVAOTEPOY Kal 
TohvKOvOTE POV Kal TO puvrdov petfov Kal 
ALTrAPwTEPOV exon, ére O€ TO avOos Lape po- 
TEpov. Kaprropopa dé dupe TO O€ Ghov one 
Braorte? Kal oyriavOet mept “Apxtovpov Kal per’ 

1 NauBdavew PAld.: lit. ‘ take hold,’ ef. 6. 2. 6; BrAaordaverv 
conj. W. 

2 oddkos conj. Sch.: opdxedos UMVP,Ald.; Plin, 22, 146 
and 147, 



established 1 where a breeze from the sea does not 
reach. This is why it does not grow in Arcadia, 
while savory marjoram and such plants are common 
in many parts. (A similar peculiarity is found in 
the olive; for it appears that it likewise will not 
grow more than three hundred furlongs from the 

The difference between sphakos* (sage) and 
elelisphakos (salvia) is like that between cultivated and 
wild ; for the leaf of sphakos® is smoother smaller 
and less succulent, while that of elelisphakos is 

There are also two kinds of horehound: one has a 
narrow leaf with a more jagged edge, and the notches 
are very conspicuous and deep, and this is the plant 
used by druggists for certain purposes; the other has 
a rounder ® leaf, which, like that of sphakos, is not at 
all succulent; the notches are less conspicuous and 
the edge less jagged. 

Of konyza’ there is a ‘male’ and a ‘female’ 
kind, the differences between them being such as 
are usual between forms so distinguished; the 
‘female’ has slenderer leaves, is more compact, and 
a smaller plant; the ‘male’ is larger, has thicker 
stalks, is more branched, has larger glossier leaves, 
and moreover the flower is more conspicuous. Both 
bear fruit; the plant as a whole is late in growing 
and in blooming; it blooms about the rising of | 

3 gpdxov conj. Sch.; opaxéAov UMVP,Ald. 
4 W. omits frrov before abxunpdrepor. 
5 rpaxvtepoy conj. Seal. from G ; Bpaxvrepoy Ald. H. 
@ ° orpoyyvAdrepov: cf. 1. 10. 4n. 
7 See Index. Plin. 26. 58. cf. Nic. Ther. 875; Diosc. 
3. 121, 



‘A pxrobpov Aap Paver. Bapeta &é 4 oom) TOU 
dippevos, » O€ THS Onretas Spimvtépa, Ov 0 Kal 
Tpos TA Onpia xXpnotun. 

avTa pep ovv Kal Ta TolavTa @amep S1a- 
pépovra. mad é ada povoetds) TUyxXavorTa 
Kab TOV TpoTepov elpnuévor Kat Erepa rapa TadTa’ 
TAELw yap éoTL. 

To 6€ vapOnx@des, Kal yap Kat todTo Tov 
Ppuvyavix@v, TorAras TepieiAndev idéas: év ois 
Tp@Tov wvIrép TOU KowWov Tact exréon, vmep 
vapOncos Te Kal vapOnkias, elre TO avTo yévos 
early apotv Svapépov 6é Kara Kevebos, el TE 
kal érepov @OTEP TUWves hacw. 7 5’ ov dhavepa 
puats app oiv oLola Téa Kara TO péyeBos- 0 
pev yap va pnt yiverau peyas opodpa n 6€ 
vapOnkia piKpad. ovoKavra & duper Kal yova- 
TIVES puLK pot’ Praoraver oe Taparrag Ta purra: 
eyo b€ Taparrak 6 6Tt OUK €K TOU aUTOU pépous 
TOV yovarov arr’ évarra€& Tepe pora, dé Tov 
KAaVXOV 7 TONY, Kadamep Ta TOD Kardon, ™ayy 
amokekMipéva TATA paddrov S1a THY padaKo- 
TNTA Kal TO _eyeBos: péeya yap TO purdov Kal 
panakov Kal mova xL0ES, Gare Eivat oxedov 
T pix a@des” eel be peyota Ta KaTw TpOS THY 
yay Kal ael Kara Aoyov. avOos &é parwwoeves 
apuaupov, KapTrov Sé Tmapopoltoy TO avnbw mrAHY 

1 AauBdve: Ald.; adpvve: conj. W. But ef. the somewhat 
similar use 6, 2. 4. 

2 contra bestiarum morsus Plin, l.c. 

3 Plin. 13. 132 and 133. 

4 The form of expression in the repeated trép seems loose, 




Arcturus and is full grown! after his setting. 
The smell of the ‘male’ plant is strong, but that of 
the ‘ female’ more pungent ; wherefore both of them 
are of use against wild beasts.? 

These plants then and others like them have, as 
it were, different forms. Again there are some 
which have but one form both among those already 
mentioned and others as well;; for there are numerous 
plants of this class. 

’ The class of ferula-like plants (for this too belongs 
to the under-shrubs) comprises many kinds: here 
we must first speak of the characteristic which is 
common to all, including ferula itself+ (narthex) and 
narthekia, whether they both belong to the same 
kind and differ only in size, or whether, as some say, 
they are distinct. ‘The obvious character of both is 
alike, except as to size; for narthex grows very tall, 
while narthekia is a small plant. Each of them has a 
single stalk, which is jointed; from this spring the 
leaves and some small stalks; the leaves come 
alternately—by which I mean that they do not 
spring from the same part of the joint, but in 
alternating rows. For a considerable distance they 
embrace the stalk, like the leaves of the reed, but 
they turn back from it more owing to their softness — 
and their size; for the leaf is large soft and much 
divided, so that it is almost hair-like ; the largest 
leaves are the lowest ones next the ground, and so 
on in proportion. The flower is quince-yellow® and 
inconspicuous, the fruit ® like dill, but larger.’ The 
and above éy ofs is hardly satisfactory. Sch. suspects 

5 undwoedes: cf. 7. 3. 1. 

§ duavpdy, kapmov d¢ conj. Sch.; duavpdcaproy Ald. 

7 wel(w conj. Sch.3 pwetCoy Ald. 



peifw. €& axpov dé oyiferar Kal éyer Tivas ov 
peyadous Kavrovs: évtad0a 6é TO Te advOos 
Kal 0 Kaptos. exer dé Kal avOos Kal Kaprrov 
Kal év Tois mapaxavrtifovar ou’ brov, Kabarep 
TO avnOov. émetetoKavAov é, Kal » BXdoTN- 
avs TOU pos Tp@Tov pev TOV PUAN@V érELTA 
Tov Kavdov, Kabarep TOV adrwv. pilav Oé exer 
Babeiav, gore dé povoppifov. 06 pév ody vapOné 

Tov & addr\wv Ta pév omoLoTepa TOUTm TOV 
Kavrov exe <Kotdov>, Kaarrep 6 wavdparyopas Kal 
TO K@vELoV Kat 0 é€rEBopos Kal 0 avOépiKos: TA 
& olov évvevpoxavra Tvyxavet, KabdTep apabov 
pvopovoy Ta Guota TovTOLS. idtos 5é 6 KapTrOs TOD 
pavopayopou TO MéXas TE Kal Paywdns Kal oivwdns 
elVaLT@ YULO. 

III. Meyiotat b€ xal idvotatar dices TE 
Tov olApiov Kal 7 TOV Tatvpou év AiyiTTo: 
vapOnkwoon yap Kat tadtd éotw: brép wv tod 
pev Tamtvpov mpotepov elmomev ev Tois évvdpa.s, 
umép Oatépou S€ viv NexTéov. 

To &€ ciddiov exer pifav pev moArAAnY Kal 
maxetav, Tov b€ KavdAdvy HArLKoV vapOnE, ayedov 
Kadoval paoTreTOV, Gwolov TO GErLV@' OTréppa 

1 xotAov add. W. 

2 See Index: the stalk is specially in question here. 

3 of.6.1.4n. éexvevpdcavaa P,Ald., ef. éeAevxos, ‘ whitish’; 
évveupdxavaa conj. Sch. as in 6. 1. 4; but ofoy indicates the 
coinage of a fresh term. xévewov seems to be placed in the 
wrong list. 

4 Plin. 25. 147-150 describes mandragoras, but his descrip- 
tion is not taken from T. cf. Diosc. 4. 75, where three kinds 



plant divides at the top and has some small branches, 
on which grow the flower and the fruit. It also 
bears flowers and fruit on the side-stalks all the way 
up, like dill. The stalk only lasts a year, and the 
growth takes place in spring, the leaves growing 
first and then the stem, as with other plants. It 
roots deep and has but a single root. Such is the 

Of the others some to a certain extent resemble 
ferula, that is, in having a hollow stem!; for instance 
* deadly nightshade hemlock hellebore asphodel ?: 

Wille “coins have a stem more or less, as it were, 
consisting of fibre,? as fennel aconite and others like 
these. The fruit of deadly nightshade * is peculiar 
in being black and like a grape and like wine in 

Of certain specially important spineless under-shrubs—silphium 
and magydaris—belonging to ferula-like plants. 

III. Most important and peculiar in their characters 
are the silphium and papyrus of Egypt. These too 
come under the class of ferula-like plants ; of these 
we have spoken® of the papyrus already under . the 
head of plants living in water; of the other we have 
now to speak. 

6The silphium has a great deal of thick root; 
its stalk is like ferula in size, and is nearly as 
thick ; the leaf, which they call maspeton, is like 
celery: it has a broad fruit, which is leaf-like, 

of uavdpaydpas are described; there being only two known 
species of mandragora, the third may be atropa Belladonna ; 
and to this plant may also refer an interpolated sentence in 
Diose. 4. 73 (&vO0s . . . orapvany). 

5 4.8.3 and4. Papyrus is loosely classed with ferula-like 
plants, as it has not a hollow stem. § Plin. 19. 42-45. 


7 CH, |. 



& €vet wAaTv, olov purr0d0es, TO evyopevov pur- 
dov. emeTevoxavrov 6 éorty, OoTEp a) vapOné. 
dua pev ovy TO Hoe TO pedomerov TOUTO adinow, 6 

xadaiper ra mpoBata Kal TAX uel ood pa Kal Ta 
Kpéa Oavpacra Tove TH nooviy” pera d€ tadta 
Kavnon, <ov> éobier Bau mavra TpoTov ep Oov 
OmTTOV, cabaipery 6¢ Kal TovTOV dact Ta oopata 
TeTTApaKoVTa HLepass. Orrov be Out TOV EXEls TOV 
pep aro TOU kavdod TOV 6€ amo THS pions, ov 
) Kadovar TOV peer KavAtav Tov 6 prfiav. n O€ 
pia TOV pdovov eXel pérava, Kal ToUTOV TreEpt- 
arpodow. éoTe be OoTEp péTarha TOV putoro- 
pov avrots, e& @v om da ov ay Sox ovpdéperv 
TapLevopLevot 7 pos Tas TOMAS Kal TO ‘mpotmdpxov 
TEuVOUo LW” ovx é&eote y4p ouTe Tapare ver 
ouTE eto TOV TETAYHEVOD™ Kal yap diapOei- 
peTat Kal onTETaL TO dpyov éav ypovity. KAaTEp- 
yalovrar dé ayorvTes eis TOV _Tlerpara Tovoe TOV 
TpoTov" Orav Barwor eis aryyeta Kal devpa 
pi€wor, cetovor x povov cuXvOr, d0ev Kal TO 
Xpopa AapBdver Kal épyacber a donnTov mn Oua- 

oUTws Evel. 
‘Torov dé modu érexes THs AtBuns mrelw 

yap dacw i) TeTpaKtox! Aba oTddia’ TretaTta O€ 
ryiverOat mepl THV oupTw avo TOV Eveorepidor. 
idcov O€ TO hevyew THY épyafoudvny Kal del 
ovvepyavouérns Kal curvnpepoupévns eEavaxywpely, 

oiov mudd. Td Aey. conj. W.; PvAA. ofoy Td Aey. Ald. H. 
” 2 have added by. 

3 wéradAa U; uwérpa Ald.; ? év werdrAdros pérpa, 
4 of. 9. 1. 7; Diosc. 3. 80. 


—. ee 


as it were,! and is called the phyllon. _ The stalk 
lasts only a year, like that of ferula. Now in 
spring it sends up this maspelon, which purges sheep 
and greatly fattens them, and makes their flesh 
wonderfully delicious ; after that it sends up a stalk, 
which ? is eaten, it is said, in all ways, boiled and 
roast, and this too, they say, purges the body in 
forty days. It has two kinds of juice, one from the 

stalk and one from the root; wherefore the one is 

called ‘stalk-juice, the other ‘root-juice.’ The 
root has a black bark, which is stripped off. They 
have regulations, like those in use in mines,’ for 
cutting the root, in accordance with which they fix 
carefully the proper amount to be cut, having regard 
to previous cuttings and the supply of the plant. 
For it is not allowed to cut it wrong nor to cut more 
than the appointed amount; for, if the juice is kept 
and not used, it goes bad and decays. When they are 
conveying it to Peiraeus, they deal with it thus 4 :— 
having put it in vessels and mixed meal with it, they 
shake it for a considerable time, and from. this 
process it gets its colour, and this treatment® makes 
it thenceforward keep without decaying. Such 
are the facts in regard to the cutting and treatment. 
~ The plant is found over a wide tract of Libya, for 
a distance,® they say, of more than four thousand 
furlongs, but it is most abundant’ near the Syrtis, 
starting from the Euesperides islands. It is a 
peculiarity of it that it avoids cultivated ground, and, 
as the land is brought under cultivation and tamed, 

5 épyacbev: ekopyacdev conj. Salm.; from Plin. /.¢., argu- 
mentum erat maturitatis color siccilasque sudore finito. 

8 of. Strabo 2. 5. 20; 17. 3. 20: Scyl. Periplus, Libya. 

7 wreiora conj. W.; wAelova U; Ta mAsiova MAIA.; yiverOat 
conj. W.; yevéo@ar Ald. 

VOL, Il. Cc 


as ov SeopLévov O7jov Ott Oepatreias adX’ dvTOS 
aryptou. ghaci 8 of Kupnvaior pavivat TO otn- 
pov éreot Tm poTepoy 7) avbrol THY TONY @enoay 
eT Ta" oiKxodor dé pddiota Tepl Tpiakocia els 
Lereovidny a dpxovra AOnvyow. 

Oi peev obv oUT@ Aéyovow. ol be ToD oudpiou 
TY piav pact yiver@ar mxXvaiav i) HK PO pelt. 
TAUTHY dé é ew él Tob péoou kepadyy, 0 Kal. 
HeTE@poTaTov éoTe Kal oyedor vmép is, Kanel- 
a0at dé yara: €& hs 67 hvecOar peta TadTa Kal 
Tov Kavrov, éx Sé TovToV payvdaply TO Kal 
KaNovpevov purrov" TOUTO S elvat omépua Kal 
STaV VOTOS apm pos TVEVTD pera Kiva Stappin- 
TeoOat, é& ot hvecOa TO oihgpuov. TO AUTO O€ 
ever Tip Te pitav yiver Oat Kal Tov Kavrov" ovbev 
dé TodTo idtov, Kal yap ém addr, ei pH TOUTO 
Néyouvat Ott EvOds hHveTas peta THY Ocappiw. 

Kat ToOTO iScov Kal Sudhopov ToLS ™ pOTEpov, OTL 
pact Seiy opuTrey erréTeLov éav 6¢ éa0n, péperv 
bev TO onéppa Kal TOV Kanon, xetpeo 88 ylverOa 
Kal TAVTA Kal THY pifav, opuTTopevas dé Bedrious 
yiver Oat dua TO peraBarreo Gar Tay ynv. €vav- 
Tiov 6é TovTO TO hevyeww THY épydotpov. éoOi- 
erOar Kal Tas pitas Tporpatous KATATEMVOMEVvAS 
eis O£0s. TO dé hvAXOY TH Xpold Ypvaoedes 

A cf. Hat. 4. 158. 2 B.c. 310. 

3 rabtny 8... 7d olAgpiov: text as restored conjecturally 
by W., chiefly by alteration in the order of the words in Ald. 

+ nareiaGar Be yada after pvecGa: in Ald. 

5 In 6. 3. 7 this name is applied to a distinct plant. say. 
7 Kal conj. Salm.; pay. cal 7d P,Ald.H. 6 of. 6. 3. 2. 

7 rovto conj. Salm.; rovrov UMVAId.; rodrov P,. 



it retires, plainly shewing that it needs no tendance 
but is a wild thing. The people of Cyrene say that 
the silphium appeared! seven years before they 
founded their city; now they had lived there for 
about three hundred years before the archonship at 
Athens of Simonides.* 

Such is their account. Others however say that 
the root of the silphium grows to the length of a 
* cubit or a little longer, and in the middle of this is a 
head,® which is the highest part and almost comes 
above ground, and is called the ‘milk’,* from this 
then presently grows the stalk, and from that the 
magydaris,> which is also called the phyllon®; but it? 
is really the seed, and, when a strong south wind 
blows after the setting of the dog-star, it is scattered § 
abroad and the silphium grows from it. The root 
and the stalk grow in the same year; nor is this a 
singular feature—unless they mean that it grows 
immediately after the dispersal? of the seed—since 
the same thing occurs with other! plants also. 

There is this singular statement, which is incon- 
sistent with what was said above, that, it is said, it 
is necessary to dig the ground eyery year, and that, 
if it be left alone, it bears! the seed and the stalk, 
but these are inferior and so is the root; on the 
other hand, that with digging they are improved 
because the soil is changed. (This is inconsistent 
with the statement that silphium avoids cultivated 
land.) They add that the roots are cut up into 
vinegar and eaten fresh, and that the leafis of a golden 

8 Siapplrrec Oat conj. Sch.; diapplrrerar Ald.; Siappimretra: U ; 
Siappimrnrat M. 

9 Sidppipiv conj. Sch.; dipupiv UM; expupw Ald. 

0 é’ &AAwy conj. W.; Tay &AAwv Ald. H. 

1 uty conj. Sch.; wav Ald, 



6 elvat. évavtiov Sé Kal TO pH KabaipecOar Ta 
mpoBata To hvdXov écOiovta: haci yap Kal Tod 
Hpos Kal TOV yEeLtma@vos els dpos adiévat, véwerOat 
5é€ TodTO Te Kal ETepov Guotov a8poTove: Oeppav- 

> x aA 3 \ / A > 

Tuna © audw Soxet eivas kal KadBapow pév ov 

moveiv, avaknpaivey 5é Kal cuptrértew éav O€ TL 

vooodv h Kakas éxov eicéXOn tpoBaror, byidbe- 

/ xX > , id > > \ \ \ 

bat taxéws 7) aTroOvncKe, @s 8 eri TO Todv 

cotecOar paddov. Ttadta pév oTrotépws exet 

7 ‘H 8 xarovpévn paytdapis érepov éote Tov 
airdiov pavoTtepoy Te Kal rrov Spiyv Kal Tov 
’ \ > + / vi @ \ lal v a 
omrov ovK exer Siddnros S€ ott Kal TH drvreu Tots 
éurretpois. ryiverar dé mepl Yuplav Kal ovK év 

/ a \ \ \ > A 7 vy 
Kupyvy pact oe KaL €v 7 Hapvacip opel 
TodAnv: éviot 6€ ciAdiov TodTO KadovdaL. Et OE 

pevyet THY Epyadoimov waoTEp TO ciddiov oKeET- 
téov, @cavTas O€ Kal et TL Gpotoyv 7) TapaTAHCLOV 
/ nr 
éyes PUANOV TE Tépt Kal KavrOd, Kal Ee Gras 

> / 4 lA \ \ 3 / 
adinot tt. Saxpvov. THY péev ovV vapOnKwoy 

\ eo \ 3 , / > nr 4 
[cal dAws THY axavOadn] hvow év Tots ToLOvTOLS 

IV Ths 8 axavOixhs, émdpevov yap tovdto 
’ a >’ \ / \ \ > a e \ 
eimrety, érrevdy Sinpyntas TO péev axavO@des bdws TO 
dé dudddxavOov, b7ép Exatépov yYwpis exTéor, 

1 cf. Arr. Anab. 3. 28. 6 and 7. 

2 Artemisia camphorata: Index App. (24). 

3 Plin. 19. 46; Diosc. 3. 94; Hesych. s.v.; Photius, Gloss. 
a.v.; ef. 6. 3. 4n. 




colour. We have also the inconsistent statement 
that sheep are not purged by eating the leaves; for 
they say that in spring and in winter they are driven 
into the hill-country, where! they feed on this and 
on another plant? which is like southernwood ; both 
these plants appear to be heating and not to cause 
purging, but, on the contrary, to have a drying effect 
and promote digestion. It is also said that, if a sheep 
which is sick or in bad condition comes to that 
district, it is quickly cured or else dies, but usually it 
recovers. Which of these accounts is true is matter 
for enquiry. 

3The plant called magydaris is distinct from sil- 
phium, being of later growth and less pungent, 
and it does not produce the characteristic juice ; 
experts can also easily distinguish it by its appear- 
ance. It grows in Syria and not in Cyrene, and they 
say that it is also abundant on Mount Parnassus, and 
some call it silphium. Whether however, like sil- 
phium, it avoids cultivated ground is matter for 
enquiry, as also whether it has any resemblance or 
likeness in leaf and stalk, and, in general, whether 
it produces a juice. In these examples we may 
consider the class of ferula-like plants [and, in 
general, that of spinous plants.*] 

Of spinous under-shrubs and their differences. 

IV. Taking next the class of spinous plants (for 
we must next speak of them), we have already dis- 
tinguished® those which are altogether spinous and 
those which have. spinous leaves, and now we must 

4 kod... dxav0e5n. These words occur only in U: they 
cannot belong here. Note that 7d uév dxavOGdes SAws occurs 
just below. ©6.' 1, 3. 




\ , Py \ a \ \ \ ” 6 
Kal tpitov 62 mepl Tov Kal Tapa THyv axavOav 
éxovTos PUANOVY, WaoTrEep 6 TE Héws Kal o TpiBoXros. 
54 \ \ / 
Kal ) KamTapis idvov Exet TO fq) Lovoy THY éx 
TOV KavAOV axavoav Exe AAA Kal TO hvUAXOV 
> , a \ / 0A = 
érraxavoitov. Tav dé dunpnuévov eldd@v mrELaTOV 
/ > \ / @ > / be e >] a 
ee | A e/- \ 4 4 > , 
TO axavOades dros. Bpayvu yap Te wautray éotiv, 
¢ > / \ \ : a F a s 
woTrep EhéyOn, Kal oxedov ov pddtov NaBeiy Tapa 
& As ‘ 
Te TOV Aodapayoy Kal TOY oKOpTroOV. 
> / be a) > Q a \ > / 
Apdotepa 0€ TavTa avlet peta tonpepiav 
e n 
hOwoTrwpiwyy. oO “ev oKopTrios év TO capKwdet 
TO €moidovvtTs TH UTO TO AKpov THS axavOns 
54 \ + > > a \ \ c b) 
éxwv TO avOos €& apyijs wév NevKov Vortepov 6 
“ , ¢ \ 3 , > , \ 
éritroppupifov. o d€ achdpayos éxpivwy Tapa 
Tas axavOas Kopuva@des pixpov, éx TovTou bé éoTt 
/ e \ z 
TO avOos pixpov. o O€ cKoprios movoppitov Kal 
4 € \ / 
Babvppifov, 0 Sé aoddpayos Babdppitov te eb 
4 an al 
para Kal trodvppifov tuxvais tais pitas, doTe 
TO Gvw avuvexés eivat avTav, ad od Kal ai 
Bracthces avTav ToV KavrAov: avaBXacTdveL 
\ lel > an A 
dé 0 KavdOs Ex THs achapayias TOD Hpos Kat 
edadip0s éotiw: €i8’ ovTws amoTpayvveTa Kal 
fol - / an 
éEaxavOodTat mpoiovons THs BOpas: 1) dé avOnous 
/ a 
ovK €k TOVTOV Lovo GANA Kal eK TOV TpOTEpoY: 
ov yap émeTevoKavrov €or. TA Mev OV OAWS 
axav0edn ToravTny Twa ever hvowr. 
Tav dé ¢udXraxdvOav TO TrEloTOY yévos ws 

—— ee 

1 géws conj. St.; prews Ald. cf. 6. 1. 3. 
‘2.0 4.3; * Plin, 21. 913 22. 39, 



speak of each of these classes separately, and also, in 
the third place, of those which have leaves as well 
as their spines, such as pheos! and caltrop. More- 
over caper has the peculiarity of possessing not only 
spines on its stems but also a spinous leaf. Of the 
classes thus distinguished that with spinous leaves 
is the largest, while that which is altogether spinous 
is about the smallest. It is indeed, as was said, a 
very small class, and it would not be easy to find 
examples of such plants besides asparagus and 

3 Both of these flower after the autumnal equinox. 
Skorpios produces its flower in the fleshy swelling + 
below the top ® of the spinous twig ; at first it is white, 
but afterwards it becomes purplish. Asparagus pro- 
duces alongside of the spines a small knob, and from 
this grows the flower, which is of small size. Skorpios 
has a single root which runs deep; asparagus roots 
very deep and its roots are numerous and matted, 
the upper part of them being in one piece,® and 
from this the actual shoots spring. The stalk comes 
up from the plant in spring and is edible; after- 
wards, as the season advances, it acquires its rough 
and spinous character’; the bloom appears not only 
on this stalk, but on those of previous years, for the 
stalk is not annual. Such is the character of 
plants which are altogether spinous. 

8 Of those which have spinous leaves the largest 
class, one may say, consists of those plants which 

4 eroidodvr: conj. Scal.; erwdodvT: U; eomodotvt: MAId. 

5 +b &kpov conj. Scal.; 7d &kparov UMAId.; rijs axdvOns om. 

6 7.e.tuberous. cf.Col. 11. 3.43; Pall. 3. 24. 8; 4. 9. 11. 

7 éfaxavOovTa conj. Link. ap. Sch.; ékavOoira: UM; étav- 
Getra: Ald, 8 Plin. 21. 94, 




aTAOS elmeiy dxavades Tuy aver eyo dé 70 
axavades, 6 OTL 70 Kuna Kal év @ TO avdos 7) Kal o 
KapTos dxavos i) axavades TAaVTOV eal. Duago- 
pay dé exe év éavT@ Kal peryeber Kab TXPATL 
Kal XpoOmare Kal TrjOee Kal OmyOTNTL TOV aKay- 
Oav cal tov adrAov. Fw yap Or YOv Tavu, 
Kabdrep tod atpoviiou te Kal TOD coyKoU Kal el 
TVOY éTépaor, TH Aouma mavra @S elmety TOLAUTHV 
ever THV puow: érel Kab o coryKos THY ye pvow 
axavOady éxyer, TO O€ OT EPHATUKOY ovxX Golo" 
av\rAa Ta ye TOLAdTAa TavTA olov dxopva NEVK- 
axav0a xa dxeos KVI}KOS TohvaKavOos aT paKxTums 
ovoTruEos iSivn Xamarreov" ™ayy ovTOS ov duAd- 
dxavOos, oxdrvpos Oé, ds Kal AEetmwvia, dudAr- 
adxavlos’ Kat TAXA, TAELW yap éoTL. Stadhépovert 
& adda ov 7 pos Tots elpnyevots TO Ta pev TONU- 
Kavra eivat Kal arrodbces € evel, @omrep 0 aKxavos, 
Ta bé povoxavra Kal pay eye, WoTrEp 0 KVIKOS, 
évia 8 avobev éyew é& dxpov, kaOdtep TO pUTpos. 
Kal Ta. ev evOds. Tols T POT OLS veTots Bhat dvew 
Ta Oo Dorepor, évia O€ Kat Tod Oépovs, & OomEp Kab y 
TeTpaneé vir TUVOY Kadouperyn Kat D) b&ivn: Kal 
éml TOV avOav opotws: ovriavOns yap 0 oKOAUpOS 
Kal éml ToAvY Xpovor. 

1 éxav@des mBas.; axavOa@des Ald. cf. 1. 13. 3, where 
&xav@des is restored by W.’s certain conj. 

2 axavedes con}. Sch.; axavOades Ald.H.; acanaceum G. 

3 &kavos } axav@des Ald.; &xavOos } a&xavOGdes mBas. v. 

4 dynos conj. Sch.; xvjxos Ald. The correction seems 
necessary in view of 6. 4. 8. 

5 &xopva conj. Sch.; &eapyva Ald. ef. Plin. J/.c. 

8 ds kal Aemwria I conj.; Kal Aetuwvia conj. Scal, from 




are thistle-like,! by which? I mean that the swollen 
part, that part which contains the flower, or, it may 
be, the fruit, is in all cases a thistle-head,? or has 
that appearance. However there are differences in 
the ‘head’ itself, in size shape colour number of 
spines and in other respects. For, apart from quite 
a few plants, such as soap-wort sow-thistle and 
possibly some others, nearly all the rest have this 
character (even sow-thistle * has a spinous character, 
but its seed-process is different). The list includes 
all the following: «akorna® milk-thistle shalkeios 
saflower polyakanthos distaff-thistle onopyxos izxine 

_ chamaeleon (the last-named, however, has not spinous 

leaves, though golden thistle, which is also called 
‘meadow-thistle,’ ® has’), and so on, for there are 
many more. ‘These differ from one another not only 
in the aforesaid ways, but in that some of them 
have many stalks and side-growths, like the pine- 
thistle, while some have a single stalk and no side- 
growths, like the safflower, and some again have 
out-growths above from the top of the plant, like 
the globe-thistle.* Again some grow directly the 

‘first rains come, others at a later time, some again in 

summer, as the plant which some call yellow star- 
thistle, and zzine.° So too !° the flowering-time differs : 
golden thistle blooms late and is in bloom for a 
long time. ° 
Plin. 22. 863; #AvAemwvia UM,; jAvAcmwria M,Ald. kad 
Aeytwvla conj. W. But Aemevia is not mentioned again in 
the following description, which is against its being a 
distinct plant from oxéAvpos. 

7 pvrAdAdkavOos I conj.; gvAAdcav0a MSS. 

8 juTpos: rhutrum G ; but Plin. /.c. has eryngen. 

*'Plin. 22.23. 10 kal émt conj. Sch.; «al m ém) Ald. H. 

1 étiav0hs conj. Bod, from Plin. d.c. floret sero et diu; 
evav0)s Ald. : 

alg 25 



Avadopat S& Tav pév aKkavev ov« eict, THs 
xyyikov © eloiv: 4 pev yap aypia % 8 ipepos. 
ths © aypias dvo eldn, TO mev mpoceudhepes ao- 
Spa re Hep Tv evOvKavdOTEpov, év 3 Kal 
mynvians éviar TOV apyaiwy éyp@VTO yuvaLKOr. 
KapTrov Oé exer wédava Kal péyav Kal TuKpoVv. 4) 
& érépa daceia Kal Tovs Kavrovs Eyer coyKw@dets, 
@oTE TPOTOY TLVa éTrUyELOKAaUAOS yiveTat Sia yap 
apovpas: Kaptrov © éyeu pixpov Twywvos’ oTeEp- 
patodes Tacalr, TAY perloor Kal TuKVOTEpOLS 
ai dypiat. idvov dé Eyer Tpos TA Aa aypiar Ta 
bev yap okAnpoTepa Kal axavOwbéctepa ToY 
Hugpov, avTy S€ wadaKwTépa Kal NeLoTépa. 

‘H & dkopva mpoceudepns ws ards eizeiv 
8 éri€avOov éye Kal yudOv ALTTAapOV. aTpaKTU- 
Als S€ Tus Kareltar Kal NevKoTépa TOUTMV: idLoV 
dé eyes TO Tepl TO PUAXO?, Ste abatpovpevoy Kal 
Th capkl mpoadepdpevov aipataedn Tote? Tov. 
xurov, dv’ & Kal povov éviot KaODoL THY axavOav | 
ravTnv: eve 6€ Kal THY OopHny Sewviyy Kal povedn: 
owe O€ kal TedeLot Toy KapTroVv mpos TO peETO- 

1 dxdvwv Ald.; axapvav mBas,; axavov or axdpyns conj. Sch., 
the plural being awkward. 

2 wnvtors conj. R. Const.; orAnvelois U; omdnviocs MAId ; 
colu G and Plin. l.c.; ¢f. Diose. 3. 107. 

3 goyxédes: Plin. /.c. seems to have read dyxdders (torosiore 

4 «avaay conj. Scal. from Plin. 1.c.; @vAAwy Ald. 

eer conj. Spr. from Plin. /.c. (minutum semen) ; mixpdy 

8 xéywvos: omepuarwdes Ald,: soU, butarwywvos, and M, but 


Pine-thistle! has but one kind, but there are 
different kinds of safflower, the wild and the culti- 
vated. Again of the wild kind there are two 
forms, one very like the cultivated except that the 
stalk is straighter ; wherefore in ancient times women 
sometimes used it to make distaffs.? It has a fruit: 
which is black large and bitter. The other is leafy, 
and its stalks are like those of the sow-thistle,? so 
that to some extent it comes to have a prostrate 
stem; for on account of the softness of the stalks 4 
it bends down towards the ground; and it has a 
small® fruit, which is bearded. All the forms pro- 
duce abundant seed,° but it is larger’ and more 
crowded in the wild forms. This kind has also a 
peculiarity as compared with other wild plants ; these 
are usually coarser and more spinous than the culti- 
vated forms, but in this plant the wild form is softer 
and smoother. 

The akorna resembles in a general way in appear- 
ance the cultivated saflower, but has a yellowish 
colour and a sticky juice. There is also a plant 
called distaff-thistle, which is whiter than these. <A 
peculiarity of the leaf of this is that, if it is stripped 
off and applied to the flesh, the contact makes the 
juice blood-coloured,® wherefore some call this kind 
of spinous plant ‘ blood-wort’ ; also it has an abomin- 
able smell, like that of blood ; it matures its fruit late, 

mwyovos: G. has fructum amarum (see last note) frequentem 
barbaeque modo hirsutum gignit: sunt ambo seminosa. W. 
conj. twywvoonepuata 8 eiot maou, which is not convincing. 
I have retained the corrupt text and translate in the light 
of G. 

7 welCoor: sc. oméppacit, but cmepuardbders cannot be right. 

8 xvddv add. St.; om. Ald.; succo pingui G3; pinguiore succo 
Plin. /.c. 9 of.9. 1.1. Plin. 21. 95, 



TOpOV. To 8 6Xov ws amas eimey amraca 1) 
AKAVLKN) puors opixapTos. dmavra dé Tatra 
puerar Kal amo Tov OT EPLATOS Kal amo Tis 
pins, OTE Bpaxty TWA yiver Oar TOV ava pécov 
Xpovov Tips expivoews TE Kal THS TOV oméppaTos 

Tod cxorvpou Sé ovx OTL TovTO povov iStov, 6 ore 
THY pifav edad pov exer Kal EfOnv Kat apurpy, 
GXrXa Kal OTL TOTE apia Thy dtav avon al OTe 
oKANpUvopLEDN adinaw Omron, idtov O€ Kal TO THs 
avOnoews érel mepl TpoT as. 

Zapxa@dys dé Kal ed@d.os 1 H) Tod cOyKou: ” be 
KONTIS ovK axavodys GNXNA TpounKNs avTOd" Kal 
TovT idiov povov exer TeV pudr\aKdvOov avT- 
eo T pappevens oO Naparreov- O pev yap apurn- 
dxav0os @v axavicet. ynpaoKov 6é 70 avOos 
exam TovTal, Kkabamep TO Tis ananns Kal TO THS 
pupixns Kal boa Taparhynova ToUTOLS. Tapako- 
ovbet bé péx pl Tov Gépous TO pev Kvovv TO be 
avOobv 70 dé oméppa TiKTor, pucpay ixpasa Kab 
KEVT pov exov" Enpawvopevov 5é 70 PvAXOv Siayei- 

‘H igivy dé pverat Mev ov TOA OD, prlopun- 
Nov 6é ear. amo O€ THS piEns péons 0 omep- 
MaTLKOS akavos émuTépuKEv, OoTEP prov ev 

axaviky conj. Bod., cf. 6, 4. 4. nn.; akavOny Ald. 

cf. Hes. Op. 582. 

odyKov conj. C. Hoffmann ; dyxou Ald. 

Kbnots: 1.€. flower-head. cf. xinua 6. 4. 3; Plin. 21. 94. 
axavedns conj. Scal.; axavOddns Ald. cf. 6. ‘4. 3mn. 

cf. 6. 4. 3. T.’s information seems to be incorrect, as 

an p © © 



towards autumn. Indeed, generally speaking, all 
plants like the thistle-tribe ! are late fruiting. All 
these plants grow both from seed and from the root, 
so that there is but a short period between the 
beginning of growth and the maturing of the seed. 

Golden thistle has not only this peculiarity, that 
it has a root which is edible, whether boiled or raw, 
but the root is best when the plant is in flower, and, 
as it becomes hard, it produces a juice. The flowering 
time ? is also peculiar, about the solstice. 

The root of the sow-thistle® is also fleshy and 
edible ; but the swollen part‘ is elongated and not 
thistle-like®; and, alone of the spinous-leaved plants, 
_it has this peculiarity, in which it is the reverse of 
the chamaeleon,® (for that plant, though it has not 
spinous leaves, has a thistle-like flower-head). The 
flower of the sow-thistle, as it ages, turns into down, 
as do that of the dandelion’ the tamarisk § and other 
plants like these. In its growth® there is a succes- 
sion up to the summer, part forming flowers, part 
flowering, and part producing seed!°; this !! has little 
moisture in it and has a sharp point. The leaf, as it 
dries, becomes flaccid and no longer pricks. 

Ixine does not grow in many places, and it has 
leaves on the root. From the middle of the root 
grows the seed-bearing thistle-head, which is like 

both of the plants which he calls xauarAéwy (see Index) have 
spinous leaves. 

7 a@xdxns conj. Sch., cf. 7. 8. 3; mamvns U; damdvns P; 
ddgvns Ald. 

§ wuplens conj. Sch.; uvplyns M ; mupptyns Ald. 

9 cf. Plin. /.c. 

10 omépua tiktrov I conj.; omépparos piv Ald.H.; ozep- 
potéxouy conj. Sch. 

11 Text perhaps defective. 





/ 5) , ee a , e 
dé éml tod adxpov héper ZO Saxpvov evatopor, 

n \ a 
Kal TOUTO éoTW 1) aKkavOiKn pacTiyn. Tav- 
\ a an 
Ta pev ovv Kal Ta ToOLadTAa TravTayod axedov 

‘H 6€ KaKTos Kadovupévyn rept Sxedav povov, 
) a ¢ / \ > ” ] \ x 
év TH “EdAddt 5 otK Eotw. idiov Sé Tapa 

s \ / b] / \ > \ > \ a 
TaAXa TO huTov: adinat yap evOds amo THs 
c/s \ > / \ \ / »” 
pitns Kavrovs émuyetovs, TO 6é€ PvAXOV exer 
TAaATY Kal akavO@des: KaXodaL b€ TOVS KaUAOUS 
ToUTovs KaKTOUS ed@dspor Sé Eliot TEpLAETTOMEVOL 
puxpov émimiKkpot, Kal Onoavpifovaw avtous év 
aN. 3 

: \ b] \ / a 
"Etepov 6€ kavdov opOdv adinow, dv Kadodor 
mrépvika’ yivetar S€ Kat ovTos ed@dip0s THY 
aOnoatvpiotos. TO O€ TEpiKdpTioy, ev & TO 
\ \ \ n 
oméppa, THY mev popdnv aKkavades, apapeOev- 
Tov O€ TaY TanT@d@V oTrepuadTwov edwdipov 
a \ na a 
Kal TovTO Kal éudepes TH TOD oiviKos éy- 
Kebadrw Karovo. 6€ avTo cKadiav. TH pev 
ovv gudd\dKkav0a oKxeTTéov év TovavTais 8d1a- 

V. Ta &€ Kat wapa tHv axavOav éxovta 
@UAAOV, Olov TA ToLlavTa héws Ov@Vis TaVTa- 
dovaa TpiBoros immopews pudKavlos .... TE 

, \ \ UA 4 a 
opodpa Kal TO pvdAdov Exel GapK@des* ToOAv- 

1 §rd conj. Sch.; ém) Ald.; Plin. dc. malum contectum sua 
fronde. 2 £f, Oekid. 3 of. Plin. 12. 72. 

4 Plin. 21. 97; Athen. 2, 83. 

5 gAard add. Scal. from Athen. U.c., cf. Plin. 1.c.; om. 
Ald.H. The ‘stems’ are the petioles of the leaves. 

6 axav@des conj. Sch.; axavOGdes Ald, 



an apple and well hidden by! the leaves ; this on its 
head produces its gum,? which is pleasant to the - 

taste, and this is the ‘thorn-mastich.’ ® These 
plants and others like them are found almost 

4 But the plant called saktos (cardoon) grows only 
in Sicily, and not in Hellas. It is a plant quite 
different from any other ; for it sends up straight from 
the root stems which creep on the ground, and its 
leaf is broad® and spinous: these stems are called 
kaktoi; they are edible, if peeled, and are slightly 
bitter, and men preserve them in brine. 

There is another kind which sends up an erect 
stem, called the pterniz. This too is edible, but can- 
not be preserved. The fruit-vessel, which contains 
the seed, is in shape like a thistle-head®: and when 
the downy seeds are taken off, this too is edible and 
resembles the ‘ brain’? of the palm ; and it is called 
skalias.§ Such are the different characteristics in 
the light of which we may observe the spinous- 
leaved plants. 

V. Examples of plants which have leaves as well 
as spines are pheos® rest-harrow star-thistle caltrop 
‘ horse-pheos’ 1° (spurge) butcher’s broom™ . . . ,!? 
and it has a fleshy leaf: it is much divided and has 

7 4.e. ‘cabbage.’ cf. 2. 6. 2. 

8 ascaliam Plin. l.c.3 &oxdAnpov Athen. /.c. Modern Greek 
oxddnpa. English ‘bottom.’ See Index «dros (2), 

® géws conj. St,; pdcws Ald. of. 6. 1. 3. 

RK: as oe conj. Salm., cf. 6. 5.25; inwédpvoy Ald. ef. Plin. 

11 Diose. 2. 125; Plin. 19. 151. 

22 Text defective : the end of one sentence is missing and 
the beginning of the next, containing the name of a plant. 
G attaches the following description to géws. The plants 
presently described do not correspond to this list. 



oxedes dé Kal rontpputor, ov paV Kara Babous 

‘ye Tas pitas éyov. Brac raver dé dua TT herdou 


Kal Tots TPOTOLS aporous al apinar TOTE 70 
@UAXNov' ov yap éotiw éréTEtovy AAA YpoVie- 

To dé Tis KAT TAPLOS | ioLov, wWoTeEp ehéx9n, 
mapa TavTa Kab yap TO pudrov émaxavOifov 
EXEL Kal TOV KavXOD, ovx OO TEP 6 peas Kab 
inmopews avacavOa TOUS pudrous: poovoppiCov 
dé Kal émiryetov Kab Napatcavrov" Brac raver 
d€ Kal wei Tod Gépous Kat diapéver TO HvAXOV 
XAw pov axpu TTA evddos. Xaiper dé Upappors 
Kab Nem Toyetous Xwptors® eyeTar 5é ws év tots 
épyactpous ov Géneu pvecbat, Kal TavTa mept Ta 
adorn Kal év evryelous TOTFOLS propery Kat ovx 
OomeEp aiddiov év opetvots TovTO ev <odV> ov 
TavTos arnbés. 

‘O 6é TptBonros iovov eXEl, duoTe TeplKcapTt- 
dxavOos éott. Sto & avtod yévn* TO pev yap 
exel pvAXov EpsBud bes, & Etepos dé pudraKavOos: 
emriyeor O€ aupe Kal Toaxh oxlopevor’ ope 
Praoris dé pardov 0 pudrraKcavlos Kal puerta 
Tept Tas avhas. TO O€ oméppa TOU bev, mpwiov 
onoapides, 70d b¢ oxpiou oTporyyurov émipenav 
év 08d. Kal Ta pev ovv mapa Ta PvAXNA Kal 
dxavOav eXovTa oxedov €v TOUTOLS. 

‘H o dveovis éott mTopOaxavOov: éréretov O¢ 

1 &pdrots conj. Bod.; a&pérpas Ald. ef. 8. 1. 2. 

2 rére conj. St.; rodro Ald. 3 cf. Pall. 10. 13. 2. 

4 6 péws conj. St.; dpews Ald. Bas.Cam.H.; 6 prAevs mBas. 
§ Plin, 21.°91. 



many roots, but is not deep-rooting. It grows at the 
rising of the Pleiad, the first seed-time,' and then # 
puts forth its leaf; for it is not annual, but lives 
longer than one year. 

8 Caper, as was said, is quite distinct from these ; 
it has a spinous leaf and a spinous stem, whereas 
pheos* and ‘horse-pheos’ have no spines on their 
leaves®; it has a single ® root, is low-growing,’ and 
has a creeping stem ; it grows and flowers in summer, 
and the leaf remains green till the rising of the 
Pleiad. It rejoices in sandy light soils, and it is said 
that it‘is unwilling to grow on cultivated land, and 
that though it grows near towns and in good soil, 
and not, like silphium, in mountain country. This 
account however ® is not altogether accurate. 

®A peculiarity of caltrop is that it is spinous- 
fruited.1° There are two kinds; one has a leaf like 
that of chick-pea, the other has spinous leaves. 
Both are low-growing and much divided, but the 
spinous-leaved form grows later and is found near 
enclosures. The seed of the early kind is like that 
of sesame, that of the late kind is round and blackish 
and enclosed in a pod. These may serve as examples 
of plants which have spines as well as leaves.!4 

12 Rest-harrow has spines on the shoots; the leaf, 
which is annual,!* is like that of rue, and grows right 
along the stem, so that the general appearance is 

$ Diosc. 2. ig gives a different account. 
7 | Ae 7. 8. 
8 ody add. W. (in comm.) from G. 
® Plin. 21.98. of. 6.1.3, 
11 +a wey ody mapa Ta PYAAG Conj. Sch. (ody add. W.); 7d ey 
obv domep avapuddAa Ald. H. 12 Plin, 21. 98. 
13 T have altered the punctuation ; rrop@dnavOov, éréresov 5é- 

7) >. TA. W. after UMP. 




v4 \ , oA / / A 
OXOV TOV KAaVAOV, WOTE Kkalatrep atepavouv THV 
OAnv elvat popdnv, SiartapBavopevwv émadd1- 
ov: KoroBoavlys dé Kal éAXd0BoKapTos adia- 
Pac 2 / , 
ppdxtws pvetar & év tH yrtoxpa Kal yavader 
kal pddtota év TH oTopiw Kal yewpyoupuern, 
db’ 0 Kal Todéutov Tois yewpyoiss Kal éott 
r \ ‘ val 
duva@AO pos’ Stav yap AdBn yopas Babos, we? - 
Tat KaTw evOds Kal Kal’ Exactov éTos atrodicets 
> 7 ? \ / / ? \ A 
abewevn els TA TraYIA TradW Els TO ETEpOV 
@bcital KdTw: aoTactéa pev ovv GAy‘, TOUTO 
/ n a 
bé Bpaxetons yivetat THs ys Kal amodduTat 
en 3\ \ \ \ > 0 a $-5 N s 
pdov: éav b€ Kal puxpov azrorerpOh, aro TovToU 
/ / ba \ A / 
mad Bractaverr apxetat 5é€ Tis BLaotHocews 
Pépous TerevodTat 5€ peToT@pov. Ta pev ovr 
aypia Tov ppvyavikay éx TovTeV Dewpcicba. 
VI. Ta dé juepa Bpayeiay tia éyer Oewpiar, 
amep €v Tos cTehavw@patiKots €oTL. 
Ta be fal <4 f \ / 
Ta 5€ xa? drov reipatéov Tepl cTehavwpatov 
a n \ 
eiteiv, OTws Atay TwepiknpOH To yévos. 1 yap 
\ 4 PANE A \ »” 4 
otepavapatixyn gvais idiay twa exer Taku, 
emupuyvupern O€ Ta pev Tots PpvyaviKxols Ta Sé 
Tois mowwdecu' Ot 0 KaKEelva cupTEpiAnTrTéoV 
ETLULLVNOKOMEVOUS WS ay 7 O KaLpos, ap~apévous 
mTp@Ttov ato Tov dpvyavixav. diy dé 7) TovTwY 

1 Evidently some conventional way of making a wreath. 

2 SiarkauBavonévwev emadrdAnaAwy conj. W.; diadrdauBavouéerny bx’ 
&AAhAwy Ald. cf. Plat. Prot. 346 B, where the verb means 
‘to punctuate.’ 

3 KodoSoavbys ; cf. 8. 3. 3. 



that of a garland,! the leaves being set at intervals 
alternately along it 2; the flower is irregular,’ and the 
fruit contained in a pod,‘ which is not divided into 
compartments.° It grows in sticky rich soil and 
especially in sown and cultivated land; wherefore it 
is an enemy to husbandmen, and it is hard to kill; 
for, when it gets hold of a piece of ground, it im- 
mediately pushes its roots down deep,® and every 
year it sends up new growths at the sides and the 
next year’ it roots these again. Wherefore it has to 
be dragged up entire®; this is done when the ground 
has been moistened, and then it is easier to destroy. 
But, if but a small piece is left, it shoots again from 
this. It begins to grow in summer and completes its 
growth in autumn. Let these examples serve for 
a survey of the wild forms of under-shrubs. 

Of cultivated under-shrubs (coronary plants), with which are 
included those coronary plants which are herbaceous. 

VI. The cultivated kinds need but a brief survey ; 
these ® come under the class of coronary plants. 

Of coronary plants we must endeavour to give a 
general account, so that the whole class may be 
included. This group has a semewhat peculiar 
position, since it overlaps partly the under-shrubs, 
partly the herbaceous plants; wherefore the latter 
must also be included and we must mention them 
as occasion serves, taking first the under-shrubs. 

éAAoBexapmos conj. Sch.; éAAoBodvéns Ald. 

cf. 8. 5. 2. 

@0eira: KadTw Cconj. Sch.; a6? ra Kdrw Ald. 

eis TO Erepov, Sc. Eros ; TP Etépw conj. Sch. 

oractéa wev obv bAn Con). W.; ocrabeioa wey ofrws 8An Ald. 
dep conj. Sch.; e%rep UMAIA.G. 

oon an 

p 2 


Suaipecis ) KATA THY KXpEiav. TOV pev yap TO 
, 4 
avOos movov Ypnotmov' Kal TOUTMY TO MeV EVOT MOD, 
ef 7 \ > + ef / , 
@oTEp lov, TOS avoopov, WBaoTrEp StocavOos Pro€. 
Tov 6€ Kal of KXOVES Kal Ta PUAXA Kal bros 
e a 4 bd e Us e / 
" Taca divas evoopmos, olov épTUAXNOU éEdevioU 
“4 n 7 + \ / 
cicupBpiov Tav add\ov. audw Sé dpvyaviKd. 
> / a b] a a e / 
Kakelvov TOV avOiKoav TOAAa@Y 7 hvats dpvya- 
voons, 7 bev eTéTELOS OvTA povov, 7 dé ToAv- 
/ \ ? , an / 
YpoviwTépa, TAnY Lwvias THS peraivns' avTy 
yap akr\wv brXws adrAA TpoapLfopuAdos Kal dei- 
durdos, ws Sé tives hace kal dvvapévyn Sv 6rov 
ba \ / 
héperv TO avOos, éav TpoT@ Tiwi OepaTrevynrat. 
TovTo mev idiov av Exot. 
n ” a a § 
Tov dé dd\Xov padrov S€ Tov TavTwY ai pev 
¢/ \ \ a} , > / 
bra. wophal oyeddov tact havepai: ei dé twas 
” > , 4 7 / c 
anXas iduoTnTAaS €XOovol, TAUTAS AEKTEOD, olov €t 
\ \ e la} a a) 4 s \ \ » 
Ta bev aTAG Soxel Tols eideow elvar Ta SE Exe 
a \ 
‘ATAGa pev ody ta EvAwdn, KaOdTEp EoTTUANOS 
4 e, / \ > \ \ ” \ x 
cicvpBpiov éEdéviovy TAY ef TA pev Aypla Ta Oe 
Hepa Kal <Ta pev> evoopa TA O€ doo moTeEpa EoTL: 
toutwy 6é Kal ai Oepamreiat Kal at y@par bia- 
hopot Kai oi aépes. Evia O€ Kal THY avr, olov 
\ / x” > \ »” a fal \ 
TO péXav tov: ov yap éyew Soxel TovTO Siaphopav 

1 Plin. 21. 59. 

2 So Plin. /.c.; but Nic. ap. Athen. 15. 31 calls this flower 

3 roAA@v conj. W.; moAAa UMAId. 

4 ofoy ei conj. W.; 87: Ald. 5 ody conj. W.; ciov Ald. 



1These may be divided into two groups according 
to their uses. Of some only the flower is service- 
able; and of these some are sweet-scented, as 
gilliflower, some scentless, as carnation? and wall- 
flower. Of others again the branches leaves and in 
fact the whole growth are sweet-scented, as with 
tufted thyme calamint bergamot-mint and the rest. 
Both groups however belong to the under-shrubs. 
And of the first-mentioned, those valued for their 
flowers, the growth is in most 3 cases that of under- 
shrubs, (in some annual merely, in others of longer 
duration) except in the violet; for this is altogether 
without branches, its leaves grow close to the root, 
and it is always in leaf; while, as some say, it is 
able to bear flowers continuously, if it is tended in a 
certain way. This may be considered a peculiar 
characteristic of this plant. 

Of the others, or rather of all the group, the 
general appearance is in each case plain to all; 
any peculiarities that they may exhibit we must 
mention, for instance, if* some appear to have but 
a single form, while others have various forms. 

Thus ® those of woody character, as tufted thyme 
bergamot-mint calamint, have but one form, un- 
less one counts wild and cultivated, scented and 
scentless plants, as belonging to distinct forms ; 
and again there are with these plants differences 
of culture of position and of climate. Some also ® 
of the group valued for their flowers’ have each 
but one form, for instance, the black zon (violet) ; 
for this does not appear to have different forms 

6 Za d€ kal conj. W.; gor 5 UMAId. 
7 @v@av in the sense of dv@inav § 2, which perhaps should 
be read here. . 




ov ‘ / > ‘ \ e rs \ 
@omep TO NEUKOY Euhavns yap  TovTwY xYpoLa 
5 , Ni Ie 67; A ¢€ aA , 
v / / , »” \ as 
elmep 57, Ka@drep paciv, éma Kal Tophupa éott. 
Téav d& pddmv morral Siahopal mrAHOE Te 
4 \ > U4 \ / \ UG 
/ nr 
Kal evypoia Kal evocpia. Ta wey yap TreEioTA 
\ \ 
mevtapurnra, Ta O€ Swdexdguarra Kal ecxocidurra, 
. ow » ~ a G , , ” 
yap elval hac & Kal Kadodow EéExatovtadurAXra: 
al \ \ n / > \ / 
mreiata b€ TA ToOLAavTAa é€oTL Tept Didimovs: 
ovToL yap ANapBavortes €x TOD Ilayyaiov dutev- 
ovo. éxet yap yiverar TONKA opikpa bé odddpa 
\ 5] \ 4 e \ ” > a ? 
Ta evTos pudrNa 9H yap Eexhvals avTa@Y oOUTwWS 
ef S \ \ 5) \ \ 2799 U4 > ” : 
\ »>O\ , “ / > \ a / 
dé ovde peydda Tols peyéBeow. év dé TOis peya- 
a \ 
ols EvHdN padroV oY Tpayd TO KadTw. TO é 
e/ e re Oy 4 eee? BA Sere ? / 
OXov, MaTrEp EXEXON, Kai 1) EVYpOLa Kal H EvOT La 
, fal 
avuTH yiwopeva Toles Twa Tapadrdayny evoopias 
\ » / > / \ Xe sf > 
Kat aoopias. evoopotata dé ta év Kupiyn, & 
aA \ \ 4 v4 e lal be \ a y 
0 Kab TO pvpoy HoroTov. amos 56 Kal TOV tov 
‘ Oe + > n 7 , > cal 
Kat TOV GdAr\wv avOdv aKkpaTot padtota éxetOr 

1 cf. 6. 8. 1 n.; Diose. 3. 102. 

2 Plin. 21. 14-21; Athen. 15. 29. 

3 i.e. of the bark. ef. Plin. 21. 17, scabritia corticis. 

4 Se. in ‘double’ roses. - 

5 i.e. the hip; called dugmados Arist. Probl. 12. 8, where 
the same statement is made; called ujAov below, § 6. 



like the white ion (gilliflower) in which the colour 
evidently varies; as does still more that of the 
lilies, if it be true, as some say, that there is a 
crimson kind.! 

2 Among roses there are many differences, in 
the number of petals, in roughness,? in beauty 
of colour, and in sweetness of scent. Most have 
five petals, but some have twelve or twenty, and 
some a great many more than these; for there 
are some, they say, which are even called ‘ hundred- 
petalled.’ Most of such roses grow near Philippi ; 
for the people of that place get them on Mount 
Pangaeus, where they are abundant, and plant 
them. However the inner petals+ are very small, 
(the way in which they are produced being such 
that some are outside, some inside). Some kinds 
are not fragrant nor of large size. Among those 
which have large flowers those in which the part 
below the flower is rough are the more fragrant. 
In general, as has been said, good colour and scent 
depend upon locality; for even bushes which are 
growing in the same® soil shew some variation in 
the presence or absence of a sweet scent. Sweetest- 
scented of all are the roses of Cyrene, wherefore 
the perfume made from these is the sweetest. 
(Indeed it may be said generally that the scents? 
of the gilliflowers® also and of the other flowers 
of that place are the purest, and especially the 

8 rh abrq conj. Sch.; Tory U; rowira M. 

7 &xparo uddwra exetOe af Sopat conj. Sch. after Saracenus 
on Diose. 1. 25; Athen. l.c. (&kparo: pddAwora Kal Beta ai 
dopal) ; &Kparot udmuore ® exelvov ai doual Ald.; exe? af dcua) 
(rest uncertain) U. ef. CP. 6. 18. 3. 

8 ? violets and gilliflowers: see Index. 




ie 2) 


ai dopat, StadbepovTws Sé Tod KpoKoU* TEiaTOV 
yap ovTOS Soxet TApanraT rel. puerta bev obv 
2) podovia Kal €k TOU oT épwaros: éxer 5€ Ud TO 
avios év TO wHr(@ KnKa@des 7) 7) axavaces, € éyov Oé 
TWa xvoby bore eyes elval TOV TaTTwOOV 
CTEPUaTwOV* OU pany ANNA ba TO Bpadéws Tapa- 
yiver Oat KATAKOT-TOVTES, @S ehex On, TOV Kavdov 
puTevovow. emexavopern oe Kal em eTEMVOMEV) 
BéXr10v pépes TO avOos: e@pen yap eEavferar 
Kal aTroox poor at. def 5é Kal petapuTevery 
TOANAKLS’ Kab yap obT@ pact KaddMov yiver Ba 
TO pocov. ai & drypraw Tpaxvrepar Kal Tats 
paBoors Kal Tots purrors, éte 5€ avOos aypov- 
oTEpoy éyovot Kal €haTToOV. 

To d€ tov ro péhav Tob Aevicod Suadéper KaTa 
Te dd\Aa Kal Kay’ avTHY THV ioviar, OTL TAATU- 
purr,0s Te Kal eyyeropurros Kal capKodvaAnds 
éoTl, TONNHD éxouea piSav. 

Ta 6€ xpiva TH pep xpord THY elpnpevny exer 
dtaopav. povoKxavha 6¢ €oTL @S éml may, 
Suxavnel dé aTavios: Taxa d€ TovTO xepas ral 
dépos Svapopas. Kal exao Tov dé KavAOV OTE pev 
éy Kpivoy OTe O€ Treto yiverau’ Bracraver yap 
TO ax pov" OT AVLOT Epa 6é Tavta: pitay bé ext 
ToAAnVY capKoon Kal oTpoyyvAnY: Oo € KapTros 

1 Siapepdvtws 5€ Tod xpoxov conj. Saracenus from Athen. 
l.c.; Siapepdvrws 8h rod xpdvov Ald. cf Callim. Hymn to 
Apollo 83, whence it appears that an autumnal crocus (crocus 
sativus) is meant. See below § 10. 

2 &xavdbdes conj. Sch. from G, acanaceum ; av0ades UMAId. 

3 ramrmwdav conj. Sch.; mparov Ald, 

4 Phin, 21. 27. 


scent of the saffron-crocus,! a plant which seems to 
vary in this respect more than any other). Roses can 
be grown from seed, which is to be found below the 
flower in the ‘apple,’ and is like that of safflower 
or pine-thistle,? but it has a sort of fluff, so that it 
is not unlike the seeds which have a pappus.? As 
however the plant comes slowly from seed, they 
make cuttings of the stem, as has been said, and 
plant them. If the bush is burnt or cut over, it bears 
better flowers ; for, if left to itself, it grows luxuriantly 
and makes too much wood. Also it has to be often 
transplanted; for then, they say, the roses are 
improved. The wild kinds are rougher both in 
stem and in leaf, and have also smaller flowers of a 
duller colour. 

*The black zon (violet) differs from the white 
ion (gilliflower) not only in other respects but in 
the plant itself, in that in the former the leaves 
are broad, lie close to the ground, and are fleshy, and 
there is much root. 

5 Krina (lilies) shew the variation in colour which 
has been already mentioned. The plant has in 
general a single stem, but occasionally divides 
into two, which may be due to differences’ in position 
and climate. On each stem grows sometimes one 
flower, but sometimes more; (for it is the top of 
the stem which produces the flower*) but this 
sort is less common. ‘There is an ample root, which | 
is fleshy and round. If the fruit is taken off, it 

5 Plin. 21. 25. The account of herbaceous ae ee plants 
seems to begin here. cf. 6. 6. 10. 8 6 

7 Siapopas U; Siapopa W. after Sch. 

8 Braoraver. But this word in T. has usualky a more 
general sense. ? ‘for in that case the top of the stem 
branches’ (lit. ‘ makes fresh growth’), 




adatpovpevos éxBractdver Kal arodidwor To 
, \ A a bé , 
kpivov TMyv EXaTTOV. TroLel Oé TLvVa Kal Saxpvwdy 
cuppony, iv Kal puTEevovoly, WoTeEp ElTroper. 
‘;O de / Xx ».' , ¢ \ \ a 
é vadpKiaaos 7) TO AElpLOV, OL eV Yap TOUTO 
e ’ > lal . a \ \ - TU A a / 
oi & éxeivo Kadovaot, TO pev ETL TH YH PUAXOV 
aapodenwbes ever, TAaTUTEpoV Sé Tov, KaDaTrEp 
e / \ \ \ ” \ 36 
» Kptvwvia, Tov 6€ KavAov apvrAdov péev TOwdY 
\ b > »” \ BA \ > e / \ 
dé cat é& dxpov ro avOos, cai év buen TivI 
/ > 5] , \ / iy / \ 
Kabatrep ev ayyceiw <KapTov> péyav ev pada Kai 
pédava TH Xpord ox wate S€ mpounKkyn. ovTos d 
extintov toi Brkdotnow avTowatov’ ov pay 
> \ \ / 4 \ \ ce; 
dutevovaw. éyer pitav capnadn oTpoyywrmv 
peyddny. oypiov dé opodpa peta yap Apktodpov 
» avOnows Kal Tept tonueptav. 
‘O dé Kpoxos mowdns ev TH pvoet, KaOdtrep Kal 
a \ / a \ \ 4 
Tpixopurrov éativ: oriavbes Sé aopodpa kai 
> \ BY ” / e / / 
oyiBra0Tés 7) TewiavOes, oTrOTEpwS TLS NawSdvor 
tiv @pav' <peta> redda yap avéet Kal driyas 
€ / Wen) S ied lal 4 \ \ ” 
nméepas: evlus apa T@ hvdAdAgWw Kal TO avOos 
> a a \ \ / He \ \ \ 
abet Soxet € Kal mpotepov: pila O€ MOAN? Kal 
gapxwons, Kal TO 6dov evSwov: ide SE Kal 
mateicOat Kal yivetar KadXNwv KataTprBomervns 

1 of. 2.2.1 n., 9.14; C.P. 1.4.4-6. Plin. 21. 26 describes 
a method of artificially producing crimson lilies from the 
bulbils of a white lily. ef. Geop. 11. 20. 
2 ef. 6.8. land 3. See Index. 8 of. 7. 13. 1, 
4 rowdy: cf. 4. 10. 3. 



germinates and produces a fresh plant, but of 
smaller size; the plant also produces a sort of 
tear-like exudation, which men also plant, as we 
have said. 

The narcissus? or /eirion (for some call it by the 
one name, some by the other) has its ground-leaves 
like those of the asphodel,? but much _ broader, 
like those of the krinon (lily); its stem is leafless 
and grass-green* and bears the flower at the top; 
the fruit® is in a kind of membrane-like vessel, 
and is very large, black in colour, and oblong in 
shape. ‘This as it falls germinates of its own accord ; 
however men collect and set® the seed, and also 
plant the root, which is fleshy round and large. The 
plant blooms very late,’ after the setting of Arcturus 
about the equinox. 

8 The saffron-crocus is herbaceous in character, like 
the above-mentioned plants,? but has a narrow leaf ; 
indeed the leaves are, as it were, hair-like; it 
blooms very late, and grows either late or early, 
according as one looks at the season '°; for it blooms 
after}! the rising of the Pleiad and only for a few 
days. It pushes up the flower at once with the 
leaf, or even seems to do so earlier. The root}? 
is large and fleshy, and the whole’ plant vigorous ; 
it loves even to be trodden on and grows fairer 
when the root is crushed into the ground by the 

5 kaprov omitted in MSS.; add. Dalec. from Diose. 4. 158. 

6 anyviover: cf. 7. 4. 3n. 

7 ef. C.P. 1. 10. 5; Plin. lc. (a much confused passage). 

8 Plin. 21. 31-34. 

9 Sc. xpivoy and vapriogos ; cf. 6. 6. 8 n. 

10 7,.e, whether at the end of one season or the beginning of 
the next. cf. C.P. 1,10. 5. AapBdvor U; AauBave: Ald. 

1 yera add. W. 12 cf. 7. 9. 4. 




TAT@ THS piSns- du) 3 Kal Tapa Tas 0dovs Kal év 
Tois Kpotntois KdddoTos. % Sé gduTeia azo 

Taira fev ovv obT@ yevvarat. Ta, & ddXa 
avOn Ta ™ poeupnweva. TavTa amet peTat, olov 
leovia Siocavbos ipvov proé 7) ME pOKAANES” Kal 
yap aura Kal al pitar Evhoders- OTELpeTaL be 
Kal 7 oivav0n: Kai yap Kal ToUTO avO@6des. Ta 
pev_ovv avOina oxedov év TovTOLs Kal Tots OpotoLs 

VII. Ta & erepa mavTa pe avbet kal oTep- 
popopet, Soxet dé ov mavTa dia TO By pavepov 
eival TWOY TOV KapT ov" érel Kal Td advOos 
évioy apau pov: arn’ OTe Bpadéos Kal yaXeTro- 
TEPOS Taparyiverat, TH pureig Xpavrat fLanXop, 
aoTep éhex On) Kal KaT apxas. Kaitou dsaret- 
vovtal Tives @S OUK  EXOVT@D KapTov" of Te 
memerpac Oat pdcxovres nat TOUT@V etoty, avTol 
yap Enpavat TOAAAKLS Kal amor pinyat Kal ometpat, 
Kab ovderoTrore Brac reiv ovTe EpmuAXoy ovTE 
éhéviov ove Tur UB prov OUTE pivOay: merrerpaia Bat 
yap Kal Tavrys. ann’ ums €xelvo arn bea repor, 
) Te TOV aypiov duos é€miyaptupel Kal yap 
epTuhnos EOTLV drypLos, Ov xopilovTes €K TOV 
opav gutevovet Kal év YKvoV Kal "AOnvyow € éK 
Tob ‘Tyunrrod: map dAdo oe dhos 6pn tAHnpn 
kal Aopor, KaOatrep év TH Opdkn: Kai cvcvpBprov 

1 adr conj. Turneb. and others; xdrw Ald. 

2 xporntots: Plin. l.c. tuata semitas ac fontes. Did he read 
Kpovvots ? 

3 av0ixd conj. Scal.; &xavOina Ald. cf. 6. 6. 2. 

4 GAX’ Br: conj. W. from G ; &AAa 5 UMPAId. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, VI. vi. 10o-vu. 2 . 

foot!: wherefore it is fairest along the roads and in 
well-worn places.?_ It is propagated from the root. 

These are the ways then in which the above plants 
are grown. All the above-mentioned flowers are 
grown from seed, as gilliflower carnation spike- 
lavender wall-flower martagon-lily; these plants 
themselves, as. well as their roots, are woody. 
Drop-wort is also grown from seed; for that too 
is a plant grown for its flower. These and other 
plants like them may serve as examples | of plants 
grown for their flowers.® 

VII. All the others flower and bear seed, though 
they do not all appear to do so, since in some cases 
the fruit is not obvious. Indeed in some the flower 
too is inconspicuous, but, because * these grow slowly 
and with some difficulty, men propagate them rather 
by off-shoots, as was said at the beginning. How- 
ever some contend that they have no fruit: and 
there are men who have actually tried with the 
following plants®; they have, they say, themselves 
often dried and rubbed out and sown the apparent 
fruit of thyme calamint bergamot-mint and green 
mint (for even that they have tried) and there was 
no germination from such sowing. However, the 
account given above is the truer, and the character 
of the wild forms testifies to this; for there is 
also a wild thyme (Attic thyme ®), which they bring 
from the mountains and plant at Sicyon, or from 
Hymettus and plant at Athens; and in other 
districts the mountains and hills’ are quite covered 
with it, for instance in Thrace. There is also a 

5 of re... eloly transposed by Sch.; in MSS. after aanéé- 

6 Plin. 19. 172; Athen. 15. 28, 
- 7 Adpar conj. W.; témo: Ald. 




Sé Kal TadAXrXAa SpiuuTépay éxovTa THY dopnr 
éoTuAdros 8 éviote Kai TravTehos Oupwdnss & 
OfpAov OTL TAVTHY THY yeverw AapBaver. 

A Bporovov dé Hadov amd oméppatos BXa- 
or avel i) amo pitns Kal Tapacmdoos® VANET OS b¢ 
Kat amo oT EPMATOS” TE POLO X EVO [LEVOV <e> ép 
OoTPaKoLs, GomEp ol ‘Adavibos KHTOL, TOD Oépous: 
Sve puyov yap apodpa Kal OAWS émrixenpov Kal OTL 
O Atos apodpa Adres: euBia@cav d€ Kal avenGev 
péya Kal loyupov Kat devdpddes _OoTep TO m™ya- 
vov, TAD Evdwdéotepov TONY TOTO Kal EnpoTepov 
Kal avxypwdéoTEpor. 

‘O 6€ audpaxos audhotépws Pvetat, Kai arro 
Tapacmddos Kal amo OTE MATOS" TOAVOT Ep Lov 
dé, Kal TO om éppa eVoopov damn pahaxortépa: 
duvarat dé Kat peradutever ban. TONG TEP LOV 58 
Kal 70 dBporovov Kat ovK doo pov. TOUTO d€ piSas 
ev exe opOas Kal Kata Ba0ous. éatt yap OoTep 
povopprSov TH TAX Elg tas 8 ddras <agpinow> an 
auTns: o O dpapaKos Kal 0 epTrudNos Kal 70 
oto vp SpLov ral TO €\évlov EmtTroAaious Kal 
Todua x woes Kal Tappodets” Ev woes 6é TAO AL, 
TONV O€ pardov » Tov aBpoTtovov Kat d1a TO 
péyeOos kal TH Enpornte. 

1 évlore conj. W.; évfos Ald. 

2 Plin. 21. 57. Description of various forms of EpmudAos 
has perhaps dropped out after this word: cf. § 5, ra@dmep 
€A€x On. 

3 7.¢. from seed. tadrnv con]. W.; mdvtra UMAId.; ? tava 
TavTn Vv. 

3 Plin, 21. 34: ef. C.P. 1.4.2. aBpdrovov .. . bépous, text 
nearly as given by Ald. and by UM (?) supported by Plin. 



wild bergamot-mint, and wild forms of the other 
plants mentioned, having a more pungent smell. 
Thyme is sometimes! quite like cultivated thyme.’ 
Now it is plain that these wild forms possess _ this 
means of reproducing themselves.® 

Southernwood actually grows more readily from 
seed than from a root‘ or a piece torn off (though 
it grows even from seed with difficulty); however 
- it can be propagated by layering in pots in summer- 
time, like the ‘gardens of Adonis’®; it is indeed 
very sensitive ® to cold and generally delicate even 
where the sun shines brightly; but, when it is 
established and has grown, it becomes tall and 
strong and tree-like, like rue, except that the latter 
is much more woody drier and less succulent. 

7Sweet marjoram grows in either way, from pieces 
torn off or from seed ; it produces a quantity of seed, 
which is fragrant with a delicate scent; it can also 
be transplanted. Southernwood also produces much 
seed, which hassome scent. ‘This plant has straight 
roots which run deep; it has, as it were, its single 
stout root, from which the others spring;* while 
sweet marjoram thyme bergamot-mint and calamint 
have surface }° roots which are much divided and 
matted ; in all these plants the roots are woody, 
but especially in southernwood, because of its size 
and because it is so dry. 
l.c. so far as that passage is intelligible—but 5 before év 
darpaxoas add. W.; after ey dorp. supply BAaotavei. 

5 cf. Plat. Phaedo 2768 and Thompson’s n. Sir W, 
Thiselton-Dyer in Companion to Greek Studies, § 99, p. 65. 

6 of O.P. 4. 3. 2. 7 Plin. 21. 61. 

8 wetapuTeverba conj. Sch. from G; wetadver@a: Ald. 

9 adinow add. W. 

10 éximoAatovs conj. Scal.; ém) woAAov’s MAld. cf. C.P. 2. 
16. 5. 





Tod d€ épmtrrov idsos 7) avEnows 4 TOV Bra- 

a > ¢c fa) ” 
oTav Svvatar yap éf ocovody mpoiévar Kata 
Kos Xdpaxa NaBov 7 pos aipaciav duTev- 


Geis 7) Kato Kalléuevos: evav&éctatos 8é eis 

/ 16 be n \ e / lal > 
gpéap. eldn d€ Tov pev nuépov AaBeiy ovK 
4 / 4 n \ > / \ 
éotlt, Kalarep €déxOn. Tov dé aypiov daciv 
cival. Tov yap év Tots bpeowv TOV pev OupBpwdy 

~ b 
Tia Kal Spiyuvtatov Tov 6 evoopmoy eivat Kal 

‘ol , , 
“Opa dé tis hutelas TAELTTwY pETOTMpoOL, ev 
/ e an 4 > \ > > 
aTevooval ws mpaTa puTeverv* ov pv arr 
éyia Kal TOU Hpos puTevovolw. atavta PirocKia 
kal dirvdpa kal diroxoTpa pwddiota: avypov Sé 
- € 
déyeTar Kal ddws oduyoudpoTatos oO EpTuAXos. 
’ \ , 4 \ \ A Le] 7 
KoTp@ O€ xaipet, wadioTa bé Kal TH TOV Nodod- 
pov: pact dé Kai petaduteve deity ToddaKis: 
c / 

KaANw yap. TO é ctcvuBpLov, WoTrEp EhEXON, Kal 
eElotatat wn peTapuTevopevov. 

VIII. Tav & avOdv To wév Tp@tov éxhaivetac 
\ fw iA \ € >\ / > \ 

a lal , 
Tov xXeLm“a@vos, Omrov dé aKkANpPOTEpOs LaTeEpor, 

a a a t 

éviaxod Tov Hpos. aya S€ TO im 7 puKpoV TL 
e/ \ \ / 4 \ yw 


1 of. Plin. 20. 245 and 246 (not frem T.); OP. 2. 18.2; 
Diose. 3. 38; Index €pmuaAdos. 

2 cf. Plin. 19. 172, which refers however to ciavuBpior ; 
Nic. ap. Athen. 15. 31. 

3 Plin, 21. 61. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, VI. vir. 5—vin. 1 

1The growth of the shoots of thyme is peculiar. 
If it has a stake, or is planted against a wall, it can 
send them out to any length; so also if it is let grow 
downwards; indeed it is most vigorous when grown 
into a pit.? It is not possible to distinguish different 
forms of the cultivated kind, as has been said, but 
they say that of the wild kind (Attic thyme) there 
is more than one form; for that of the kind which 
grows on the mountains one form is like savory and 
very pungent, while the other is fragrant and more 

8 The season for planting most of these is autumn, 
and then men hasten to plant them as early as 
possible; however some are planted also in spring. 
All of them love shade, water, and especially dung ; 
however thyme is patient of drought and, in general, 
needs moisture less than the others. These plants 
especially delight in the dung of beasts of burden ; 
and it is said that they should often be transplanted, 
for that it improves them, while bergamot-mint, as 
has been said, actually degenerates® if it is not 

Of the seasons at which coronary plants flower, and of the 
length of their life. 

VIII. ®Of the flowers the’ first to appear is the 
gilliflower ; where the air is mild, it appears as soon 
as winter comes, but, where it is more severe, later, 
sometimes in spring. Along with the gilliflower, or 
a little later, appears the flower called the wild wall- 

4 piAdoxia conj. Scal. fromG; girolkia UMAId. ef. Plin. l.c. 

5 etiorara: conj. Seal. from G, degenerat; e&fracrac MAId. 

6 Plin. 21. 64-66; Athen. 15. 26 and 27. dyv@dv: ? in the 

sense of av@ica@v, as in 6. 6. 3. 
7 +d conj. Scal.; rod Ald. 





Taita yap ov ot otehavntrAoKoL YpovTaL TOAD 
EXT PEVEL Tov addr. peta O€ TadTa oO vap- 
KLOaOS Kal TO AEiplov, <Kal TOV aypioy ave“o- 
vns yévos TO KaXovpevov bpEetov,> Kal TO TOD 
BorBod Kodvovr éumréxovat yap évor Kal TodTO 
eis Tovs aotedavous. él Sé€ TovToIs 7 oivavOn 
Kal TO péXav lov Kal TOV aypiwy 6 Te édeELO- 
Xpucos Kal Ths avepovns Aerpoovia Kadou- 
pevn Kat Oo Eigiov kal bdxwOos Kal axedov 
Oaols aAXNOLS XpHOVTAL THY Opeiwy. TO é pPodov 
totepes TovTwY Kal TedEUTAioy pev daiveTat, 
7 P@TOV & amronhet met TOV €apwav* odLyoOXpoVia 
yap » avOnots. orgsyoxpovia Oé Kal TOV ay- 
plov Ta NoLTa TAH THS vaKivOov Kal THs aypias 
Kal THs oTapTHs avTn 5é Svapéver Kal TO AevKOY 
lov Kal ére TAELw TO pAroyLVOV* TO Sé O62) wéXar lor, 
@omep eipntat, du’ évavTod Oepareias TUyxXavov. 
moavtTws 6é Kal 7 oivavOn, Kal yap todTo avbu- 
Kov pev To@bes O€ THY Hiow, édv TLS atroKvitn 
Kal apaiph To avOos Kal pr €& orreppatodcPat 
Kat éTt TOTOV EvEerLov Exn* TO Sé avO0s BoTpYadbes 
Kal NevKOV KADaTEp THY aypiov .. . TadTa per 
ovv wotrep capa haiveTat. 

Ta dé Oepiva paddrov h TE AvxVIs Kal TO. 
SuocavOos Kal TO Kpivov Kal TO ipvoy Kal o 

1 Evidently both distinct from the vapxiocos } Aclpiov of 
6. 6.9; 6.8 3. See Index. 

2 «al trav... dpeov ins. Sch. from Athen, J.c. with 
alteration of dpefwy to ayplarv. cf. Plin. /.c, 

3 7.¢e. the flower of muscari, mentioned in this way because 
elsewhere (e.g. 7. 12. 1) the edible root is in question, which 
was properly called BoABés. 

4 of. 9. 19. 3. 5 See Index. 



flower. These, of all the flowers that the garland- 
makers use, far outrun the others. After these come 
pheasant’s eye! and polyanthus! narcissus (and, among 
wild plants, the kind of anemone which is called 
the ‘mountain anemone ’)? and the ‘ head’ ’ of purse- 
tassels; for this too some interweave in their gar- 
lands. After these come dropwort violet, and of 
wild plants, gold-flower,t the meadow kind of 
anemone corn-flag hyakinthos (squill), and pretty 
well all the mountain flowers that are used. The 
rose comes last of these, and is the first of the 
spring flowers to come to an end, as it is the first to 
appear, for its time of blooming is short. So too is 
that of the rest of the wild plants mentioned, except 
hyakinthos,> the wild kind (squill), and also the culti- 
vated (larkspur); this lasts on, and so does the gilli- 
tiower, and for a still longer time the wallflower, 
while the violet, as has been said,® blooms throughout 
the year, if it receives tendance. So too dropwort? 
(for that too is one of the plants valued for their 
flowers, though it is herbaceous’ in character) if 
one pinches off and removes the flower instead of 
letting it go to seed, and if, further,’ it has a sunny 
position. The flower is clustering and white, like 
that of the wild... .° These then are, we may 
say, the plants of spring. 

‘The following belong rather to summer: rose- 
campion carnation krinon!? (lily) spike-lavender and 

° 6.6.2; cf. C.P. I; 13. 12. 7 of. 6. 6. 11. 
8 mo@des: sense not obvious; evades conj. Dalec. cf. C.P. 
1. 13. 12. 9 %rt conj. W.; 67s UMAId. 

10 Ut labruscae oy perhaps a guess: see oivdv@n in Index. 

11 Plin. 21, 67 and 68. 

cf kplvov Sch. from Athen. [.c.: ; so also Plin, /.c.3 «hpi ov 

z 2 


apdpakos 6 Ppvytos: ett 5é 0 TOPOS KaXovpeEVOS" 
ovtos © éoTi Surros, 0 pev eY@Vv TO avOos Gjwovov 
7 baxivO, 0 o bé é érEpos aX pous AeuKos, o Xpav- 
Tal rept Tous Tadous: Kab Xpovierrepos OUTOS. 
avOet 5é Kai 7 ips TOU Oépous Kal TO oTpovdtov 
KaNOUpEvov" TH pev ayes KaNOv TO avOos a doo pov 
dé. peToT@pou be TO Aeiplov TO Erepov Kal 0 
KpOKOs, 6 TE opeevos doopos Kal o Tjmepos evO0s 
yap avOobar Tos Tpwrots vdact. Xpavrar b€ Kab 
TOV ary plov TO THS OfvaKxavOov KapT@ Kal TO 
av0e TO THS pidaxos. 

Kat rais pév @pats oUTWS EXATTOV 1) yéveots. 
@S be aTAOS Eltrety ovdElS Sadeimerar Xpovos 
ove éotiw avavdys, ara Kal 0 NELMOV EXEL Kal- 
ep ayovos Soxav eivar dia THV creeite TOV 
peToT wpe peTarapBavovror, éav be 69 Kal 
parakos 9, TOAAD adXov. aTROS yap TwavT 7) 
7a TmoNNa Kal emekTeiveTat THS oixelas Gpas, Kal 
éav 0 TOTOS EVELOS 7 Haddove du’ 0 Kal _Tuvexera 
ryiveTat. Ypovor WEv OV ovTOL Kal MpaL KATA 
TAS YEver es. 

Bios d€ iwmvias ev THS Neves ern) padiora 
Tpia* ynpacKkovea bé eMaTTOUTAL Kal ia AevKo- 
TEpa peper. podwvias O€ 7évTE Ta T pos THY 
akpnvy eTLK GOMES" xeLpo b€ Kal TAUTIS Ta 
poda ynpacKovons. ™ pos evoo wiay dé Kal pode 
Kal tov Kal TOV dAXwY avOdY péyLoTOY O TOTTOS 

Be Ee i Ry S 

2 ef. the Eng. plant-name ‘ love-in-absence’; see 2é@os in 

3 AevKds. Exdevxos, ‘ whitish,’ Athen. /.c. 

4 Evidently the vapxiocos # Aclouor of 6. 6. 9-5; cf. 6. 8. In. 



the Phrygian sweet marjoram! ; also the plant called 
‘regret, ? of which there are two kinds, one with a 
flower like that of larkspur, the other not coloured 
but white,? which is used at funerals; and this one 
lasts longer. The iris also blooms in summer, and 
the plant called soap-wort, which has a beautiful 
flewer but is scentless. In autumn bloom the other 
kind of narcissus,t the crocus, both the scentless 
mountain form and the cultivated one (saffron- 
crocus); for these bloom directly the first rains 
come. The fruit® of the cotoneaster and the flower 
of the smilax, both of them wild plants, are also 
used in garlands. 

Such are the seasons at which each appears ; and, 
to speak generally, there is no interval of time nor 
flowerless period, but even winter produces flowers, 
for all that it seems to be unproductive by reason of 
the eold, since the autumn flowers continue into 
winter, and to a much greater extent if the season 
be mild. For all things,® one may say, or at least 
most of them, extend beyond their proper season, 
and all the more if the place be sunny; so that there 
is a centinuous succession. These then are the 
periods and seasons at which the various flowers are 

™The life of the gilliflower is at most three years; 
as it ages it degenerates and produces paler flowers.® 
A rose-bush lives five years, after which its prime? 
is past, unless it is pruned by burning !°; with this 
plant too the flowers become inferior as it ages. 
Position and a suitable climate contribute most to 

5 xaprg: Phin. /,c. apparently read &véeu. 

6 ray’ 4 conj. St.; wdyrn Ald. H. 7 Plin, 21. 69, 
8 fa canj. St.; aed Ald. 
9 dxuhy con}. Seal.; derhy. Ald. 10 ‘of. 6. 6. 6. 



, \ € xv \ fd 3 n 
oupBdarr€eTar Kal Oo anp mpos ExagTOV oiKElos: 
> Ag 7 \ \ \ tAXKa wa > » \ 
év AiytmT@ yap Ta mev a vt adoopa Kal 

/ e \ / 
dv0n kal apopata, ai Sé€ puppivat Oavpactat 
A a , a a 
Th evocpia. mpoTepelv SE pact TaV éevTavfa Kal 
e ca 
ev Shae \ \ » BA \ , \ 
poda xai ia cal ta adda avOn Kal Siunve, Kai 
Stauévery TACi@ TOV Tap Hiv 7 OvK éXATTw 
xpovoy TadTa. 
a \ \ \ > / / 4 
Aoxe? &€ modv mpds evoopiav Siapépev, @oTEp 
c a al 
€éxOn, kal 0 éviavtds totos 7) Totes yevopevos, 
, a nr 
ov povov érrouBpias Kal avxpots adda Kal TO 
Kata Katpov yivecOar kal data Kal TrevpaTta 
Kal d@A@s TAS TOD dépos peTaBoras. ta Sé év 
Trois Opec @ ATABS eivreiv Kal pdda Kat ta Kal Ta 
drra <Karas pev avOciv> rH 5é doph morrga 
\ a 
xveipw yiver Bat. Kal Tepl pev TOV oTEehavo- 
HaTLKOV Kal aTrABS TOV dovyaviKav ayxedov év 
ral id / 
TOUTOLS Kal TOS Opmolots éotiv 7) ioTOpia. 

1 violets and gilliflowers ; so also below. 

2 Plin. /.c.; of. C.P. 6. 18. 3. 

8 %yvOm conj. St. from G ; dvavOy Ald. ef. C.P. 6. 19. 4. 
4 Plin. 15. 37. 



the fragrance of roses gilliflowers! and other flowers. 
Thus in Egypt,? while all other flowers? and sweet 
herbs are scentless, the myrtles* are marvellously 
fragrant. In that country it is said that the roses 
gilliflowers and other flowers are as much as two 
months ahead of those in our country, and also that 
they® last a longer, or at least not a shorter, time 
than those of our country. 

And, as has been said, the particular season ac- 
cording to its character, makes a great difference to 
the fragrance, not only by reason of rains and 
droughts, but also according as rain, wind, and in 
general, the changes of climate occur or do not occur 
at the fitting moment. Also it appears that in 
general roses gilliflowers and the rest bloom well on 
the mountains, but many of them have there an 
inferior scent.® Concerning coronary plants and 
under-shrubs in general these examples and others 
like them suffice for our enquiry. 

5 radra conj. W.; tovrov Ald. 

8 &vOn TH Gop wWoAA@ Ald.; &vOn TH 5 donq woAAKG UM, 
whence Sch. and W. conj. that some such words as Kad@s wév 
have dropped out and dyéeiy has been altered to &vén. cf. 
C.P. 6. 20. 1. 


ee ey 

hp Sek ay _ 
Sash ay ie 


é « 

» —. Fees “ 
hapa rs 

PLB NA (adem adh 


athe tal 

J * + #> 

x) 2, ee 
1 MAS 





rious Wp 


:: ‘Enropevov dé Tots elpnpevous mept TOV TrOlo- 
Sov eitre? TOTO yap core Aowtrov Tov €E apxis 
diarpeDévtav yevav, év ® cupTrepiriapBavortai 

a." lal a 
mepl TOU haxaveodous ex Téov ap§apevous amo 
TOV MHEPOY, rel yv@ptya paddov Tuyxaver TOV 

Eiol 82 tpets dpoto: wdvtwy TaY KyTrEvOMEVO?, 
év ols Exacta otreipovot Statpovvtes tais wpats. 
@ \ 9 e / BA \ ec , 
€ig fev OUY O xELMEpLVOS, AdXAOS dé 6 Oepivos, 

/ \ e \ 1d > e / A 
tpitos 5é€ 6 petakd TovTw@Y pel HdLov TpOTAS 

n 2 
veimepivds. Karodor S ovtws ov mpos THY 
\ / > \ \ \ / \ 
omopav Brérrovtes AANA POs THY Yéverw Kal 
THY Xpelav ExdoTou: éTel ye omopa ayedov 
éy toils évavtiow yivetat. TOU YeEtmepwod pév 
yap apy peTa TpoTras Bepwas tod Merayert- 
cal / 
VL@VOS NVOS, €v © oTelpovat padpavoy padavida 
/ a 
yoyyvAioa kal Ta Kadovmeva éerrioTOpa: TadTa 
& éoti tevtAL0v Opidaxivn ebf@pov Radtrafov 
varru Kopiavvov avnOov xdpdamov' Kanovor Oé 

1 of. C.P. 3. 20. 7 and 8. 




Of the times of sowing and of germination of pot-herbs. 

I. Next we have to tell of herbaceous plants: for 
this class remains of those which we distinguished 
at the outset, and it includes to some extent the 
classes of pot-herbs and of cereals. And first we 
must speak of the class of pot-herbs, beginning with 
the cultivated kinds, since it happens that these are 
better known than the wild kinds. 

1 There are three seed-times for all things grown 
in gardens, at which men sow the various herbs, 
distinguishing by the season. One is the ‘ winter’ 
seed-time, another the ‘summer, and the third is 
that which falls between these, coming after the 
winter solstice. These terms however are given in 
regard not to the sowing, but to the growth and use 
of each kind; for the actual sowing takes place, one 
might almost say, at the opposite seasons. Thus, 
the ‘winter’ period begins after the summer? 
solstice in the month Metageitnion,? in which they 
sow cabbage radish turnip, and what are called 
‘secondary crops,’ that is to say, beet lettuce rocket 
monk’s rhubarb mustard coriander dill cress; and 

2 Gepwas conj. Scal.; xewepwas U(?)MP,Ald.G (ed. Bas. and 

Par. but not ed. Tarv.). 
8 July. 5 before M, om. Sch, 



Kat mpa@tov todTov Tay aporov. tov Sé dev- 
TEpou mad ped aaou Tporras Tou Dayndrdvos 
Ives, év @ omelpovolt Kab myvuovar Tpdcov 
o éXVvov ynOvov adpapakuv. Tov Tpitou 6é, 0 ov 
Karodat Bepivor, TOU Mouvuyedvos: év ToUT@ 
dé omelpeTat oikvos KONOKUYTH Britov Cio Ov 
avdpaxyn OvpBpor. TovobvTat de m)elous apo- 
TOUS TOV omotwy Kab éxdoTny @pay, olov paga- 
vidos « xi pou TOV GdArXwv. maar dé otrelpeTat Tos 
apoTols Ta emia Topa. 

Avadveras S ovK év tools TavTa Xpovors, anra 
TA pev Oarrov Ta be Bpadvrepov boa duo gvi. 
TaXLoTO pev ouv CIC MOV kal BriTov Kal evto- 
pov kal TOV YELwLEepwav papavisy TpiTata yap 

@S elmetv. OpSaxivar dé TeTapTaias 7) TeMTT- 
aia. oiKvos bé Kal KodoKuvTn Tepr Tas TEVTE 
y] e, ot 5€ hacw érra: T poTepov b€ wal Oarrov 
0 aiKvVOS. av0paxyn & év mreloor TOUTMD. avn- 
Bov dé TeTapTatov. Kapoapov dé kal vary TEepmTT- 
aia. tevtTdoy 5é Oépovs peév ExTatov XeLwdrvos 
dé€ dexataiov. adpapagus dé oySoaia. padavos 
be dexaTata. _ Tpacov dé «at ynOvov ovK év 
ious, GANA TO pev évveakaidexaTaioy éviaxod 
dé elxooraiov, ynOvov dé dexataiov uh dwdexka- 
Tatov. Koplavvov bé Suadues: ovoe yap €Oére 
Braoravev TO véov éav py Spex 97. OvpuBpa oe 
Kal Oopiyavos év reloow 7) TplaKovTa.  dvo- 
pvéo Tatov dé TaVT OV TO oéAwov" TET TapaKo- 
otaiov yap pacw of Ta cvVTOMwWTEpA déEYorTES, 

1 January. 2 April. 3 Plin. 19. 117, 
4 ray xemcpwav: ef. 



this is also called the ‘first’ period of cultivation. 
The second period begins after the winter solstice 
in the month Gamelion,! in which they scatter or 
plant the seed of leeks celery long onion orach. 
The third period, which is called the ‘summer’ 
period, begins in the month Munychion?: in this are 
sown cucumber gourd blite basil purslane savory. 
Moreover they make several sowings of the same 
herb at each season, as of radish basil and the 
others. And at all the periods are sown the 
‘secondary crops.’ 

3Not all herbs germinate within the same time, 
but some are quicker, others slower, namely those 
which germinate with difficulty. The speediest are 
basil blite rocket, and of those sown for winter 4 
use, radish ; for these germinate in about three days. 
Lettuce takes four or five, cucumber and gourd about 
five or six, or, as some say, seven ; however, cucumber 
is earlier and quicker than the others. Purslane 
takes a longer time, dill four days, cress and mustard 
five. Beet in summer takes six days, in winter 
ten, orach takes eight, and turnip ten. Leek? 
and long onion do not take the same time, but the 
former nineteen to twenty days, the latter ten to 
twelve. Coriander germinates with difficulty; indeed 
fresh seed will not come up at all unless it is 
moistened.® Savory’ and marjoram take more than 
thirty days; but celery germinates with the greatest 
difficulty of all; for those who make the time com- 
paratively short say forty days, and others fifty, and 

5 apacov conj. Bod.; mpdo.ov P,Ald. H. 

$ BoexOf conj. Bod. ef. C.P. 4.3.1; eracxen Ald.; ércxef 
P,Bas.; so also G. 

1 of. CP. 4. 3. 1; Plin. 19. 7. 






ot S€ mTevTnkootaiov, Kal TovTO KaTa TavTas 
/ an 
TOUS apoTous* émioTretpovot yap Ties éTl Taw. 
7 be ee \ , iA / 
Ordws d€ 07a KaTa TrElOVSs Was oT ElLpETal, 
a 3 »O\ al } , n / 
TavT ovdev Oartov Térdeva yivetat Tov Pépous. 
\ \ > \ \ ec @ / 
Kat Oavpacrtov et Kat pnOev 1) Opa cvpBddreTAL 
Ni ee oe DA \ \ a >\ \ \ \ 
Kat 0 anp mpos TO OatTov, éav b€ pwoxOnpa Kai 
a \ 
wuypa kal TO dépe wepicxeT@ns Bpadvtepov: érrel 
A lal / a / 
e"* \ Aa ae \ n e / 
oTé pev Bpadvtepov oré O€ Oattov 7» BrRaoTHaLS 
n / 
Siabépe. 5€ TadTa Kata Tos apoTOUS ExdoTwV' 
mpwiaitatov yap év Tots eveidols Kal EevKpact. 
‘oO \ e n ? an > / é al \ pees 
n lal 4 a 
UrovaBely THY ToOLOUTwV, év TE TOLs OTréppaclW 
tal \ al , \ a / \ fal e 
AUTOLS KAL EV TH YOPA Kal TO aépl Kal Tats Wpats 
/ : / n 
als éxaoTa omeéipovot Kal Yelm@vev Kal evd.iov. 
, 3 
TovgwW ot xpovot Kal ép @y ov Kal yap THY 
e , / "d \ / \ 
pahavida ghacit tives Tpitaiay Kat Oépovs Kal 
XELU@VOS, TO S€ TEVTALOV, WaTrEp ElpnTat, Tapar- 
\ id 4 ] a 
NaTTEL KATA TAS Wpas. Ypovot & ovv ovTOL TIS 
’ / 
BraaTHoeEws clot Kal A€yovTat KAP ExacTov. 
\ n 
Avadéper Sé mpos to Oattov Kat Bpaddvtepov 

Kal 7) TOV oTrEpHaTwY TadaLoTNS. Ta bev yap 

, cal 
avo véwyv Tapayivetat OatTov, olov mpacov yHOvov 

1 épas Vo.H.; x@pas UM; so also G. 

2 réxera conj. W. (comm,); ye woAAd MSS.; 7a morra 
Vo.Sch. W. (text); yivera: conj. Sch. from G ; ylveo@a: Ald. 

3 nal tH Gépt... Bpaddtepoy: grammar doubtful and text 
perhaps defective: so given in UM; xal 6 ahp meptoxenis 



that too, at whichever period it is sown, for some 
sow it as a ‘secondary crop’ at all the periods. 

Generally speaking, those herbs which are sown at 
‘more than one season! do not mature? faster in the 
summer. Howbeit it is strange if the season and 
the state of the atmosphere do not contribute at all 
to quicker growth, and if, when there is an un- 
favourable cold season and the atmosphere is cloudy, 
these conditions do not tend to make growth slower,® 
seeing that, when stormy or fair weather follows the 
sowing, germination is slower or quicker accordingly. 
And there is another thing which makes a difference 
as to the raising of the various herbs; germination 
begins earlier in sunny places which have an even 

As a matter of fact, to speak roundly, the causes 
of such differences must be found in several different 
circumstances, in the seeds themselves, in the ground, 
in the state of the atmosphere, and in the season at 
which each is sown, according as it is stormy or fair, 
However it is a point for consideration with which 
herbs the time of sowing makes a difference and 
with which it makes none; thus it is said that 
radish germinates on the third day whether it be 
sown in summer or in winter, while beet, as has been 
said, behaves differently according to the season. 
Anyway such are and are said to be the seasons 
of germination in each case. 

4 Another thing which makes a difference as to the 
rapidity with which the seeds germinate is their age ; 
for some herbs come up quicker from fresh seed, as 

mpos To Bpadvtepoy conj. Sch, (with nox0. kK. Wuxpa supply 
i &pa fi). 
4 Plin. 19. 118. 8& conj, Scal.; yap Ald. H. 



ciKvos KONOKUYTN’ EVLOL 6é Kal m poBpéxouar TOV 
oiKvov Tm pos TO OatTov 7 i) év yaraxre n év Boaru. 
Ta © amo Tadawy, olov oédivov TEUTALOV Kap- 
daj.ov OvpBpa Koplavvov opiryavov elmrep pen 
<utevetat> avTa a0 TOU véov, KAOaTrEp elIro per. 
idtov bé pacw éml Tov TevTALOU oupBaiver: ov 
yap Siapver Var Tay evOds arr Dorepov TOANO, 
TO dé Kal TO eXoMevep ever Kal TO TPLT@, Ot 0 Kal 

"Exaotov 6€ Tav aomepudtorv, €av adpuvbévta 
aromérn, Siapévet Tpos THV pay THD EavTov Kal 
ou 7 poTepov éxBaoraver Kal KaTa Ovov ear: 
Kal yap él TOV aypi@v opajuev cupBaivor, éav 
Tay pap7. at Oe TENELOTELS TOV KapTrav am dap- 
TOV yivovtat TOU Gépovs, 1 POTEpov 6 Kat OatTov 
@S ATAOS ereiy TOV TpOTepov TT ApEVTOV. dia- 
héper dé Kal 7) Opa: Ta yap év tals eppnpeptacs 
omapevta Oadtrov éxxavrct Kal éxomepmatovrat, 
Kabatrep padhavis yoyyvAis. via b€ ovK éviatova 
péper TOV KapTov adda, dieva, cabarep oéNvov 
Tpdcov yndvor, a Kat Siapever Xpovov Tetova 
Kal ovK éoTiv eTéTELA’ Ta yap TONNA TOUT@Y dma 

Iladvra 5€ ws eitety doa exkavrget Kal TEdELOt 
poviKas, TAD doa povoKauna, Kalarep tpacov 
Kal y)Ovov cat Kpopuoy Kal oKopodor. 

Pirvdpa in kal diroxompa TavTa, madrov Oé 

1 guteverat alta conj. W.; od ro UMAId. 
2 Sc. soaking, 



leek long onion cucumber gourd; (some even soak 
the seed of cucumber first in milk or water, to make 
it germinate quicker). Some come up quicker from 
old seed, as celery beet cress ‘savory coriander 
marjoram (unless indeed they are raised + from fresh 
seed in the manner? which we have mentioned). 
There is, they say, a singular feature about beet®; 
the seed does not all germinate at once, but some of 
it not for some time, some even in the next or in the 
third year; wherefore it is said that little comes up 
from much seed. 

Any of the seeds, if they are ripe when they fall, 
last till their own proper season and do not sprout 
till then. And in this they are consistent ; for we 
note that the same thing happens with the seed of 
wild plants, unless it is destroyed. However all 
mature their fruits in the summer, though sooner 
and quicker, generally speaking, when they are sown 
earlier. The season also4 makes a difference ; things 
sown in the hot season push up their shoots and go 
to seed sooner, as radish and turnip. Some however 
bear their fruit not in the same year but in the next, 
as celery® leek long onion, which plants also last 
a longer time, and are not annual; for most herbs 
wither with the ripening of their seed. 

Generally speaking, all those that push up shoots 
and mature their fruit reach their perfection of form 
in having side-shoots branching from the main stem 
—except those which have but a single stem, as 
leek long onion onion garlic. 

All these herbs are lovers of water and of dung, ° 

* of. C.P. 4..3, 2; Plin. ¢.c. 
4 S¢ conj. W.; yap Ald.H. 
5 Plin. /.c. 
VOL. Il. F 


¥>-S 4 \ , > , U ' 
Ta acOevéotepa Kal TElovos emipedetas Seomeva, 
Ta O€ Kal Tpodis. 
, \ / > \ a / ” 
II. Bvetrar 5€ wavta ato Tov OTEPUATOS, EVLA 
\ \ > \ / \ \ \ e/7 
Sé Kal amo Tapaotddos Kal KdXwvos Kai pifys. 
amo péev Tapacmddos 1 pdpavos* Set yap Te Kat 
pel@des mpooraBeiv. amo b€ Tav BrNacTaV TH- 
yavov opiyavos @Kimov' aTopuTEvovat yap Kal 
TovTo OTav oTOapuaiov 7) wetfov yévntrat TemovTes 
\ \ 
els TO Hyutov. aro pitns dé cxdpodoy Kal Kpopvov 
\ \ \ » VAs lal \ a a 
Kal BorBos Kat dpov Kat amdOs TA ToLadTAa TOV 
4 \ \ v S<iz sf 
xehanoppivov. vetar Sé Kal el Tivwv ai pitar 
Siapevovow éml qAéiova xpovov ETETELOKAUAOV 
dvt@v. b7t dé aro oméppatos TdavTa BracTavet 
f \ \ / / 
davepov' Kal yap TO THyavov, OTEp OV hadi TwWes, 
arra Bpadéas, dv’ 6 Kal atodutevovar. 
/ / 
"Oca 5é aro pitns Pvetat, ToUTaY 7 pev pita 
/ > \ 1 3 / xa \ 
xpovios auTa dé émeTEevoKavara, dv’ 0 Kal TapaBXa- 
, a 
otdvovow at pifat TOY ToOLOVTMY Kal .yivoyTaL 
Ld “a : 
mAeELovs OU povov év Tots npepors Kal “nT evo- 
Mévols GAAA Kal év Tots aypiots, domep el TOME, 
olov BorBois rynP vous oKidXais Kal Tots AXXots. 
mapaBraotdve 5 ea Kal TOV jw) Keparoppifwv 
ypoviwtépwv Oé, olov céAtvov Kal TEVTALOV’ adiaor 
yap pitas ad’ av dvovtat PvAXA Kai KavXoi. 

2 Plin. 19. 121. 2 of. C.P.1. 4. 2. 
3 Sei yap t1 UP. del ydp 7s Ald.H.G; Sch. suggests de for 
yep, missing the sense. 

* Braorey corresponds to kAwrds above. 



aia especially the weaker ones, which require more 
attention or in some cases more feeding. 

Of the propagation of pot-herbs, and of differences in their 

IJ. 1All these herbs are propagated from seed, and 
some also by a piece torn off, a shoot, or a piece of 
root. Cabbage is propagated by a piece torn off,? 
since it is essential® in this case to take a piece 
which has root attached to it. From cuttings‘ are 
grown rue marjoram basil; for slips of this too men 
plant when it has grown to the height of a span 
or more, cutting off half the plant.° By root® are 
planted garlic onion purse-tassels cuckoo-pint and in 
general such bulbous plants. Such propagation is 
also possible in cases where the roots persist for 
more than a year, though the shoots last but for a 
year. And it is plain that all these herbs can be 
grown from seed; for even rue can (which some 
deny), though the process is slow, and so cuttings 
are also taken. 

Of those which are propagated by a piece of root 
the root is long-lived, though the plant itself may be 
annual; wherefore the roots of such plants make 
offsets and so increase ; and this is true not only of 
plants cultivated in the garden, but also of wild 
plants, as we have said, for instance of purse-tassels 
long onion’ squill and so forth. Some plants even 
which are not bulbous § but longer-lived make offsets, 
as celery and beet; for these send out roots from 
which grow leaves and stems. Long onion and 

© of. CPt Ac Bi 5 t.e. offsets. 
7 yndtois om. some editors, as not being wild. 
® «.e. and so annual. 

F 2 


mapaBhacr aver dé Kal yyiOvov Kal T pao ov Kal 
Tapapver KaT@Oev olov BorBadn Twa cepariy, 
€& Fs 7) Braaornous yiveTau TOV pudrwv, avav- 
Oévtos 38 TOD KavAoU Kal Tob OEP LATOS: ap aupe- 
Oévros: adda bua TO pa) XpnTiwas civat Tas 
ToUTwY Kepards ov cvAXEyoveWw eis Enpaciar, Ov 
0 Kal ov duTevovat. Taxa dé TadTAa Kal opmoryerh 
Kal ctveyyts Twas TH TOD Kpopvov dices, du’ O 
Kal ov Oavyactov. adr opolws [Kal] érl mavtev 
kal nuépwv Kal aypiov, doa ypoviwrepa pév 
éoTiv émeTeloKavra O€, TOUTMY Kal ai pia éri- 
Bractavovew, boTEep Kal emit TOV PpvyariKoY 
Kal Tov Oayvwdov" arr él TOV Kpopvov Kal 
ocKopodev Kal BorBav Kal WOTrEp aprO wos TLS 
yiverau TOUTOD. =) 67) yeverts, @oTEp elpnTat, 
TPLXOS coTW, aro oT EPMATOS pev TavT@v, aro bé 
Kavdrov Kal pitns Tov el PN LEVOV. 

Tay dé cavi@v KodovebévTav TavTa pev @S 
eitrety BNacTaver TAHY TOV aTroKAavAwY, Euhave- 
otata & @oTEp Kal eis Ypelav wKLLOV Opidak 
pagavos. Kat THS pev Opidaxos notous act TOUS 
TrahiuBraoreis eivat Kavos: TOV yap 7 P@TOV 
oman Kal WiKpov eivat ws amen Tov" ot bé TO 
évavtiov oTwbdertépous ToUTOUS GAN Ews ay WoL 
amanrol dhaivesbar yAvKuTépovs. GAA ert THs 

1 rpdoov conj. St.; mpdoiov Ald. H. 

2 31a 7d wh conj. W.; wh 8:4 7d UM(?2) Ald. 

3 i.e, offset bulbs. 

4 W. omits wey (Ald. UM(?)) after cvAdAéyoua:. 

5 7.e. the plant is increased by seed only and not by offsets. 
cf. 7. 4. 10; Plin. 19. 103. 

8 éuolws conj. Sch.; duws PAld.H.(UM 2). 

7 émeresdxavaa conj. Sch.; émryeidrepa PAld. H. 



leek! also make offsets, sending out a ‘ head’ below, 
like the bulb of purse-tassels, from which the leaves 
spring; but this only takes place when the stem 
has withered and the seed has been removed. But, 
as ? the ‘ heads’ ® of such plants are not useful, they 
do not collect them ‘ for storing dry; wherefore also 
they do not plant these.’ It may be that somehow 
these are akin and closely allied to onion, wherefore 
what has been said is not surprising. However in 
all those plants, both wild and cultivated alike,® 
which have an annual stem,’ but yet live longer than 
a year, there is an outgrowth of the roots, just as 
there is in under-shrubs and shrubby plants: while 
in onions garlic and purse-tassels even a number,® 
as it were, of such roots is formed. In fact,® they 
are reproduced in three ways, as has been said ; from 
seed in all cases and from the stem?! and root in 
those specified. 

11 Almost all shoot again if the stem is broken 
(except those which are stemless), but most obviously 
basil lettuce cabbage, which are, as it were, broken 
for a practical reason. Indeed they say that the 
stems of lettuce which thus grow again are sweeter,!? 
for that the original stem has a taste like fig-juice 
and is bitter, as being not properly ripened. Some 
however say that the later stems have the taste of 
fig-juice more than the original one, but that, so long 
as they are tender, they appear sweeter. Be that as 

8 ap.Oubds is clearly corrupt, and has displaced an unusual 
word for which éo7ep apologises, 

® 8) conj. Sch.; d¢ Ald. 

10 kavdod is here that part of the plant which is above 
ground. 1 Plin. 19. 122. 

12 j8tovs Vo.mBas.H., so too G, Plin. l.c., Athen. 2. 69; 
idfovs UAld. ef. C.P. 2. 15. 6. 



paddvov TOUTO OMoAOYoUpeEvor, Os ef Tau Bhra- 
TTT ELEY noiov apaipeOévtwv ye TOV PUNY TPO 
tov dtakavrica. 

Atapévover 5é ai pifar mrevovav, GAN ai pev 
Bractavovet Tadw ai dé ov. padaris yoor Kal 
yoryyunrts Svapévovar ys emBreions axpt 
Bépovs Kat avénow AapBavovew, 6 dmep Trotovat 
TLVES eferritndes TOV Kn Toupa ov Bracrdvovar 
be ove adidon puddov ovd «é THs apéror TID 
emioer aywevny viv. idety 5é€ todTO Kal éml TOY 
adrov éori, Ta dé TheioTa TOV Aaxaveov Hovop- 
pica TH TaXela KATA Badous pity Kal yap doa 
mrapapier Tas iconaxeis TavTas, Oomep oéALVov 
Kal TEUTMOD, amo TiS eons: TWS y) mapaduats 
EoTL ral ovK evOds aro TIS apxs 1 oxiois" ex 
dé TAVTNS TiS pas darnpTnvrar ai amopudses ai 
puxpal Kal TiS papavidos Kal THS yoyyuMcos. 
Kal abrat pev 57) Tact pavepat d1a Thy xpetav. 

‘H 6€ tod TevtALov pha poev paKpa Kal Taxela 
Kal op0n, xadamep 9 4) TOV papavider, arropcers dé 
exet Taxelas OTe wey Svo 6 ore be Kal Tpets ore Oé 
Kal pay, Tas 5é puxpas ek TOUT@D. capKodns 
dé 7) Y pita Kal TH yevoet yAuxeia. Kal noeia, bu 6 
Kal @pEnv éoBiovei TLVES* o 6€ droLds ov maxvs 
ovoée cpauper os, OOTEP 0 TOV papavider, adda 
pad)ov olos 0 TaD immocehivey, OTAUTWS be 
Kal  THS adpaddEvos pia pev eis Babos ék 
TauTns O€ ddrat. 

1 Bracrhoeey conj. Sch.; BAaorhoe Ald. 
2 obd’ ef tis Ald. H.; €i wh tis conj. Scal. supported by G. 
% ée... pixpal conj. W.; eis 5¢ radrny rhy ulav 7 aw airijs 



it may, it is admitted that in the case of cabbage the 
stem is sweeter if it should have grown! again after 
being broken, provided that the leaves are stripped 
off before the plant runs to stalk. 

In most cases the roots persist, but they do not in 

all cases produce fresh growth. Thus radish and 
turnip persist till summer, if earth is thrown on 
them, and they increase in size; and some gardeners 
do this deliberately ; but they do not make fresh 
growth nor send out leaves, even if one ? removes the 
earth heaped over them. And this may also be 
observed in other plants. However, most pot-herbs 
have the single stout root which runs deep ; for even 
in those which produce these side-roots of equal 
stoutness, as celery and beet, the side-growth comes, 
as it were, from the middle root and it is not 
separate to start with; but to this single root are 
attached the small out-growths,’ both in radish and 
in turnip. These instances are familiar to all because 
of the use * which is made of these plants. 
' The beet has a single long stout straight root like 
that of the radish, and has stout out-growths, some- 
times two, sometimes three, sometimes only one, and 
the small ones are attached to these. The root is 
fleshy and sweet and pleasant to the taste, wherefore 
some even eat it raw. The ‘bark’ is not thick and 
cannot be detached, like that of the radish, but 
rather resembles that of alexanders. In like manner 
the root of ‘orach is single and runs deep, and other 
roots are attached to it. 

Te Kal THs amopuddos Kal uixpa Ald. H.; so also M, omitting re. 
W.’s restoration of a very corrupt text is at least consistent 
with what follows in § 6. 

+ 7,e. for food. 




Movoppifotatov 8é TovTwy mdvTwv TO Xa- 
> \ BA / > / > \ 
mafov' ov yap éyer Tayelas atoptces adda 

\ 7 / \ 4 »” \ 
Tas Nerrtas: BabuppiCotatov dé TavTar, Exe yap 

a / 
pelfo TpLov tpurTrodiwv: TO 8 dyptov Bpayutépar, 
ToNvKavAov O€ Kal TONVKAASOY Kal 4 6An popd? 
Terermbetca TapaTAncia TH TOU TevTALOU: TrONv- 
xpovi@tepoy Sé€ Kal TOU aypiov Kal Odws 6é 
TaVTOV TOV NAXdVMY ws EtTreivy Siapéver yap 
a / 
oTocovooy ypovoy ws dacw. exer € capKwdy 

\ e/ A, oe > Fea \ > n a 
Thv pilav Kat évixpmov, Ov 0 Kal éEaipeOcica fh 
TONY Ypovon. 

/ a 

To & @xtpov pilav pév thy Taxelay THY KaTa 

/ \ S A \ > / #X\ 
Badous tas 0 adXas Tas é€x TAayiov AeTTAS 

v S > 4 \ / A > Q / x 

Evia 0 ove exer THY piav THVv opOnr, olov To 
Britov, adr’ edvO0 Twordads €E axpou Kai evTraxels 

, n 
Kal paKkpotépas THs adpadpdévos. 

Tav 8 pilav Evriwdéctatat Tacdv ai Tod 
> / / » Neen’ / e \ la} / 
@Kiwov, KaOdTrEp Kal 0 KaUAOS. 7 yap TOU BXriTOV 
Kal THs abdpadaévos Kal TOY ToLOvT@Y HTTOV 
Evrwdns. elol yap ws amA@s Eitrety TacoV ai 

é HdeLs at Oe 06 T°) tov 1) 
pev capKabers at dé Evi@ders. <capKaders>, olov 7 
Tov TevTALoU Kal TOD cerivou Kal immoceNivou Kal 

, ia? , \ / \ , 
Aarrabov Kal papavidos Kal yoyyvAidos Kal tav- 
7 a n > O\ \ > 
Tov padoTta Tov KeparoBapav ovdé yap avakn- 
/ / 4 , , 
pawopevar okdAnpivovTaL Terelws. EvrAwdELs Oé, 

a a 

2 ras Ald., cf. ras 5¢ wixpas §6; rivas conj. W. cf. Plin. 19. 
98 (who mistranslates). 

of. 7.6.1; OF, 3. 14. 4 SeejIndex, 



Monk’s rhubarb ! however has a single root in a 
truer sense than any of the others, for it has no 
stout out-growths of root, but only the? slender 
ones; its root also runs deeper than that of the 
others, being more than a foot and a half long. The 
wild sort? however has a shorter root, and has 
several stems and branches, and its shape, as a 
whole, when fully grown resembles that of beet. 
Cultivated monk’s rhubarb moreover is longer lived 
than the wild form,‘ and, in general, we may say, 
than any other pot-herb, for, they say, it may live 
any time. It has a fleshy root,’ full of moisture, 
wherefore, if pulled up, it will live some time. 

Basil has the single stout root, the one which runs 
deep, and the others at the sides are slender and 
fairly long. 

Some herbs, as blite, have not the single straight 
root, but a number of roots which start directly from 
the top and are of a good stoutness® and longer than 
those of orach. 

The roots of basil are woodier than those of any of 
the other herbs, as also is its stem; for those of blite 
orach and the like are less woody. In general we 
may say that the roots of any’ of these herbs are 
either woody or fleshy. Examples of fleshy § roots are 
beet celery alexanders monk’s rhubarb radish turnip, 
and especially all ‘heavy-headed’® kinds, for the 
roots of these do not wither up altogether even when 
they are dried. Examples of those with woody roots 

5 5iCav conj. Sch.; odpxa Ald, 

6 Plin. lc. seems to have read a different word from 
evmaxeis, or to have misunderstood it. 

7 wacév conj. W.; map’ dv UMP; also Ald.H., omitting ai. 

8 gaproders add. Scal. from G, 

9 7,e, bulbous ; ef. 1. 6. 8. 




a / 
@oTEp ai TOD @kimov Kal Brito Kal adpadhdévos 

\ Iy/ 8 es ee \ , ee 
Kal evlopmov Kai avyBov [xal rAamdbov)] Kal 
Koplavvou Kal aTAMS TOV veuvpoKavrwY* ExEL yap 
57) kal TO dvnOov Kal TO Kopiavvoy dvTa povoppita 

, \ e7 \ > \ »>O\ \ 
Evhwdn te THY pifav Kal ov paKkpay ovde Tas 
NeTTAas atropudbas EXovcay TOoANdS* TOAVKAVAA 
be ” \ 4 8 2 4 \ > \ / 

é dudw kal tmodvota, dv’ 6 Kal od Kata éyor 
ovdEVL TOUT@Y TO AYwW pds TO KaTO. ; 

Bpaxvppita S& tatta éotw, olov Opidaké av- 
Spaxyvn, TH Op0H Kal tais eis Ta Aaya. 1H 2 
Opidak, oTrep ovK EXEL TAS ToLAa’TAas aTropicets 
> \ Ul \ / \ / \ U 
GXXA fLovoy Tas eTTTAS, Kal wddioTta by povop- 

e > a e a 8; / \ \ 
pifov ws eitety. atda@s 6) TdavTa ta Oepwa 

Bpaxvppifa: cal yap 0 cixvos xal 1) KoNoKvyTH 
\ ¢ / \ \ \ e7 ne + ay 
Kal ) olka Kal dia THY pay Kat lows Ett MaXXOV 

\ \ 4 4 4 an e \ 
dua THY hvowv, Hrep cuvvnKodovOnke TH @pa. 7 SE 

/ a / 
petagputevopérn OpidaE Bpayutépav exer thy 
pilav THs omapeions: TapaBracTave yap éx TOV. 

, na / \ . , nan 
Trayiov wadrrov: Bpayutépav S€ Kal 1) aypia Tis 
nuepov, Kal x TOV dv@lev TONVKAUNOTEpA. 

Ill. “Av@e? 5 trav pév GdXwv Exactov aOpoor, 
er al 5] / \ ” Dod \ 
é6tay Tadta amavOnon Ta dvw, OV 6 Kal TodDv- 

1 After ayndov Ald. TI. have «at Aawd@ov: bracketed by W. 
after Sch. 
* amopuddas con}. Seal.; .3 dmopuaAddsas Ald. 
3 radta conj. Sch.; ra roradra UM ; roadra Ald. 
4 Athen. 2. 79. Sch suggests that the name of a plant 
has dropped out after éarep: ? 7 avdpaxvy, 



are basil blite orach rocket dill! coriander, and in 
general, those with fibrous stems; for in dill and 
coriander, which have a single root, the root is 
woody and not long, and the slender side-roots? from 
it are not numerous; but both plants have several 
stems and branches; wherefore in neither of these 
plants does the part above ground correspond to the 
part which is below. 

The following? have short roots: lettuce and purs- 
lane, in which both the straight main root and the 
side ones are short.. * Lettuce may be said to have 
no such side-roots, but only the slender ones, and 
may be called in the strictest sense a plant of a 
single root. In general all summer herbs have short 
roots: we may include cucumber gourd and _ bottle- 
gourd, both because of the season to which they 
belong and perhaps still more because of their 
character, which corresponds to the season. How- 
ever the transplanted lettuce has a shorter root than 
one that is raised from seed, since it is more apt to 
send out side-growths; also the wild kind has a 
shorter® root than the cultivated, and the part above 
ground has more stems.® 

Of the flowers and fruits of pot-herbs. 

III. 7All, except one, of these herbs produce all their 
bloom at once, but basil has a succession of flowers, 
the lower part of the plant flowering first, and then, 
when that bloom is over, the upper part. Wherefore 
its season of bloom is a long one, like that of the 

5 Bpaxutépay conj. Sch.; Bpaxvrépa Ald. 
6 &ywev moAveavdotépa conj. Sch. from G ; &vw: ra 5é woAvk. 

Ald. ef. Diose, 2, 136. 7 Plin. 19. 100, 


Xpoviov év TO avdeiv, cabamep KUAaMOS Kal TIS 
TOas TO NALOTPOTLOV KaNoupEvoV Kal adda O€ TOV. 
aypiov. av0et dé Kat o oiKvos TONY Xpovor’ 
Kat yap émBhao rave TOUT@ ye cuuPaiver. Ta 
é avon TOV pev ExNEVKA TOD dé pnrLvoeLdH TOV 
bé pupov eruroppupivorra, cD pou S ovbev. 

Ta 6é oméppara Siahéper Kal Tots oXNHATL" 
Ta fev yap Trelora oTpoyyvvAa Ta 6é Tpounen 
Ta 0 av TraTEA Kat PUAROSy), | Kabamep Ta THS 
adpabagvos: dmotov yap T@ ToD ardour Ta be 
oTeva Kal ypappodn, nab drep Tob Kupivov. Kal 
Tos Yp@eMacLW Opmolws, TA Hey pédava Ta O€ 
Evhadn Ta dé LevKoTEpa. mara 67 €ANOBo- 
oméppata 7 yupvooréppata i) euprovoorréppara 
77 TANTOTT EPMATA padavis bev yap Kal var 
Kal yoyyurls éAXoBoomépuata, Kopiavyvov é Kal 
uapabor Kal dum O ov Kal KUPLVOV yupvoorépmata, 
Bdrov dé Kal tevTALOy Kal adpadakus Kal 
GL [Lov éuprotoomépuata, Opidaxivn O€ Tamo- 
om éppatov. 

Idvra bé TovKapTA Kal TohvBracTh, TONv- 
KapTOrarov dé TO KU mLvOV: idsov O€ Kat 0 Aéyouct 
KAT TOUTOU' pact yap beiv katapac at TE Kal 
Prac pnueww omelpovTas, eb wédArEr KarOV ExecOau 
Kal TOAD. 

AvoEnpavta 6é mwavta pev Os eitrely TAHY TOU 
KUplvoV, OVX wWS 0 altos: OUTOS yap Kav arak 

1 For the collective sense of réa (=7a rowdn) cf 1. 3. 1. 

2 rodby xpévov conj. W., which at least gives the required 
sense ; Kadovmevos Ald 

3 undwoedes: cf. 6. 2. 8. 

4 ? ‘orange.’ 5 Plin. 19, 119. 



bean, and among herbaceous plants! that of the 
plant called heliotropion, and also other wild plants. 
Cucumber also has a long period? of bloom, for this 
plant has a second growth. The flowers are in some 
cases whitish, in others quince-yellow,? in others 
somewhat reddish*; but the flower is never of a 
bright colour. 

>The seeds too differ in shape; most are round, 
but some are oblong ; some again are broad and leaf- 
like, as those of orach, for the seed of this is like 
that of silphium; others again are narrow or 
marked in lines,® as those of cummin. They also 
vary in colour, some being black, some the colour 
of wood,’ some paler. The seeds of all are either 
in pods or naked, or have an integument or have a 
pappus. Radish mustard and turnip have their seeds 
in pods; coriander fennel dill and cummin have 
naked seeds; those of blite beet orach and basil are 
enclosed in an integument; those of lettuce have a 
pappus on them. 

All have numerous fruits and numerous shoots, 
but cummin has the most ® fruits of all. ®And there 
is another peculiarity told of this plant: they say 
that one must curse and abuse it, while sowing, if 
_the crop is to be fair and abundant. 

Nearly all of these, except cummin, are hard to 
dry for keeping,—unlike corn !°; for this, when once 

8 ypauuwdn: cf 4.12. 2. ; canaliculata Plin. l.c. 

7 ?*brown’cf.7 9. 3. 

§ cf. 8.3.5; CP. 4, 15. 2. 

9 cf 9. 8.8; Plin. /.c. applies this to é«moy, Pall. 4. 9. 5 
to mhyavor. 

10 gitos: ovtos yap I conj.; otros yap UMH.; P omits 
yap; otros ds W. after Sch.; nec modo frumenti consistunt, 
quod G. 




‘ad puv0 A TAXV Enpatverat Kab amoninret: due- 

EnpavToTepa bé Ta éuprovootéppata Kal TovUT@Y 
<paNOTa TO @KLMOV. aravra bé Enpavbevra 
TohvKapTOTEpa yiveTat, db: 0> Kal Tpoadar- 
poovtes avta Enpaivovew. aravta oe ToNUXOa 
v \ \ \ > / / ” 
Kore 6€ Ta perv axpoxapra, KaOdarep wKipmov 
mpdoov Kpopvov' Ta S€ TAAYLOKapTAa padXo?, 
\ a 
olov pagavis yoyyuarts Kal Ta TolavTa’ Ta © 
apporéepos, olov Brérov adpapagus: apporepa 
yap TavTa Kal éx TOD TAayiov, Kal TO YE PXérov 
ev ds Tap €KacTov otov 7 poo KaOr}Levov ever TO 
oméppa Botpud@bes. Tad ex Tahavoré pov omEp- 
patov Oadttov éxxavrel, Taxytota b€ Ta ex TOV 
axpalovtav’ €oTt yap Tis akpn Kal TOUT@Y. ava 

, \ \ \ / > a lal >\ 
Aorvyov dé Kal 70 KadQos akoNovGet TOV . . . €av 
Ta a\Na THY avTny EXOoL Geparretay. 

Aoxet dé Kal eg TO AUTO a0 poa Oepeveov Kado 
yiveoOat kai Bractdve: ovTw yap TO TOD 
mMpacov Kal TO TOU cEerivou TIWéacW aTodynaavTes 
eis OOovov Kal yivovTat weydra. 

/ / Swe \ # 

SupBarrerar 6ێ te Kal o Totes Tpos avEnow* 
KeAevovalt yoor, Otay Tis peTahuTevyn Ta céduva, 

\ / / \ \ > > / / 
TO céAuwwov: TYWévar Sé Kal ev OOovim matTaXov 
KaTaKpovoavTa Kal TANCAaVTA KOTpOU Kal Yi. 

1 uddwora. . . 8’ § missing in UMAId. Bas.; text as restored 
by Sch. from Cam., G and Plin. /.c. 
2 76 ye BAlrov conj. W.; 76 ye tAciorov U; 1d Te mAciorov 
5 exxavdel: ef. 7. 1.7; 7. 4. 3, and esp. C.P. 4. 3. 5. 
+ After &xoAovée? ray follows a lacuna of one and a half lines 



it is ripened, quickly dries and is shed, and the herbs 
whose seed have an integument are harder still to dry, 
especially basil. All hewever, when dried, produce 
more fruit : wherefore! it is the custom to gather the 
seed early and dry it. All of them are prolific and 
produce many seeds, but basil produces most of all. 

Examples of those which produce their fruit at. 
the top of the stem are basil leek onion: of 
those which produce it rather at the sides, radish 
turnip and the like; of those which produce it in 
both ways, blite and orach; both of these produce it 
at the side as well as at the top; in fact blite? has 
its seed in clusters, closely attached to each branch. 
Some push up their shoots® fairly soon from old 
seed, but seed from plants in their prime is the most 
rapid ; for these plants too have a time when they 
are at their best. The beauty of the plant also 
corresponds * in proportion, provided that equal care 
in ° other respects is shewn in cultivation. 

6It likewise appears that, if a quantity of seed is 
sown in the same place, the resulting crop comes up 
and germinates better; thus they tie up seed of 
leek and celery in a piece of cloth’ before sowing, 
and then there is a large § crop. 

The position also contributes to growth ; at least, 
when celery is transplanted, they suggest that one 
should hammer® in a peg of whatever size one 
wishes to make the celery ; and also that one should 
sow the seed in a piece of cloth! after hammering 
in a peg and filling the hole with dung and soil. 
in UMAId.; text as given by Cam., which however omits 
TaY; Tav cretponevav H.; Ta ToLovTwY Vo. Vin. 

5 of. 7. 4,.7. § Plin. 19. 120. 7 of. C.P..5. 6.9. 
8 ueydAa conj. St.; weydAa Ald. H. 
® Made clearer C.P. 5. 6. 7. wa CF. &. 0. 




a / a 
"Evia 6€ Kal tois oxynpacw e€opo.odtar Kal 
al ' / S 
TOUS TOOLS’ 1) YaP TLKVA OpoLocyYHmeV yiveTat -€v 
eK a 3 / 
@ av TOF aryryeue. ; 
Kai Siapopav rAapBavet Kata Todls yupods 
/ ‘al ® 
éua mpoVepatevOevta TOV oTEpuLaT@V, olov TO 
Tov olxvou é€av év ydaraxte BpéEavtes otret- 
Ths Oeparreias. 
IV. Tévn dé trav pév éott mreiw TaV S ovK 
4 e > / / / / 
EOTLY, OLOV WKL{LOU AaTabouv BriTov Kapod mov 
> / > s / > / lA 
evl@pmou adpapatvos Kopravvov avyPov mnyydvou' 
7 X A > UA / 
ToUT@Y yap ov daca evar <yévous diadopay.> 
n Ve ¢ al € / i 4 
Tov 5é ott, padhavidos paddvou TevTALov oiKVOU 
KoXoKUYTNS KUpivou oKopodov Opidaxivns. Srat- 
al \ n 7 \ val c/s \ a 
povat O€ Tois Te HUAXOLS Kal Tals piCats Kal Tots 
Xpouace Kal Tois YuUAOis Kal Tois adXots Tots 
Oiov ths padhavisos <yévn KopwOiav Krewvaiav 
/ > / / > / \ 
AevoPaciav> auwpéav Borwtiav: evavEeotatny o€ 
\ / aA \ \ Lae4 ” / 
tThv Kopwiiav, ) Kat thy pifav eyes yup 
? val XN >? cea \ b] e cy , 
obeiTar yap eis TO dvw Kal OVX @S al ANrAaL KATO. 
\ \ , aA ” an , 
tHv € AevoPaciar, iv évior Kadodot Opaxiar, 

1 xal tots témos Ald.; xara tos témovs conj. W. cf. C.P. 
5. 6. 7. 

2 ayyelw... AauBaver om. UMPAId.; Siadopay dé kal Cam.; 
Tom: Siapépew d¢ cal H.; ayyelm conj. W. from C.P. 5. 6. 7; 
kat diapopay conj. Sch. cf. Geop. 12. 19. 6. 

8 cf. 7. 1.6; Geop. 12. 20. 3. 

4 After efva: there is a lacuna in UMAId.; Cam. supplies 
ryevous diapopay: Tay 5& dvdmadw wArclw yéevn ; H. has wAciw yevn 



Some things again come to resemble in their shape 
even the position! in which they grow: thus the 
bottle-gourd becomes like in shape to the vessel? in 
which it has been placed. 

Moreover differences in taste are acquired in some 
eases when the seed has been treated specially 
beforehand ; for instance, the seed of the cucumber 
produces a fruit with different taste if it is soaked ® 
in milk before sowing. But such matters belong 
perhaps more properly to the subject of cultivation. 

Of the various forms of some pot-herbs. 

IV. Of some herbs there are several kinds, but of 
others only one, as basil monk’s rhubarb blite cress 
rocket orach coriander dill rue; of each of these 
they say that there is* but one kind. But of others 
there is more than one, as radish cabbage beet 
cucumber gourd cummin garlic lettuce. Differences 
are marked in the leaves, the root, the colour, the 
taste, and so forth. 

Thus of radish they recognise these various kinds 
—the Corinthian, that of Cleonae, the Leiothasian, 
amorea, the Boeotian. The Corinthian is said to 
be the strongest in growth, and it has an exposed 
root; for it pushes upwards, and not downwards like 
the others. The Leiothasian ® is called by some the 

ove yévous Siapopay: Tav St dvawadw wrelw yévn; Plin. 19. 123 
rather supports H. ? read as in H.: ray 5& éor: is perhaps 
an attempt to fill the lacuna. 

5 cf. Plin. 19. 75 and 76, who gives a kind called viride in 
place of T.’s duwpéa: see below. After papavidos there is a 
lacuna in UMAId. (but U has thy 8 wdpay Bowwtlay). Text 
restored from Athen. 2. 48 (cf. Plin. /.c.). Cam.H.Bas. (also 
Vo. Vin.(?)) give substantially the same. 

6 The name suggests Thasos, off the Thracian coast. 

VOL, II. a 



\ a \ x 
ioyupotatny mpos Tovs Yerpavas. tHv dé Bor- 
/ / \ a / / 
> Lcd \ , / 4 é x 3 
ovxX woTep THY KrXewvatav paxpav. dowv 0 av 7; 
a 4 a ? 
Aela TA HUVAXA, YAUVKUTEpat Kal HOLoUS, dowry 8 av 

/ / LN a 
Tpayéa, Optpytepar. yévos O€ TL Tapa TadTa 
»” A ” \ UA > , ia e 
éotiv 0 exes TO HUAXOV Evfopm Omotov. pada- 
vidos méev ovv TadTa. 
Toyyuridos 5é€ of pév hacw eivat oi 8 ov 
pacw, ad\r\a Te appevt Kal TH Onreia Siadéperv 
@ dpp hy Onreta pee, 
, > A b] fal / ” 
yivecOar 5€ €x TOV avTod améppatos apydo. 
\ ‘ \ b] / 4, lal , 
mpos 6€ TO aTroOnrvvec Oar mHyvivar Seivy pavds: 
édy yap wuKvds, Tacas aTappevovalaL, TOY avTOV 
5é TpoTroy Kav év yh moxXOnpa orrapwHct Ov 6 Kal 

Tpos oTEeppatiapov petadhéepovtes PuTevovat Tas 
expvoes kal wraTeias. Eats S€ Kal TO oTéppa 
a \ a \ A , a \ 
TH Opes TO Xetpov Kal BérATLOV Pavepov* THs pev 
yap xXpynotis ertov ths b€ pwoxOnpas dédpov. 
yvetuatouevn Sé xYaiper Kal av’tn Kal 1) padavis: 
olovrat yap dua yAucaiverOai Te Kal Thy avenow 

> \ e/ / \ > > \ / 

els THY pifav TpétrecOat Kal OvK eis Ta PUAXA. 

tots € votiots Kal Tais eddiats exxavrc? Tax. 
a n na e 

TOUTO pev ovY AOyou OEiTaL THS Omotmoews ev 

> a S \ / 

apotv eivar Tas Stapopas. 

1 Diose, 2. 112 mentions a kind called by the Romans 
dpuopaxcov, Plin. 19. 82 has armoracia and says that this 
was called armon in Pontus ; Sch. suggests that the latter 
name may have given rise to both armoracia and auwpéa, 

2 Plin. 18. 129, cf. 19. 75; Athen. 9, 7. 

3 rnyviva. The verb is used of planting seeds singly 5 cf. 
6.6.9; Fete Bp ies. 3, 



Thracian radish, and it stands the winter best. The 
Boeotian is said to be the sweetest and to be round 
in shape, not of a long shape like that of Cleonae. 
Those kinds whose leaves are smooth are sweeter 
and pleasanter to the taste, those whose leaves are 
rough have a somewhat sharp taste. Besides the 
above-mentioned kinds! there is yet another, whose 
leaves resemble those of rocket. These then are 
the different kinds of radish. 

Of the turnip? all do not agree that there are 
several kinds, but some say that the only difference 
is between the ‘male’ and the ‘female,’ and that 
both forms come from the same seed. In order 
to produce ‘ female’ plants it is said that the seed 
should be sown ® thinly, for that, if it is sown thick, 
the result is all ‘male’ plants; and that the same 
result follows if the seed is sown in poor soil. 
Wherefore, when they are shifting plants for 
seeding,* they plant the seedlings® wide apart.® 
Good and inferior seed can be easily distinguished 
by their appearance ; the seed of a good plant is fine, 
that of a poor one coarse. Both this plant and 
radish like exposure to winter; for it is supposed 
that this makes them sweeter and that they are 
thus made to grow roots rather than leaves. With 
a south wind and warm weather they run up quickly. 
It needs explanation that both plants should thus 
adapt ’ themselves in special ways. 

4 mpds omepuario dy con). W.; robs ay em Ald H. 
of. 7. 5. 3. 5 éxpioes: cf. 3. 3. 7 

6 xol wmAareias corrupt. Sdveornxvias (W. ) gives the required 
sense ; but there may be a loss of some words, mAartelas in- 
dicating that the object is to produce broader plants. cf. 
C.P. 5. 6. 9 and Sch.’s note. 

7 ris duomcews probably corrupt: no correction suggests 

- itself. 

a 2 


Tis be pagpavov TpLYn Scacpouperns, ovNo- 
purnov TE Kal Aevopvhrov Kal TpiTNS THS arypias, 
<1 arypia> TO pev pUAXOD & Exet Nelov [bk pov be Kab 
Tepupepes, TOAVKAASOS xa ToNpUANOS, ere be 
xuAov éxovea Spiwoy Kat pappaxedn, be 6 Kal 
T™pos Tas Kounias avT@ KP@vTac ob ‘arpot. opotws 
88 cab év éxetvars Soxodat diabopal Kal’ éExarépav: 
émrel domeppov TL yevos avT@Vv éoTW 1%) Kako- 
Tépa Kal peyaropurnorepa. 

Evxvdorepov be Kal TOV TEeVTrALwY 70 NevKOV 
TOU péNavos Kal ddLyooTTEppoTEpoY, 5 Kadovci 

‘Ocattas 5é cai TAS Opidaxivns: 7 yap evK2 
yAuKuTépa Kal atranwtépa. yévn dé avTis éotilv 
KavAov Kal tpitov To AakwviKov" arn dé TO pev 
pvrXov Ever oKohupades, opOn dé cal evavEns Kal 
amapdSraaros € €K TOU Kavnov. TOV be TAT ELOV 
ovT@ TWes TAaTUKAVADL YyivovTaL WoT éviouS 
gact Kal Ovpais xpho Gas knmoupiKais. TO O€ 
OTT @OES opodpa Kal puxpopvddrov Kal evKo- 

Téav dé cediveov Kal &v Tots pvrrous Kab év Tots 
Kavrots ai Siapopat: TO pev yap TUKVOV Kat 
ovAop Kal Sacv TO puAXov EXEL, TO € pavorepov 
Kal TAaTUTEPOV KavAOV 6é peifw. TOVT@Y 6 
mouxtrokavAa: TO & Grovy amav TO ToLOUTOY 
éudhepéstepov TO aypio. 

1 Athen. 9.9; Plin. 19, 80. 2 Wild radish. See Index. 


1Of cabbage three kinds are distinguished, the 
curly-leaved, the smooth-leaved, and thirdly, the 
wild form.? The wild form*® has a small round 
leaf, it has many branches and many leaves, and 
further a sharp medicinal taste ; wherefore physicians 
use it for the stomach. Between the other two 
kinds *¢ there seem also to be differences, inasmuch 
as one of them bears no seed or only inferior seed. 
In general the curly-leaved kind has a better flavour 
than the smooth and it has larger leaves. 

5So too with beet; the white kind has a better 
flavour than the black and produces fewer seeds ; 
some call it ‘ Sicilian’ beet. 

So too with lettuce; the white kind is sweeter 
and tenderer. Of this plant there are three other 
kisds,® the flat-stalked, the round-stalked, and the 
Laconian; the last-named has a leaf like the 
golden thistle,’ but is erect and strong-growing and 
has no side-shoots*® from the main stem. Of the 
‘flat’ kinds some have such flat stalks that some, 
they say, use them to make a garden trellis.2 The 
third kind, which has much milky juice and. small 
leaves and a whiter stem, is like a wild plant. 

10In celery the differences between the various 
kinds lie in the leaves and stem; one kind is close 
and curly and has rough leaves, the other is more 
open in growth and flatter, but has a larger stalk. 
Again there are kinds with stems white, red or parti- 
coloured ; and in general all such forms resemble 
more the wild kind. 

3 4 dypla add. W. 

4 éxelvats conj. Sch. from Plin. /.c.; ékeivm Ald. H, 

5 Athen. 9. 11; Plin. 19. 132. 

6 Plin. 19. 125. 7 Athen. 2. 79. Rafe Fo@e 4. 
9 ostiola olitoria Plin. 19. 125. 10 Plin, 19, 124, 



Luxvov Sé kal KoroxvyTns TOD pév elval act 
/ a a a 
yéevn ths 8 ovK eivat, KaOadrep THS padhavidos Kat 
a / > > > n > An / A \ 
THS yoyyvAtoos, GAN €v TO AVT@ yévet Tas pev 
, \ \ , a 4 
Bertious tas 5€ yelpovs. tod 5€ otxvov pia, 
Aaxevixoy cxvtadiav Borwtiov: tovtwv 8é o péev 
\ / 
Aaxwvikos si ste Bertiov, ot 8 report 

Avadéper 5é vévet Kal Ta Kpopva Kal Ta 
aKopoba. rciw dé Tov Kpouvov Ta yévn, olov 
\ \ \ , > 7 / / 
Ta KaTa TAS YoOpas émiKadovpeva Yapdia Kvidia 
LapoOpaxia, kal Tadd Ta oNnTdvia Kal oxXLoTA 
kai “Acxadovua. totvtav Sé Ta péev ontavia 
pixpa yruKéa b€ ed para, ta 5é cyiota Kal 
ackarovia kal tais Oepareiais Siadépovta Kal 
Sirov Ott TH hvoe TO yap oxXLoTOV TO pev 

an \ a / a a 
NELMOVL [ETA THS KOuNs E@ow apyov, awa O€ TO 
Apt Ta PUAAA Trepltatpodar Ta éEw Kal Ta ara 
Oeparrevovor tmeptarpeBévtmy dé Tav dvdAXwv 
’ ; \ oo y , > a 
érepa Bractdver kai dwa.nadtw oxifera, dv 3d 

a / e \ \ \ / 
Kadodat oxioTd. of S€ Kal dros dacl Tavtev 
Seiv, drrws 7) Stvapus eis TO KaT@ Kal [1 OTEP- 
pobun. tay Sé Ackadrovior idia tis 7 pious: 
pova yap <ov> oxXLoTa Kai WorrEp Gyova aro Tis 
ec? 4 be > > a > lal \ > 7 
pitns, ére b& év abtots avav&h Kai averidota: 

1 Athen. 3. 4; Plin. 19. 68. 

2 Plin. 19. 101-104. 

$ Sdpd.a conj. Meurs. from Plin. /.c. ; yapdia Ald, H. 

4 7.e. making offsets. 

5 "Ackadoévia, whence Eng. shallot ; though this name is 
applied to x. cxirrdr. 8 7d add. W. 



As to cucumber and gourd, it is said that 
there are various forms of the former, but of the 
latter, just as in radish and turnip, the differences 
are only between better and inferior individuals. 
1QOf the cucumber there are three forms, the 
Laconian the cudgel-shaped and the Boeotian. Of 
these the Laconian is better with moisture, the 
others without it. 

2 There are also various kinds of onion and of 
garlic; those of the onion are the more numerous, 
for instance, those called after their localities 
Sardian,? Cnidian, Samothracian; and again the 
‘annual’ the ‘divided’* (shallot) and that of 
Asealon.® Of these the annual kind is small but 
very sweet, while the divided and the Ascalonian 
differ plainly as to their character as well as in 
respect of their cultivation. For the ‘divided’ ® 
kind they leave untended in winter with its foliage,’ 
but in spring they strip off§ the outside leaves and 
tend the plant in other ways; when the leaves 
are stripped off, others grow, and at the same 
time division takes place under ground, which is 
the reason of the name ‘divided.’® Some indeed 
say that all kinds should be thus treated, in 
order that the force of the plant may be directed 
downwards and it may not go to seed. The 
Ascalonian kind has a somewhat peculiar character ; 
it is the only kind which does not?° divide and 
which does not, as it were, reproduce itself from 
the root; moreover in the plant!" itself there is no 
power of increasing and multiplying; wherefore 

7 «duns @@ow conj. Scal.; korunoéws UMP,Ald, 

8 mepiatpovo. conj. Scal. from Plin. /.c, and G3; mepid-youor 

P, Ald. H. 9 of. Pall. 3. 24. 3. 
10 od add, Seal, 11 j,e. the part above ground. 





Sc: 6 Kal od mnyviovew adda oTelpovew avTa 
\ , sppt th \ A ore ' 9n> 
Kal omelpovow owe mpos TO ap, ei Sta 
Bractnon petadvtevovor terevodTar b€ ovTw 
/ ¢ > vd a 7 x \ 4 
taxéws Wo Gua Tos addOLS 7 Kal TpOTEpoY 
a \ , / A 
éEapeiobar: mréova dé xpovov éeabeyta év TH 
n , s 3 \ 247 \ 
yn onmeta: putevlevTa oe KavAov adinot Kai 
a / 
oméppa pvet fovov, ETA KEVOUTAL Kal avaiveTat. 
UA > + ‘ a“ , ] b] A 
Avapeper o evi Kal Tos Xpopnacw: ey loo 
\ > o ny > 
yap Ta pev Ara Gpmota ToOis AdXoLs, NevKA OE 
/ A lal / / ¢ n 
ahodpa Th xpod: hépew 5é hdacw byora Tois 
a by / Vee 7 € n n . 
Lapoiavois. iswwtatn bé y hvows } TOV Kpyntixor, 
\ n 
maparAnotia O€ TpoTov Twa Tols ’AcKanroviots, €f 
pn dpa cal) avtn. év Kpyrn yap éoti te yévos 
& omerpopevov pev pilav moet huTevopevov 6é 
\ \ / \ be > y A 
na A a \ rn 
dé. TO YUL@? TOdTO yap olovy avaTradw éyeL Tos 
7 vA \ / \ / 
dddols. aravta yap whyvipeva Kal Berio 
a \ 

Kal OadtTov twapayivetar. wdavta Oé duTeverat 
pet “Apxtovpov étt Oepuns ovons THs yijs, Oras 
\ e/ f / 1 
Ta voaTa TwehuTevpéva KaTadapBavyn. Kal dra 

/ \ \ 
dé dhuteveras Kat Stateuvopeva Tapa THY Kepa- 
Anv. ovy bmorar Sé ai éexBracTHoELS, AAN ex 
pev Too KaTwM yiveTat Kpomvor, EK 6€ TOD avo 

1 gynyviover: cf. 7.4. 2n. The word evidently has a dif- 
ferent sense here; cf. § 10, where ryyviw and dutedw seem to 
be synonymous. 

2 otrw conj. Sch. from G; rom %AAos Ald. 

2 z.e. instead of being raised from seed. cf. what is said 
7. 2. 2 of the offsets of yhOvor, 



many do not plant! these, but raise them from 
seed; and the sowing is made late, towards the 
spring; and then, when the seed has germinated, 
they transplant. And the plant arrives at maturity 
so? fast that it is taken up with the others or even 
earlier ; whereas, if it is left a longer time in the 
ground, it rots. If planted on the other hand,?® 
it sends up a stem and merely produces seed, and 
then shrivels up* and withers. Such then is the 
character of these. 

Some also shew differences in colour; thus at 
Issus® are found plants which in other respects 
resemble the others,® but which are extremely 
white in colour; and ‘they bear, ‘it is said, onions 
like those of Sardis. Most distinct however is 
the character of the Cretan kind, which resembles 
to some extent that of Ascalon, if indeed it be not 
the same. For in Crete there is a kind which when 
sown produces a root, but when planted produces 
a stem and seed but has no ‘head’;’ and it is 
sweet in flavour. This kind in fact has just the 
contrary character to the others; for they all 
grow better and faster when they are planted. 
All are planted ® after the rising of Arcturus while 
the earth is still warm, so that the rains may come 
upon them after planting. They are planted? 
either entire or else in sections made by cutting 
at the ‘head.’ The growth which results is not 
uniform; from the lower part comes an onion, 

4 kevodra: conj. St. from G exinaniuntur ; kawodrar Ald. 

5 “Igom conj. Sch. from G and Plin. l.c.; tow UM; vicw 
Ald. H. . 

6 &dAos conj. Sch.; Aevxots Ald. 7 Se. bulb. 

8 pureverat con]. Sch.; gvera: Ald. See next note. 
9 guteverac M; pverat Ald. cf. C.P. 1. 4. 5. 





xron povov’ op ov dé Siat pun bev dros aBraorés 
eoTL. TO be YnTELov | KaNovpevov aKéparov TL Kal 
Gomep avxeva pa. pov éxyov, d0ev Kal n Braornows 
aK pa’ Kal émixeiperat TONNAKLS, Gomep TO mpa- 
Top; 0 6 Kal omeipovow avo Kal ov putevovar. 
Ta wev OV KpomVA aYEdOY TaUTAS EXEL Tas iSéas. 

To be a Kopodov pureverar pep px pov po 
TpoT ay 1) pera TpoTras Scarpovpevov Kata yeyets. 
Sagopa 5é éorw avT ay Ho TE TOV ovrioy ™ pos 
Ta Tpwia: syévos yap Te TUyxaver ToLOUTOY 0 év 
éEnxovra npwepas Tenreloorat, kal peyéOer Kal 
pix poTnte. Kal T@ peryebet yevos TL Sead opov 
eat, pdduara, dé To Kémpuov Kaovpevov ToLovTOV, 
omep ovyx eyodow aXXAA Mpos TovS pUTT@TOUS 
Xpavr ar, Kal év TH Tpirper Gavpacrov Trovet TOV 
évia Tas ryényers. 1) O€ YAUKUTNS Kal DF evodia 
Kal um adpotns ayedov Tapa Tas xopas ylverat 
Kal Tas Gepareias, aomep Kal TOV A\N@V. TEXEL- 
ovTaL dé Kal a6 oT EpMaTos ara Bpadéws: TO 
T POT W yap éret Keparnv nrALKnY mpacov hap- 
Bavet, TOO baTepov yedyoodrar, Kal 7@ TpIT@ 
TéheLov yiveTat, Kal ovdep xetpov arr’ éEvot yé 
Kal Kawov pace TOU THKTOD. THs O€ pins y} 
yeveres ovx opoia TOU TE oKopodou Kal TOU 
Kpopvov' GANA TOD bev cKoposou 6 étav avoidnon 

n yedyis KupToUTaL Tao Kal evradba avinbeioa 
beaipetras TaN eis TAS yedyers Kal €& évos Toa 
ryiveTat TO Teretova bat TH Kehanny, TO 6€ 

1 j,e. bulb; cf. 9. 11 6. Sef... 7. 2.2. 
3 Plin. 19, 111 and 112, 



from the upper only foliage; while, if the plant is 
divided vertically, no growth at all takes place. The 
kind called horn-onion has no ‘head,’ ! but has as 
it were a long neck, at the top of which comes the 
new growth ; it is often cut, like the leek; where- 
fore it is raised from seed and not planted.2 Such 
then, one may say, are the forms of the onion. 

8 Garlic is planted a little before or after the solstice, 
when it divides into cloves.*_ There are different kinds 
distinguished as late or early, for there is one kind 
which matures in® sixty days. There are also 
differences as to size. There is one kind which 
excels in size, especially that variety which is called 
Cyprian, which is not cooked but used for salads, 
and, when it is pounded up, it increases wondrously in 
bulk, making a foaming dressing. There is a further 
difference, in that some kinds cannot be divided into 
cloves. The sweetness of taste and smell and the 
vigour depend on the position ® and on cultivation, as 
with other herbs. Garlic reaches maturity from seed, 
but slowly, for in the first year it acquires a ‘head’ 
which is only as large as that of the leek, but in the 
next year it divides into cloves, and in the third is 
fully grown, and is not inferior, indeed some say it 
is superior, to the garlic which has been planted.’ 
The growth of the root in garlic and onion is not 
the same; in garlic, when the clove has swollen, the 
whole of it becomes convex’; then it increases and 
divides again into the cloves, and becomes several 
plants instead of one by the maturing of the ‘head,’ 

4 yéAyes conj. Scal. from G (nucleatim divisum) ; yérn Ald. 
5 § év conj. Sch.; 60ev UMAId. 

6 yépas conj. Dalec.; épas UMP, Ald. 

7 Sc. not raised from seed. 8 So W. renders. 



Kpomvov evOus ex THs pi&ns AXXO Kat Addo Tapa- 
/ / \ \ \ / \ / 
diner, Kabatrep kal BorPoi Kai oxida Kal TavTa 
a / 
Ta ToLavTa. Kal yap Ta Kpouva Kal Ta oKdpoda 
\ > 7 > > A \ / 
bn avalpovvT@y aXXN €@vT@v TONGA yiveTat. 
hépew 5€ act Kal TO cKkdpodoy eri THs Hvaryyos 
aKopoda Kal TO Kpopvov Kpomva: Trepl pev ovdv 
Tov yevécewr ixavas eipncb. 
V. Pirvipa O€ ravta Ta adda Adyava kal 
'd \ / a Abs of Ld 
piroxotpa wAIY THYaVvOV, TOUTO Oé HKLcTAa pido- 
kompov. Ta Yemepiva SE OvY HTTOV TAY DepiYar 
Kal Ta ériknpa TOV iaxupav. KOTpoy dé wadtoTa 
érrawodot THY cUppaTitiv, THY S€ TOY UTobuyiwV 
\ \ \ 4 > / n 
poxOnpay Oia TO padduoTta éEikudlecOar: Enrovar 
dé Tv KOTpov dua TO OTOP paddLCTA oVVAVA- 
a € \ \ e > / 
puxGcioav' ot S€ Kai oTreipovTes émiBdddovet: 
ypavTa, Sé Kal TH avOpwrivyn aun mpos THY 
yUAwow. idrvdpotepa Sé Ta YEeymepwa Tov 
Oepiwav Kai Ta acbevh TaV ioxupar, Ett bé Ta 
/ / a / \ \ 
TreiaTns Seopeva tpodns. dirvdpa Kai To 
Kpopvov Kal TO yHOvov: KaiTot hact Tives ov 
Enteiv, €av TO mpaTov éruyévntar Sis H Tpis. 
a be NO / yA \ / \ \ / 
Tav 5€ VddTwY apioTa Ta TOTLMA Kal Ta Wuypda, 
/ A A oe \ \ A > a \ 
yeiptota b€ Ta advKa Kal Suvopavh, dv” 6 Kal 
ék TOV OYETaVY OV YpnoTa ovpTEpipéper yap 
onéppata toas. ayaba bé€ ta éx dis: TadTa 

1 cf. 7. 2. 2 and 3. 

2 pvoryyos conj. Casaub. on Athen. 2. 78; opdpiyyos UM 
Ald. See LS ovovyé. 

3 kal rd Kpéuvov xpduva conj. Sch.; kal ra kpduuva UMAId. 

4 Plin, 19. 156. 



while the onion puts out another and another growth 
straight from the root, as do purse-tassels + and squill 
and all such plants. For both onions and garlic 
multiply if they are not removed but left alone. 
They say also that garlic produces garlic heads on 
the stalk,? and that the onion in like manner pro- 
duces onions. Let this suffice for an account of 
their ways of growth. 

Of the cultivation of pot-herbs ; manure and water. 

V. * All the pot-herbs are lovers of water and of 
dung, except rue, which does not at all like dung; 
this is true of the winter no less than of the summer 
herbs, and of the tender no less than of the strong 
ones. The dung which is most commended is that 
which is mixed with litter, while that of beasts of 
burden is held to be bad, because it is most apt to 
lose its moisture. Dung which is mixed with the 
seed is most in request, but some cast the manure 
on while they are sowing, and they also use fresh 
human dung as a liquid manure.® The winter crops 
like moisture more than the summer ones, and the 
weak more than the strong, as well as those which 
specially need feeding. Onion and long onion also 
love moisture, though some say that they do not 
require it, if at the outset it has been applied 
twice or thrice. °® Fresh cold water is the best, and 
the worst is that which is brackish and thick :? 
wherefore the water from irrigation ditches is not 
good, for it brings with it seeds of weeds. Rain 

5 Lit. ‘for their liquid-manuring.’ ef. C.P. 3. 9. 2, where 
xvAwois must have the same sense, 
6 Plin. 12. 182 and 183. 
7 Svouary7 UMAId.; dvouer9 H. 



val / 
yap Soxet kal POcipey ta Onpia [ywopueval ta 
yovua Kateciovta. act 5é tives odte Tois 
A. \ \ 
dé Ta pev AAA Tpwl %} Tpos EoTrépary, STra@s p71) 
, \ \ 4 x , \ 
Kabéyynta, TO 6€ OKLoVv Kal pweonuBpias’ Kai 
ca) / lal cal 
yap StaBdacTavew Oatrov hact Oepu@ TO Tp@ToV 
b / \ \ \ / e al 
apdevopevov. TO O€ TOAD Alay Bdwp SoKel cup- 
7 ” \ ~ Bh \ 4 / 
pépeww adrAws Te Kal é€av [un] Eyn Kompov: 
4 \ n \ / / \ al 
TOANAKLS Yap TeWhy Ta ANaxYava hact, kal TadTa 
/ nA nr 
yuwpive Tous éutrelpous TOY KNTTOUpaD. 
Meradutevopeva S€ Tavta Kadrio Kal peilo 
\ n 
ylveTal Kal yap Ta TOV Tpdowv peyeOn Kal Ta 
a e / > , / \ 
Tov padavidov éx petaduTéias. padwota 6e 
petadutevovet mpos Tovs omTEeppaTicpovs: Kal 
Ta pev adda Uropévet, olov ynOvov mpacov 
pahavos aixvos cédwvov yoyyvAls Opidak, <Ta 
dé> yNioxpws. aravta 8 evav&éctepa Kal peilo 
a / . 
Onpia dé yivetac tais pév pagavior Wvrrat, 
7H S€ pahave Kara: Kal cx@AnKes, Kal ev TH 
/ \ > a / \ > ” \ 
Opisaxivyn Kal év tots Tpdcows Kal év aAXows Se 
TAcloolwv ai mpacoKxoupioes. TavTas pmev ovv 1) 
KpaoTis GOpoicOcioa atroddvet Kal STAY KOTpOsS 


1 yivdmeva Ta yovipa H.; ywdueva yévipa UMAId.; ? ra 7d 
yéviua. Either yivd pera, or ydéviyua seems to be due to ditto- 
graphy. For yoviwa cf. C.P. 1. 15. 1: ras youluous & apxas. 

2 «adéynra conj. Sch. after Plin. Lc.3 Kabaynra P,Ald. 

3 xn Kémpov conj. Dalec.; uy ext, és Ald,; peréxn xémpou 
conj. W. ef. 7. 5. 1, xvAwow; C.P. 3. 9. 2. 

4 Plin. 19. 183. 



water is good, for it also appears to destroy the pests 
which devour the young plants.! Some however say 
that rain-water is not good for melons nor for 
onions. Most herbs are watered in early morning 
or at evening, so that they may not be dried up? 
but basil is watered even at noon, for it is said that 
it grows more quickly if it is watered at first with 
warm water. In general water seems to be extremely 
beneficial, especially if it is mixed with dung®; for, 
they say, pot-herbs often are hungry, and experienced 
gardeners can recognise when this is so. 

4 All herbs grow finer and larger if transplanted ; 
for even the size of leeks and radishes depends on 
transplantation. Transplanting is done especially in 
view of collecting seed®: and, while most herbs 
bear it well, as long onion leek cabbage cucumber 
celery turnip lettuce, others bear it less well.® All 
however make better growth and are larger if the 
seed is planted ’ rather than scattered. 

Of the pests which infest pot-herbs. 

SAs for pests,—radish is attacked by spiders,’ 
cabbage by caterpillars and grubs, while in lettuce, 
leek, and many other herbs occur ‘leek-cutters.’ 1° 
These are destr oyed by collecting green fodder," or 
when they have been caught somewhere in a mass 

. omEpuaric nods conj. Scal.; omepuariKods UMAId. ef. 7 

8 +a 5€ yAloxpws con). Sch., adding ra dé; Wye ony U; 
yAtoxpor M; yAloxpos Ald.; “gh pcoor conj. Seal. Sch. also 
conjectures a Aloxpa: see LS. 8.0, 

7 anyvupevwv: cf. 6. 6.9; 7. 4. 3. 8 Plin. 19. 177. 

® Ara: cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 39. 1. 

10 rpacoxovpioes: ? leaf-maggots. ef. Arist. H.A. 5. 19. 20; 
Geop. 12. 9. 

1 xKpdotis conj. R. Const.; xpaors Ald, 



abpoa tov KataraBy hiroxorpov & dv To Onpiov 
avadvetal Kal évddca Kowpatar év TH KOTpO, Ov 
A 67; e LO é / 7 8 > ” a 
0 0n padLtov Onpevetv' AXrAWS O OVK EOTL. TAiS 

\ ¢ a \ 

dé papavicot mpos tas WvdAdas Tpdcdopov To 
émiotreipewy opoBous.  mpos b€ TO pn ylvecOaL 

4 ” J / > / x ‘ 
Wirras ov ghacw eivar dadpyaxov ovdév. wo 
5é 76 dotpov WKipmov ev AevKAaiveTaL Kopiavvov bE 
e a \ \ i / \ 4 
apa. | Ta pey ody cupBaivovta Sid TovTev 

Tav o€ orepudtav ta pév éotw ioxvpotepa 
ta d€ acbevéotepa mpos Svamovnv: iaxupotepa 
pev olov Kopiavvoy TevTALOV Tpdcov Kapdapov 

cal 7 / e n \ / / 
varru evfwpov OUp8pa, amrOs Ta Spipéa TayTa* 
b] / \ / lal \ > b] / 
acbevéstepa Sé ynOvov, todTo yap ov ébére 
méverv, adpadaktus wKkimov KoXroKUVYTH GikvOS, 
aTrOS TA Oepwa ToV KELmEepaVv padrov. Sa- 

/ \ Oe / / 7 A e 4 
péver S€ ovdev Tr€OY TeTTAdpwY eTOY WoTE ETL 
XpHnolwov Elva Tpos TOs oTOpoUsS* AAAA biéva 

\ / \ be / Oe / \ b] 
pev Bertiw, Ta Oé€ TpLéva ovdév yYelpw, TO 8 
brrepTeivov Hon KEtpov. 

II pos S€ THY wayerpixny ypelav él TrEiw S1a- 

1 Kémpos GOpda mov katadaBn Ald.; xdémpov dOpdav mod tis 
kataBdAn con]. W. after Sch.; «éapov &0péav conj. Scal. 

2 pirdskompoy dy Td Onpiov avadtera Kal évdica conj. W.; 
pirdmovoy Td Ohpiov avadeverar Kal éy ais komarat UMAId.; 
glruvmvov conj. R. Const., but W.’s conj. is confirmed by 
Geop. l.c. The change of gender in évdtcq is strange. 

3 mpds Tas WUAAaS Tpdcpopov Td mBas.; WAAas mpds 7d Ald. 
H.; mpds tas WAAas &pket Td conj. W. 

4 wiadas Ald.; xawras conj. Sch. followed by W. 

5 of. Geop. 12.7; Pall. 1. 35, 8; Plin. dc. 



of dung,! the pest being fond of dung emerges, and, 
having entered the heap, remains dormant there ?; 
wherefore it is then easy to catch, which otherwise 
itis not. To protect® radishes against spiders * it is 
of use to sow vetch® among the crop; to prevent 
the spiders from being engendered they say that 
there is no specific. © Basil turns pale about the 
rising of the dog-star, and coriander becomes 
mildewed.? In these instances we may observe 
the accidents which occur to pot-herbs. 

Of the time for which seed of pot-herbs can be kept. 

8 Of seeds some have more vitality than others as 
to keeping; among the more vigorous ones are 
coriander beet leek cress mustard rocket savory, 
and in general ® those of ‘pungent taste; among the 
less vigorous are long onion—which will not keep 
—orach basil gourd cucumber; and in general the 
summer herbs keep less well than the winter ones. 
No seed will keep more than four years so as still 
to be of use for sowing; though it is better in the 
second year,!°in some cases it does not deteriorate in 
three years, but after that time!” deterioration 

However for cooking purposes seed will keep a a 

6 Plin. 19. 176. 

7 GAwa conj.W.; a@daua: MAId.; adamalvera: Vo. Vin.; adAuarau 
mBas. cf. 8.10.1; C.P. 6.10.5. In all three places W. . 
introduces this word, comparing Ywpiav épvaiBar, etc. 

8 Plin. 19. 181. 

® awA@s conj. St. from G; &AAws Ald.; &Aws U. 

0 S:€éva conj. Seal.; 5? éva UMAId.H. 

1 +a dé tTpreva conj.W.; 5a Se tpe?ts UMAId.H. 

12 Srepreivov conj. Scal.; ef. 8. 11.5; strep yaiov UMAId.; 

bmepBatvoy H. 


VOL. Il. H 


pevet, TWANV acbevéotepa TadTa avayKaiov eivat 

da THY avaTvonY Kal THY GK@AnK@CLY. Oopa 
dé wddiota péev UTO TOV Onpiwv: yiyveTat yap év 
anact kal Tots Sptpéorv, Hxrota S€ €v TO TLKVOVL 

> \ > \ \ >? / \ / an 
ov pny adrra Kal e&txualomeva TiKpa yiveTat TH 
yevoet, du’ 0 Kal pos THY YpEelay YEipao. Kat 

, € a > 7 
— pévav txavas eipnaba. 

VI. Ilept 5€ tay aypiov Kat TOV Kadovpévov 
apoupaiwy tretpatéov omoiws eiteiv. Tuyyaver Sé 
TA pev OM@OVULA TOs Huépols’ ATraYTAa yap éoTL 
Ta yévn TAaDTA Kai aypla, Kal oYESOV Ta YE TOAAG 
mapatAnciav &xovTa THY driv Tots HuEépous, TAY 
Kal Tots KaVAOLs Kal wadLoTA ToOis YUAOIS SptmU- 
Tepa Kal taxupoTepa, Kabdtrep Te OvuBpa Kal 
% dpiyavos } Te padavos Kal TO THYyavov" érrel 
Kal TO AaTrabov AypLov, KalTrEep Evo TOMM@TEPOV TOU 
nuépov ov, Tov yurov Guws o€VTEpoy Eyer Kal 
TOUT@ padioTa Siadéper. tavta b€é Kai Enpotepa 
TOV Huepwov, Kal lows AVT@ TOVT@ TA YE TOANA 
Kal Spimvtepa Kal ioxupoTepa. 

"Ildtws 6€ 7 padpavos eyes Tapa Ta adr TOVS 
KavAovs TrepipeperTépous Kal AEeLoTEpous THS 1)ué- 

1 7.e. drying-up ; ¢f. Plat. Tim. 85 A. 

2 oxwrAhkwow conj. Sch.; xkédavow Ald.; ocxwAhenow conj. 
R. Const. : 

3 oixvavi Ald.: perhaps here a general term for cucumbers, 

gourds, etc.; oixvav M; ont conj. W. 
4 Plin. 19. 185. 



longer time, except that such seed must necessarily 
become less vigorous by reason of ‘evaporation’! 
and destruction by worms.? The chief cause of loss 
is vermin; for vermin occur in all the seeds, even 
those which are pungent, though least in the gourd ® 
tribe ; such seeds however, as they lose their moisture, 
become bitter in taste and inferior for use. Let 
this suffice for an account of the seeds and in general 
of herbs cultivated in gardens. 

Of uncultivated herbs: the wild forms of pot-herbs. 

VI. 4 We must now endeavour to speak in the same 
way of the wild kinds and of those which are called 
uncultivated herbs. Some of these have the same 
names as the cultivated ® kinds; for all these kinds 
exist also in a wild form, and most of them resemble 
the cultivated kinds in appearance, except that in 
the wild forms the leaves and also the stalks are 
smaller and rougher, and in particular these forms 
are more pungent and stronger in taste, for instance, 
savory © marjoram cabbage and rue; the wild monk’s 
rhubarb (dock) indeed, though it has a pleasanter 
taste than the cultivated, yet has? a sharper flavour ; 
and this is tlhe chief difference. Moreover all the 
wild kinds are less juicy than the cultivated, and 
perhaps this is the very reason why most® of them 
are more pungent and stronger. 

A peculiarity of ‘wild cabbage’ as compared with 
the others is that its stems are rounder and smoother 

5 juépors conj. Sch.; eipnuévors Ald. The correction would 
seem unnecessary but that Ald. gives eipnuévois in §4 where 
nuépous is required. § ef. Diose. 3. 37. 

7 bv, Tov I conj. ; Tov 5 MSS. W. 

8 ye conj. Sch.; re UMAId. 



\ A UA / b , \ 
pov, Kat tiv tod dvAXNoV Tpocbeow Exelvn peEV 
éxyer TAaTEelav avTn O€ mepipepertépay, Kal avTO 

\ \ 4 > , > \ / UA 
dé TO PvAXOV aywvoTepov’ érel Ta ye ada 
‘H be \ 7 \ e?/ ” \ \ 
é yoyyuvAls Kal thy pifav exer waxpav Kal 
e , \ \ \ rf 
papavidadn kal Tov Kavrov Bpaxdv. 
/ / a 
Opidaxivn 5é to Te PvAAOV BpaxvTepov Tis 
npépov, Kal TeAcoumevns axavOodTaL, Kal Tov 
\ ec / \ > \ be Py \ \ 
Kavrov opmolws, Tov omov Sé Spimdv Kal dappa- 
, / Sale a 5) , ous 3 ; 
Koon. gvetar & ev tais apovpais: omifovar 6 
\ \ / / la 
QUTHY UTO TUpAaUNTOV, Kal pact KaOaiperv Udpwrra 
\ J \ > ’ b] a) J / \ A 
Kal aydvw an’ op0arpov atayew Kal apyeua 
adatpety év yadaxte yuvatkeio. : 
To & immocédwov kai éderocéduvov Kal dpeo- 
UA \ \ ec \ \ yg \ \ 
aédvov Kal Tpos éauvTa Stadopay exer Kal Tpos 
TO HmEpov' TO pev yap éAELovEeALVOY TO Tapa TOUS 
> \ \ b n vs 4 , , 
OXETOUS Kal EV TOIS EXeoL HuYopevoy wavodvAXov 
\ n 
Te Kal ov dacd yivetat, Tpocempepes OE Tas TO 
, \ A 3 an \ an A \ lal / 
* » ¢ / / \ > \ n 
pate. TO & immocédvov dvrAXov péev Ewphepes TO 
> , \ \ \ / \ \ 
éNevoceAiv@, Sacv dé Kal peyadoKavroy Kal THY 
Fd ev c \ ” \ / f 
pilav womep padavis exer TO TaxXos méNawwar: 
L \ Aare , L St a OY: 
pédas 6€ Kal o Kaptros, péyeBos Se petfov opoPov. 
xenoia & audw pact mpos otpayyoupiav eivat 
év olvm yAuKEl NEUK@ Kal Tots ALOi@ow PveTat dé 

1 rpaxvrepa conj. Sch.; tpaxvrepoy Ald., which contradicts 
what has just been said. 

2 Plin. 20. 20; Diose. 2. 110. 

3 reAcouuevns conj. W.; TeAcovmevos U; redAeoduevoy P,Ald. 
cf. O.P. 4. 3. 5. 



than in the cultivated kind, and, while in the latter 
the attachment of the leaf is flat, in the wild kind 
it is rounder, and the leaf itself has less angles; in 
other cases the wild form is the rougher?! both in 
stem and leaf. 

* The wild turnip has a long root, like that of the 
radish, and a short stem. 

The wild lettuce has a shorter leaf than the 
cultivated kind, and, as the plant matures,? it 
becomes spinous; the stem is also shorter, while the 
juice is pungent and medicinal. It grows in fields ; 
they extract its juice at the time of wheat-harvest, 
and it is said that it purges away dropsy and takes 
away dimness of sight and removes ulcers* on the 
eye; for which purpose it is administered in human 

5¢« Horse-celery’ (alexanders) ‘marsh-celery’ and 
‘mountain-celery’ (parsley) differ both from one 
another and from the cultivated kind ; ‘ marsh-celery,’ 
which grows by irrigation-ditches and in marshes, 
has scanty leaves,’ and is not of close habit, ‘yet it 
somewhat resembles the cultivated kind in smell 
taste and appearance. ‘ Horse-celery’ has a leaf 
like that of the marsh kind, but is of close habit 
and has a big stalk, and its root is as thick as a 
radish and black; &the fruit is also black, and in 
size is larger than the seed of a vetch. They say 
that both kinds are serviceable in cases of strangury 
and for those suffering from stone, being adminis- 
tered in sweet white wine. Both kinds grow equally ® 

49. 9.5; Plin. 20. 58; Diosc. 2. 136. 

5 Plin. 19, 124. 
® uavédpvddAov: Plin, 7.c. seems to have read povdpvadov. 
7 Diose. 3. 64. 8 Diose. 3. 67. 

® éuoiws conj. Sch.; Suws Ald, 



Opotws Tavtaxyod: yivetar 5é Kai te Sdxpvov é& 
avtod buovov TH wvppa: ot Sé hacw Oras pvppar. 

To dé dpeooédwvov peifous ett Siadopas exer TO 
pev yap dvdrXov éotxe Kwveiw, pila dé Aer, TOV 
dé xaprov éyer xabdrep avndov mrAnV édrXaTTw: 
d:ddact 5é tovTov év olvm avoTnp® TaV yuVal- 
Kelwv Yapw. 

"Evia b€ ddws aovpRBrynTa Tots Hyépots orl 
KaTa ye TOUS KYUAOVSs Kal Tas SuVadpuELs, WoTEP 
aixvos 6 Te aypios Kal O Muepos, AAN ex Tihs 
mpoaowews ever THY OpoloTnTa, KaBdTeEp Kal év 
Tois oTepavapacw % iwvia’ TO yap PidXrov exer 

VII. Tév Sé dpovpaiwy Neyouévwv peta Tadra 
pntéov, Kal ddws el TL Tovmdés Eat 6 fi) TYY- 
yaver Spwrov. Kadovdmev yap Adxava TA Tpds 
Tiv huetépav xpeiav: év d€ TH Kal Srov Kaxeiva 
meplexetat, de’ 6 Kal tepl éxeivwv NexTéov. a- 
yava pev 52) Kat Ta TovadTa KadeiTaL, KLYopy 
antamrn xovdpuvrrga vroyxoupls npiyépwv, Kal drws 

1 7: conj. Sch.; 7d Ald. cf. 9. 1. 4. 

2 grws P,Bas.; dws Ald.; ? awAa@s W. 

3 kwvelw conj. Sch.; corte Ald. ef. 1. 5. 3n. 

4 «apmrdoy conj. Cornarius on Diose. 3. 67. and Dalec.; kavady 
UMAId. ef. Diose. /.c. 

5 juépos H.; eipnuevois UMAId. ef. 7. 6. 1 n. 

6 See Index, cixvos. 

? ¢.e. which gives them a common name. 

8 ef ri moiwdes cot H.; eyyeito@des U; eyyeirmoiadés ear: 



everywhere. There is also a sort! of gum which 
exudes from the plant, like myrrh, and some say that 
it 7s ? myrrh. 

‘ Mountain-celery ’ (parsley) exhibits even greater 
differences; its leaf is like that of hemlock,*® the 
root is slender, and the fruit’ like that of dill, but 
smaller; it is given in dry wine for diseases of 
women, . 

In some cases however the wild kinds are not in 
the least like the cultivated ° in taste and properties ; 
thus the wild and the cultivated cucumber ® are quite 
different, and their resemblance’ is due only to their 
general look, as, among coronary plants, there is 
resemblance between the wild and the cultivated 
kinds of gilliflower; for the leaves are alike. We 
have then described the differences which these 
plants present. 

Of other uncultivated herbs, which may be classed with pot-herbs. 

VII. Next we must speak of the differences found 
in the herbs called ‘ uncultivated,’ and in general in 
any herbaceous plants * which are not edible. For 
we give the name of ‘ pot-herbs’ to those which are 
cultivated for our own use, but in a wider sense the 
term includes these also; wherefore we must speak 
of them too. *Under the name ‘pot-herbs’ are 
included also!’ such plants as chicory dandelion! 
khondrylla? cat’s ear groundsel, and in general all 

® Plin. 21. 89, 10 kal add. Scal. 

1 &mdan (or amdrn) conj. Sch.; agdxn Ald. The latter is a 
leguminous plant mentioned 8. 5. 3, etc.: for adn ef. 6. 4, 8; 
7. 8. 3; 7. 11. 3; for spelling see notes on the last two 

12 ydvSpvAda conj. Salm. from Plin. /.c., ef. 7. 11. 4.n.; ay- 
Spvada Ald.G. ef, Plin, 21. 105; Diose. 2. 133, 





doa Kixoplodn Kaneirar dua THY omovornra TOV 
pudrov" TavTa yap Tes éupeph exer TO KuX opto" 
Tad KavKanris &vOpucKov mOvoc pov. ol Oe pupta 
avXa KaXovowr, oKavok Kal dca dAXNa TOLadTA 
oKavdixaon, TpAYOT.AYyoD, o dé KOpNY Kahovow, 
O Thy per pilav ever pakpav Kal yRucetay Ta be 
purra TO KpoK@ Gpola | TY Haxporepa, TOV 
kavdov be Bpaxvr, ep ov THY KANUKG peryahny 
Kal €& aK pou péyav TOV TamT7ToOV TOALOY, ap’ ou 
KANELT AL TparyoT Myo. 

‘Opoiws dé kal doa adda TowavTas pev idéas 
éxel Tovs dé yurovs edw@dipous 7) 7) @WLOvs 7) Epbous: 
évia yap detrar TUPOT EOS, domep HaraXN | Kal 
TEVTALS Kal TO AaTradov Kal 1 aKarugn Kal TO 
mapOeviov™ TOV be oT puxvov Kal @mov eo Diovow, 
ov Kal EVI TEUTOV TWES TPOTEPOV «.. « Kal erepa 
dé melo TOUTOD, év ois Kal o maporpratouevos 
éote Sua TUKPOTNTA KOpXOpOS EX@V TO pudov 
OKLAOES. Tayra bé Ta pev éméreva Ta O€ érre- 
TELOKAVAA TUYKavEL' ra bev yap éEavaivovtar 
TOV O€ Stapévovaw els TrEelw Xpovov ai pitar 
oxedor 6€ ov« eharre Ta ToLadTa éoTt. 

Dvera be Ta pev Kab aro TOV puSav Kal amo 
TOV oTEepuaToVv, Ta O€ ETEepa povoy aTO oTrép- 

1 gadeirat conj. Sch.; ratra Ald. 

2 gvOpvonov : Sch. conjectured évOpvcxos, form corrected by 
L.Dindorf ; év@overwdy Ald.G. ef. Plin. 22. 81. 

3 Plin. OF. 142; Diosc. 2. 138. 

4 KaAvé: cf. 8. 2. 4; 8. 4. 3. 

5 admmov conj. W.; maynrdy UMAId. ; maywva H., ef. Diose. 
l.c., where Saracenus corrects kapros to wdrmos. 

G a yaeras (sc. herbaceous) PmBas.; roiatra ras Ald.; ras 
avras conj. W. 



those that are called! ‘ chicory-like ’ because of the 
resemblance in the leaves; for to a certain extent 
the leaves of all these are like those of chicory ; and 
we may add kaukalis chervil? green mint. Some 
include under the name countless others, as wild 
chervil and all plants that resemble it, and goat’s 
beard,? which some call kome (‘hair’), which has a 
long sweet root and leaves like those of the crocus, 
ut longer, and a short stem, on which is set the 
sheath 4; this is large, and on the top is the large 
mass of grey pappus,° from which it gets its name of 
‘ goat’s beard.’ 

In like manner all those may be included which 
have a similar ® appearance, but juices suitable for 
food whether raw or cooked; for some need the 
action of fire, as malakhe (cheese-flower) beet monk’s 
rhubarb nettle and bachelor’s buttons; while garden 
nightshade’ is also eaten raw, and some in former 
times® considered it worth growing in gardens. 
There are also many more, including the plant 
which has become proverbial ® for its bitterness, blue 
pimpernel, which has a leaf like basil. All these are 
either annual or have annual stems; for some of 
them wither away altogether in one season, while of 
others the roots persist for a longer time, and to this 
class belong the majority. 

Some of these plants grow from roots and also 
from seed—unless in some cases they come up 

7 ¢4.e. orpixvos 6 e5oSmos: cf. 7. 15. 4. The American 
‘ wonder-berry.’ 

8 mpdétepov Ald.; *xpérepoy Bas.; a@vduacay conj. W. Text 
probably defective. 

® «dpxopos ev Aaxdvos is the proverb. ef. Ar. Vesp. 239, 
Schol.; Plin. 21. 183, (=‘Is Saul also among the prophets ?’) 




95) ap \ es ER rd 
patos, eb pn TL Kal avTOpaTov. 1) dé BraoTHOLS 
TpoeTos vETois éoTL pET Lonpeplav, oloy amamTns 

a fal / 
Kal Tov KUYwTros Kal tv KaXodGL TiVes Bov- 
av O¢ peta [Idecad 6a l 
mpnotw, Tov Sé peta IIevdda, Kabdrep Kal Kexo- 
na ¥ lal a ‘ 
plov Kal oxeddv THY ANY TAY KLXOPLWSOY. Kai 
\ \ > \ e n / \ BA > / 
Ta pev EevOvs Apa TH BrYagTHCE TO avOos adinat, 
/ e > , \ AN > a / 
xkabarep 7) apia, Ta dé HaTEpov ov TOANG, Kabd-. 
TEP n aveworn, Ta Se dpc TO 7p Kat éxxavret 
kal avOet, kabatrep TO KiXOpLoy Kal TA KLYopLwdy 
Kal TOV akavOlKav boa haxavody, 
Avapopa 6é tav avOav todd, Tepi Hs év Tots 
MpoTepov eipntat’ ayedoyv yap éott KoLWOY aTray- 
4 \ \ vA > n 4 \ 
Tov éua b€ Kal Od\ws avavOy, KabaTep Kal TO 
, al A fal 
émritetpov. oupPaiver dé Tois awa TO KAVAO TO 
a a \ 
avOos aduciot Taxelav eivar THY aTavOnow> mrHV 
h pev amrdmn ynpadcavtos Tov mpwTov mad 
v \ LA 4 \ la a > 
adrXo Kal AXXO Tapapvel, KAL TOUTO TrOLet Trap 
lal \ wv a 
bXov TOV YELLa@va Kal TO éap aypL TOV Dépous. 
\ \ , EP oP / \ be + > 
ToNvy 5€ Ypovoy Kal Oo Npiyépwv. Ta O€ Ara ov 
motel TOTO, KaOdTEp OSE O KPOKOS OUTE O evoo- 
wv sy € \ 302° ce > 0 AyD) L e be 
pos ov o RevKos ov o axavOwdns: ovtor dé 
Oo [L0L. 
VIII. Kow dé duadopa travtav THY TroLwdav 
%) ToLade TA ev yap eat OpOdKaUra Kai vevpo- 

1 $¢ after TudTwy om. W. 
2 &rdans (or amdrns) conj. Sch.; adaxns U; addners MAId. 
of. 7.7. 1n.  Plin. l.c., however, has aphace. 
3 émlmetpov conj. Scal. from Plin. $33 émiwer pov UMAId.G, 
ef. Hesych. 4 xavag conj. Sch.; waprg@ UM AIG, 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, VII. vir. 3-vit. 1 

spontaneously. The growth alike of these! and of 
others takes place in some cases with the first rains 
after the equinox, for instance, dandelion? rib- 
grass and the plant which some call buprestis ; 
in other cases after the rising of the Pleiad, for 
instance, chicory and most of the plants of that 
class. Some produce their flower immediately at the 
time of making growth, as lesser celandine, some not 
long after, as anemone, while some as soon as spring 
- comes send up both their stems and flower, as chicory 
and the plants which resemble it, and those spinous 
plants which come under the head of pot-herbs. 

There is much difference in the flowers, of which 
we have spoken already ; for such difference is a thing 
common to all; and some are altogether flowerless, 
as stonecrop.2 Those which produce their flower 
with the stem* quickly shed the flower ; except that 
dandelion,® when the first flower is past its prime, 
produces another and yet another, and continues to 
do so right through the winter and spring up to the 
summer. Groundsel ® also blooms for a long time ; 
the others however do not do this; for instance the 
crocus does not, neither the scented (saffron crocus) 
nor the white nor the spinous kind,’—which last are 

Of the differences in stem and leaf found in all herbaceous 
VIII. A distinction which is found in all herbaceous 
plants alike is the following :—some have straight 
> aedan ynphoavros conj. W.; amnynpdoavtos U; amoynpd- 
cavros MAId.; apdnn aroynpdoayros H. ef. Plin. /.¢.; 7.7. In, 
6 cf. C.P. 1. 22. 4; Plin. 25. 106. 

7 See Index. This plant can only have been called xpéxos 
because it produced a yellow dye. 




Kavra, TA O€ EmuyeloKavra, KaBdTEp paddyy 
/ 5 / BA A \ be e / 4 
oxdvorE aixvos aypios’ TO b€ HALOTpOTLOY ert 
nr al A ? an 
5) , ¢ , \ape 4 \ 
axavOddeow ovow TpiBoros Kal 1) KadtTapis Kal 
+ / 
dAda Treiw Kal yap éxeivwr 1) Svadhopa Treéiov. 

SY \ / \ \ A 
évia 6€ TEeptadroKavra, wy Exovta 5é mod mpoc- 
mTéacwaot ériyeoKavra, Kabatep éretivyn Kal atra- 
/ A>. # Lal e e \ \ \ \ 
a / a 
kal paxpos, &’ 6 Kal dvovtat tadta ws éml Td 
a > M4 Z \ 67; \ e/ e 8 \ 
wav év addous' Kown 67 Kal aitn 4 Stadopa 
/ a a a 
TavT@V OV MovoOY TOY ToLwdav Kal dpvyaviKav 
b) \ \ a Q@ 80 . \ \ ¢ aN \ + 
anra Kal Tov Oapvwmddv: Kal yap 7 ENE Kal ert 
an ~ , 
MaXXov 4 outAaE TEpitadrOKavAoP. 
n lal \ 
"Ets 6€ kal TOV ToLwWo@V Ta Mev TOAVKAVAA TA 
dé wovoKavra’ Kal TOY povoKaUNoY TA MeV aTra- 
/ \ \ \ \ be . 
paSracta Kata Tov KavXov Ta O€ TapaBNacTIKa, 
Kkabdrep Kal év Tots tpépois } Te padarvis Kal 
/ fal a 
GaXN’ arta. modvKavra bé ws aTrAOS eitreivy Ta 
> / / be » Pree 4 . \ 
J / 4 be > / \ / 
opboxavra. Tovtwy 6€ amapdBracTa TA reLo- 

KavAa Kposvoy Tpdcov oKdpodov, WaTrEp Kal év 
a e / \ \ \ WeEe \ be , 
Tots Nmépors Kal TA pev EeVOUKaVAA Ta SE TKOALO- 
a / 

Kavra Kal Tovtav [Tols Apuépors | UTapyet. 
\ / \ 10 n a b 
Avaghopa é tis Kal Tordde TOV TOLwWdOY éoTL: 
Ta wev yap émuyecopurArAa Ta 6 émiKavrAOdvARrA 
A \ > > / > / 4 
Tuyxave. Ta 8 aphotépws. émuyevodudAdrAa pet 

1 émvyeddxavda conj. Cornarius; émeresdxavaa Ald. H. 
2 ef. 7. 15. 1; Diose, 4, 190 and 191; Plin, 22, 57, 



and fibrous stems, some prostrate stems,! as malakhe 
(cheese-flower) wild chervil ‘ wild cucumber’ (squirting 
cucumber) ; while helotropion ? has this character® to 
an even greater extent, and so, among spinous plants, 
have caltrop caper and several others ; for in these 
too the above-mentioned distinction is even more 
marked. Some again have clasping stems, but if 
they have nothing on which to throw themselves, 
their stems become prostrate, as epetine bedstraw and 
in general those which have a slender soft long stem ; 
wherefore these in general grow in the midst of 4 
other plants. This point of difference too is common 
not only to all herbaceous plants and under-shrubs, 
but also to shrubby ones ; for helix (ivy) has a clasping 
stem, and, still more, smilax. 

Again of herbaceous plants too some have several 
stems, some only one; and of the latter some have 
no side-shoots along the stem, while others have 
side-shoots, for instance, among cultivated plants 
radish and some others. Those with prostrate stems 
have generally more than one, while those with 
erect stems have but one or a few. Of these those 
with smooth stems have no side-shoots, as onion leek 
garlic—the wild, as well as the cultivated forms ; 
and of these 5 again some have straight, some crooked 

There is also the following point of difference in 
herbaceous plants :—some have their leaves on the 
ground, some on the stem, some have both characters. 
The following have ground leaves—crowsfoot ® the 

3 rowdrov conj. Sch. from G ; todtwy Ald. 

4 év; G seems to have read én’. 

5 rois huépos probably repeated by mistake from above. 
8 of. C.P. 2. 5. 4; Plin. 22. 48; Diosc. 2. 130. 



y Ul / 

Kopwvotrous avOewov adirAXavOes ayxyovoa Toa 
aveLovn arapyla apvoy\wooor amramn: émiKav- 
Nodvara Sé xpyntis avOenov TO PvdAAMSes N@TOS 

fw > / \ \ / \ \ : ae.” 
AevKdiov: audotépws Sé TO KLyOpLov' Kal yap eri 
TOV KaVAOY dma Tais exdhioect Tais axpepoviKais 
expver Te Kal avOos: Kal TOV PvdAdaKdvOan Evia, 

\ b , s a U e / 

TAnVY axavOm@bdect Komtoh, KaOaTEp 0 TOYKOS. 

IX. "Eott 5€ nal Ta pev axapra ta S€é Kadp- 
Tina. Kal dws TOV TOLwWo@V TA MEV AYpL TOV 
PvrAXrwv adixveitar, Ta 5é KavAOV Eyer Kal avOos 

\ \ BA \ \ \ \ ef 
Kaptrov € ov. Ta O€ Kal KapTrOV WaTEp TEAELO- 
TaTHV Paw, Et yn TL Kal avev TOV avOous KapTrO- 
hopov, woTep ert THY Sévdpov. 
Avadéper b€ Kal ta pidrAXra oyxedov ovK éXaTTO- 

\ a a 
gw addAa Treloor Siadopais Ta Tav Sévdpar 
Kal mpos avtTa dé éxeiva Siapopas exer’ peyioTnv 

> a 
[ev WS ELTTELY OTL TA LEV ATO polaxou TpoTTéepuUKE, 

\ \ > \ A e e A \ \ a 

ta 5€ alta pev @s aTAaS, Ta O€ KaUALKH TLV 

7 n lel 

mpocdice. Kal Tov pev év TH BYacTHOEL TpO- 
a € , a 

\ b] lal a / 

aoxedov Ev TH APY méeyloTa yivovTa: Kal waduoTa 

29 7 \ \ 4 a / a 

édHodyua: ta o€ éx tav dévdpwv tpowbe? Tia 


1 apvarAdavOes placed after &vOeuov by Sch.; in Ald. placed 
after dveudyyn. cf. 7. 14. 2; Plin. 21. 56. 

2 andan U; amdrn Ald. cf. 7. 7. In. 

3 ef. 1. 13. 1. and Index. 

4 éxpve tt eal MSS.; ? expder pdrdov Te kal W. 



anthemon whose flowers have no petals! (wild camo- 
mile) alkanet grass anemone hawk’s beard plantain 
dandelion ?; the following have leaves on the stem— 
ox-tongue the anihemon which has petalled flowers 3 
trefoil gilliflower; while chicory has both kinds of 
leaves ; for this plant produces,‘ as well as leaves, a 
certain number of flowers on the stems at the points 
where the side-shoots are attached. Similar too are 
some of the plants with spinous leaves, but not those 
that are altogether spinous, as sow-thistle. 

Of other differences seen in herbaceous plants in general, as 
compared with one another and with trees. 

IX. Again some are barren, while others bear 
fruit, and, speaking generally, of herbaceous plants 
some get as far as producing leaves only, others have 
a stem and flower, but no fruit; some again have 
fruit as the completion of their development, while 
some bear fruit even though they have no flower, as 
is the case with some trees. 

>The leaves of herbaceous plants again differ in 
hardly fewer, nay, even in more, ways than those 
of trees, and further, they present differences as 
compared with these, the chief being perhaps that 
some are attached by a leaf-stalk, some are attached 
directly, some attached with cauline appendages.® 
And in some herbaceous plants the stalk’ is the first 
part to grow, but in most the leaves, which almost 
at the outset grow to their largest and are best for 
eating ; whereas the leaves of trees always push out 
first a sort of stalk. 

5 Plin. 21. 100. 
6 i.e. petiolate, sessile, and decurrent respectively. 
7 6 kavaAds add. Sch. from G. 






n A 

Avadépovor b€ Kali tots avOeou modv: év pev 
yap tois dévdpect Ta ye TAEloTA evKA, TA OE 

\ > / \ be © \ ny) 
puxpov érritroppupifovta, Ta Sé Towdn Kal yOwWSn, 
Key pwopévov O¢ avOiwe <ovdév: év dé Tois TroLw- 
deat TOV aVOGV > TOAKAL Kal TavTObaTal xporal 
Kal aKkpatot Kal peutypéevar Kal evoopoe bn Kal 
doopot eiow. Kal Ta pev dévdpa tiv avOnow 

/ n 5 
aOpoav Troveitat, ToUT@Y 8 eva KaTa pépos, Wo- 

/ a a \ 
mep €déyOn Kal mept TOD wKipov, dv 0 Kal TOAD) 

f 5) fal , bY \ \ x 
xpovov avOet, xabamep aNNa TE TOAAA Kal TO 

y \ 

TloAXai b€ cal tov pilav Stadhopat Kat Tporrov 
Twa ai TovTwv havepwrepat cial yap ai pev 
Evrwddes ai 6€ capKobers Kal Wades, woTEp Kal 

an n , na 
TOV nucpov, KaSaTep at Te TOU GiToV Kal TIS 

/ a n 
Toas THS TWAEiaTNS. avTav O€ TovT@V ExacTaL 
TrELaTas éxovor Sitahopas ypopaciw dcpais xv- 
pots peyébeowv ai wev yap Neveal ai 5é pédawvat 
ai © épvOpai, cabdrrep } Te THs ayXovoNs Kai TOD 
b] /, ¢e DS. \ \ “ 
épevVedavou: at 8 @atep EavOal Kai Evroerdeis: 
cal yAuKelar 6€ Kal mixpal Kal Spipetar Kal 
evmders Kal Kak@bdels, Kal Eviar PappaKkwbels, ws 
év adXols EipnTat. 

Atagopal 5 kal tav capKkwmdav* ai pev yap 

oTpoyyvAat ai 6é€ mpounKes Kal Baravedecs, 
womep aopovérou Kal KpOKOU' Kal al ev eTTU- 

a n a / 
provers, WaTrEep 7 TOV BorBod Kal THS aKirArgNs Kal 
4 , \ / \ \ , \ 
doar BorX\Bwdes Kal Kpopvou 5é Kal ynOvov Kal 

a My eb Oe 

2 obdev. . . avOav add. Seal. from G (Kexpwopévar dé avOing 
modAal UMAId.) ; avg for av@ixg conj. W., who also added 
Trav aveav. See LS. avéivds. 



There is also much difference as to the flowers 
between herbaceous plants and trees; for in trees! 
most of the flowers are white, while some are slightly 
reddish, others are greenish or greenish-yellow, but 
none of them? have distinct gay colours; while in 
herbaceous plants the flowers shew many and various 
colours, both simple and in combination, and further, 
some of them are scented, others not. Again ® trees 
produce all their bloom at once, while some herba- 
ceous plants have a succession of flowers, as we said * 
of basil; wherefore it is in flower for a long period, 
as are many other herbs, such as heliotropion and 

There are also many differences in the roots, and, 
in a way, the differences in these are more obvious ; 
some are woody, some fleshy and fibrous, just as in 
the cultivated kinds, as are those of corn and most 
kinds of grass. Again the roots themselves exhibit 
in each case very many differences in colour smell 
taste and size ; some are white, some black, some red, 
as those of alkanet and madder ; some are yellowish,° 
or the colour of wood.® Again there are roots which 
are sweet, bitter, pungent, fragrant, evil-smelling ; 
and some are medicinal, as has been said elsewhere. 

There are also differences between those with 
fleshy roots; the roots of some are round, of some 
oblong and acorn-shaped, as those of asphodel and 
crocus ;/ some consist of several layers, as those of 
purse-tassels squill and others which belong to 
that class, onion long onion and _ others like 

3 Yoouo elow. kal ta wey conj.W.; &oopor. kal éviwv rd wry 
Ald.H. $7, 3.1. 
5 damep MSS.; mAciora: conj. W. 
8 tvrAoedets: of. 7. 3. 2. 7 of. 1. 6. 7; 6. 6. 10. 



id Py 4 e WAS a5 \ \ 
dca TovTols Guwoia. ai dé oparels Kal yra0upai 
kal paraxat dv drov Kal O@oTEp Aprotot, KaO aTrEp 

n a / 
TOU apov' ai dé ProLtovy EXovat TpOS TH oTapKt, 
Kkalatep 7 TOD KUKNapivou Kal THs yoyyuAt6os. 
ovy aracat & ai ev@ders 7) yAvKElaL 7) EVoTOMOL 

\ > R +99 c \ ” : > > 
«al éd@dipot, ovd ai muxpal ABpwtot adr boat 
> a fa 
aBraBels eiot TH TOpaTL peTA THY Tpochopar: 

\ a. 
éviat yap yAuKetar pev Oavdotpor bé Kal voowoers, 
e \ \ \ A , bd , 4 \ 
ai 5€ mixpal pev  Kaxdders @hédipmor 5é. TOV 

2% \ , \ UY em tty , , 
auTov O€ TpoToY Kai PUAXA Kal KavAol, KaBaTrep 

a b / \ n , \ \ 
Tov awWwO@iov Kxal tod Kevtavpiov. diadopa oe 
Kal Kata THY BraoTnow Kal Kata THY avOnow, 
olov apxomévov YEelm@vos Kal pecotyTos Kal 

/ lal 
Tad Hpos 7) Oépous 7) metoTmpov. Kal éml ToL 
a c e / a 
KapTO@Vv O€ omolws TO BpwrTors eivat Kal éyxvrous 
SF, \ / \ / \- (eo? Eee | 
eviols KAaL PUAAA KAL oTrEppaTa Kal pilas’ Kal EL 
a \ 
kat SpiymvTnte Kal yAuKUTHTL Kal adbotnpoTntt 
Kal Tats addats Tals TovavTais aTOS TE Kal 
\ \ a \ \ 9 \ > 
KATA TO paddXov. Tas pev ovv diadhopas év 
, \ \ \ ‘v4 id / 

X. Aun pnpevov Oe KaTa Tas w@pas éxdoToD 
mpos Te Tas BrAaoTHCELS Kal KATA Tas avOnoeLs 
Kal Tedet@oets TOV KapTO@V, ovdeY avaBAacTaveEL 
Tpo THs oiKelas wWpas ovTe TaV piCopuar ovUTE 
TOV oTepphopuav, GAN ExacTov avapéver THY 

1 «at conj. W.; 4 Ald. 
2 7G Bpwrovs elvar nat éyxvAous évlois conj. W.; 7d Bpwrd 
eivat kal kavdods elva: Ald.H. Text probably defective, 



these. Some are smooth loose and soft through- 
out, and, as it were, without ‘bark, as those of 
cuckoo-pint, while some have a ‘bark’ attached to 
the fleshy part, as those of cyclamen and turnip. 
And not all those that are fragrant or sweet or 
pleasant to the taste are also! edible, any more than 
all those that are bitter are uneatable ; any (whether 
sweet or bitter) that are harmless to the body after 
being eaten are edible ; for some that are sweet are 
deadly and dangerous to health, while some are 
beneficial even if they are bitter or have an evil 
smell. ‘The same may be said of the leaves and 
stalks, as in the case of wormwood and centaury. 
There are also differences in the time of growth and 
of flowering, the season being variously the beginning 
or middle of winter, or again spring, summer, or 
autumn. So too is there in like manner a differ- 
ence in the fruits, which? in some of these plants 
are edible and juicy, as well as® the leaves seeds 
and roots. And in these cases there are further 
differences in the taste (of those which are edible 
and juicy), which may be sharp, pungent, sweet, dry, 
or exhibit other similar differences, either altogether 
or in degree. These ‘are examples of the differ- 
ences which we find. 

Of the seasons at which herbs grow and flower. 

X. Each plant having its proper season for growth, 
flowering and maturing of the fruit, nothing grows 4 
before its proper season either of those grown from 
a root or of those grown from seed, but each awaits 

® xa p{(as seems irrelevant, 
4 avaBAaorave: conj. W.; avaBAacre? cal Ald, H. 





oixelay ovd UO TOV LddTwY ovdev TacxXoOV évia 
yap Oepwa Kouidn Kal tH BraotHcE Kal TH 
avOnae, Kadatep 6 TE TKOAUMOS Kal O GiKUOS 
diyplos, MoTEp Kal TEpt TOV HpvyaviKav ééyOn 
mept Kovutns Te Kal KaTTTapLoos Kal TOV AdroD: 
ovdev yap ovdé excivav avOet Kal Bactaver Tpo 
THS oiKelas @pas. Ot 0 Kav TavTn doFatev av 
Siadhépery TaV Sévdpwv. TOV pev Yap dua Tas 
TavToV th) eyyvs ) BAdoTHOLS, et S€ py) KATA piaV 
rye @pav ws eitreiv: TOUT@Y O€ ev TrOANATS MadXOV 
dé é€v amacais » BAdoTHOLWs Kal ett padAXOV 4 
avOnow, wate ei Tis EOéXNEL KaTavoEeiy oYEdOV 
oUVEXNS yiverau Kal” dhov éviavTov Kal % Brac- 
Thos Kal 4 avOnows: aie yap Erepov é& érépov 
Siadexopevov mdcas KatadauBdver Tas wpas’ 
Olov méeTa THY aTaTHY KpOKOS ~oTAaL Kal avEe“wovn 
Kal 0 nplyépov Kal TA AAA Yetpmepivd, peta be 
TavTa Ta npiwa <kal Oepiva> Kal peToT@pwda. 
TOANG Sé, WaTrEp EhEXON, Sia TO KATA pépos avOeiv 
émiTelveTas Tals W@pais' Evia yap ovTws ave, 
Kadarep 4 Te amTamtn Kal TO ovoyeldes Kal TO 
KuXOpLov Kal TO dpvoyhwoa cov Kal andra" bua dé 
THY ouvéeyetav Kal THY TepiKaTadnYLY THY oT 
GAAHA@V ov haivetat padsov ev éviows OVS oOpicar 
mola mpata Bractaver Kal troia oWiBraoTh’ 

1 938’ conj. W.; o#@ Ald. 2 Reference not discoverable. 

3 andmrnv conj. W.; apaxnyv UMAId. ef. 7. 7. In. 

4 «pdxos conj. Sch. (adding 6); #pos U (corrected); xpos M; 
om. Ald.; 7d xpéxov mBas. 

5 kal Gepiva seems to have dropped out. 

8 $a 7d KaTad wépos avOciv con]. W.; Kal ray KaTa wépos dvOewy 



its proper season and is not! affected even by rain. 
For some are plants which belong properly to 
summer as to their growth and their flowering, 
as golden thistle and squirting cucumber, as was 
said? of shrubby plants and of konyza caper and 
the rest; for of these too none blooms or grows 
before its proper season. Wherefore in this respect 
too these plants would seem to differ from trees. 
For trees make their growth all at once or nearly 
so, or at all events we may say that they do so 
all at one season; but the plants of which we 
are now speaking have their times of growing and 
still more of flowering at many or rather at all 
seasons ; so that, if one will consider it, both the 
growing and the flowering are almost continuous 
throughout the year; for one continually succeeds 
to another, so that all seasons are covered; thus 
after the dandelion ° will come the crocus ‘ anemone 
groundsel and the other plants of winter, and after 
these those of spring summer® and autumn. Some 
again, as was said, because they do not produce all 
their bloom at once,® cover a longer season; for 
there are some that thus bloom, for instance 
dandelion’ bugloss ® chicory plantain, and others ; but 
because of this continuity and overlapping it does 
not seem easy in some cases to define which first 
make growth and which are late in growing,— 
unless® one were to lay down that the ‘year’ 

? axdny conj. W.; adpdnn Ald. of. 7. 7. 1 n. 

8 dvoxeAés conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 100; Diose, 4. 24; dvo- 
ktxAns UMAId. 

9 ¢.e. unless one has a fixed starting-point. tiva épas rivos 
apxi conj. W.; ria mpds tH va ¢H(?) U; text defective in 
MAId., but both give va (7; W. conjectures also rporas tas 

xemepivds. ? elvat Spas twos apxiyv or eivar Spay tive (omitting 
ei (9 as a trace of a lost sentence). 




7 \ > lel \ > n Se 4 \ 
@pas Twos apxXh. Kal avT@v o&€ TovTwY Tas 
, / n 
yevérers Kal Tas @pas OTav TEheLwWOeYTMOY TOV 
an / LA > \ > ¥ a 
KapT@v Tad adrAas apxXas EvLET@VTAL TNS 
a / > 
yevéoews' Omep padiota Soxei ovpPaivew pert 
/ / \ ” \ / 
ionmepiay petoTr@pwyy: TOTe yap On TA oTrép- 
a \ n la 
pata wréloTa TeTEAMELwTAL Kal TOV SevdpiKaY 
fal e , \ w@ 4 > fal 
KapT@v ol TOOL, KAL apa petaBorn Tis avTovD 
\ fol ud A \ a 
TOVTOV TpoayiveTas Kal THs wpas’ doa Sé aTEdi 
Kal amentTa TeptkaTadapBaveTal, TOVTOIS KATA 
Aoyou éx meptodsov Kal 7 BrAaoTHOLs yiveTaL Kal 
% avOnots Kal % Tereiwouss Ot 0 oupBaiver Ta 
lal , 
pev Ud TpoTras avOciy Ta & bro Kuva ta &€ Kai 
“ / 
peta Apxrodpov Kal ionueplay peToT@piyy. 
"ANG TadTa pe Eoixe KoWOTEpan Exe oKEYLY 
eis abopiopov apyhs. Ore bé ai Stahopai mreious 
ry > ie wah > s , 5 \ \ 
}) ove éXaTTous év TovTows gavepov. érrel Kal 
sri; a , > \ ” , \ 
deipud\rXa TOV TOLOVTwWY éoTiv Evia, KaBaTEP TO 
/ \ 2 * / \ Nt ENS 
XI. "Adwpicpévov ody tovtwy epi tas bia- 
\ > / \ “ , BA \ 
dhopas év ols yivovtat Kat TAs exTéov dn Tas 
24 \ 
Kal’ éxactov iotopias ... dca pn KaTa THD 

1 7.e. to fix the date of the beginning and end of the cycle 
of the plant’s life. 

2 aitod ru’tov: ? the plant itself. airod rod tous conj. Sch. 

3 7.e. according as the seed ripened last year or this year. 
In this rather obscure section I follow W.’s explanations, 

4 Plin. 21. 100. 



begins when a certain season begins. Further in 
these plants it is not easy to define} in each case 
the time of first growth and the season when, the 
fruits being matured, it makes a fresh start in 
reproduction. This seems chiefly to occur after 
the autumnal equinox; for by that time most of 
the seeds are matured, like most of the fruits of 
trees: moreover a change then takes place in the 
seed ? itself as well as in the season. But in the 
case of any seeds which are still immature and 
unripe and so are overtaken by winter, the period 
of first growth, the flowering of the new plant, and 
the period of maturity are proportionally later. 
Wherefore it comes to pass that some bloom at 
the solstice, some at the rising of the dog-star, 
and some after the rising of Arcturus and the 
autumnal equinox.’ 

But these matters seem to require a wider in- 
vestigation in order to determine when the process 
begins. However it is clear from what has been 
said that these plants present at least as many 
differences as trees. *For some again of this class 
are evergreen, as hulwort heliotropion and maiden- 

Of the classes into which herbaceous plants may be divided, as 
those having a spike and chicory-like plants. 

XI. Having then made these explanations we must 
now give a separate account of each plant, dis- 
cussing the differences (in those plants in which 
they occur) and saying how they arise... 5 
except those peculiarities which belong to the 

5 Lacuna in UMAId.Cam.Bas., leaving the connexion of 
the next clause obscure, 




idtav éxdoTou puow. Réyw de olov Ta oTaxuodn 
Kal Ta oKav0rnaon Kab povopui), Kav eb TL Erepov 
éote Tovodrov Kowov eri TAVTOY AaBeir, 0 TH 
aicOnoe: yvopiwov } hvrAXOts 4 AVOcow 7 pitass 
) Kaptroiss é€x yap Tov havepOv oO peptapmos 
@oTrEp Kal €x TOV pilav. 

Lraxvady pev oby éoTw & TE Kova TO TLVwY 
KaNOU[LEVOS Tetous éywv idéas év éavT@" Kal oO 
GwT EKOUPOS Kal 0 aterehovpos wm évior be 
apvoywacov TOV 6é 6pTtvE eanovpevos: Tapo- 
povov dé TOUT@ TpOTrov Twa Kal ) Opvanrnis. 
dma 88 kab povoedh tpdmov Twa TadtTa Kab 
otaxuy ovK o&dv ovd abepwdn Exovta: o 6 
Ghotékoupos padakov Kal yvowdséaTepor, OTL Kal 
6moltov Talis TOV adwTéxwv ovpais, d0ev Kal 
Toivoya peTteiindev. Spmoros O€ TovT@ Kal o 
oTedépoupos, TAnY OVX WaoTeEp exeivos avOet KaTA 
1 O€ avOnors apd otv xvowdns, Kabatrep Kat Tob 
citov' mapopmotov oé€ TH Onn pophn TO Tup@ 
7 pV TaTUPpYNNOTEPOP. @oavtTos € ToVTALS Kal 

Ta dé Kixopiodn wdavTa wey emeTetopurha 
kat pilopurra, Bracotaver Oێ wera Trevdda wrap 
THS atamns, Tols 6€ KavAols Kal Tais pifass 

1 7.e. spicate. 

2 gxavducedn : 7.e. umbellate. One would expect x:xopiddn, 
to correspond with § 3; but the three classes mentioned seem 
to be merely ‘ samples’ of classification: of the three only 
one (ta craxvedn) is described below, and other classes are 

3 uovopvy I conj.: 7.e. those which have a scape: cf. 2. 6.9; 
C.P.1. 1. 3. wvdpaa U3; pvodda MAId.; om, G, 



character of individual kinds. I mean for instance 
the plants which have a spike,! those which may 
be classed with wild chervil,?, and those which 
have a single stem,®? . . . . or any other such class 
in which one can find some such general charac- 
teristics obvious te the senses either in leaves flowers 
roots or fruits; (for the classification is to be made 
by the visible parts, as well as by the roots).4 

5An example of the plants which have a spike 
is the plant which some call ‘dog’s eye ®’ (rib-grass), 
which comprises several forms; we have also ‘ fox- 
brush,’ stelephuros (ptantain}, which some call ‘ lamb’s 
tongue’ and some ‘quail-plant’; and somewhat 
similar to this is thryallis. ‘These are simple plants 
and uniform in character, having a spike which 
is not pointed nor bearded; while in ‘ fox-brush’ 
it is soft and somewhat downy, in that it actually 
resembles the brush of a fox, whence also it has 
obtained its name. Similar to this is stelephuros 
(plantain), except that it does not, like that plant, 
flower here and there, but all up the spike like 
wheat. The bloom of both is downy like that of corn, 
and the plants in their general appearance resemble 
wheat, but have broader leaves. Of the other 
plants which have a spike a similar account may be 

7The chicory-like plants all have annual leaves 
and have root-leaves, and they begin to grow after 
the Pleiad, except dandelion*®; but in their stems 

4 Roots being the basis of classification in xii. below. 

5 Plin. 21. 101. 

8 xkévwy conj. Sch.; ax’dvay UOAld.; Plin. lc. has cynops 
(cf. 7. 7. 3); oculus caninus G. 

7 i.e. composites. Plin. /.¢. 

8 amdans U; amarns MAld. cf. 7. 7. 1n.; 7. 8. 3n. 



beydras éyovat Suapo pas: oi wev yap Tév adov 
dmhove Tepot Kar éhatTous, 0 > O€ 70d Kvxopiov 
péyas Kal aTropva es EXOV Todas, étt O€ yXi- 
oxXpos Kal Svadiaiperos, ou 0 Kal Seo ue Xpavrar 
mapaBdactnTiKcov dé Kat tH pity kat addws 
pax poppitov, &: 6 Kal Svowdeb por ray yap 
exdaxavic wvTat, Tad TO vmohouTov apynv 
AapPaver YEverEws. oupBaiver dé Kal mapavbeiv 
avTou [eépos ado Kal dAdo, Kal TovTO aX pt TOU 
peToT@pov, oKdnpod Soxodvtos elvat Tob xavnod. 
héper 5é kal AoBdv ev 6 TO oTréppa Tepl Ta aAKpa 

“H 6éé broxoupls AetorEépa Kal jeporépa 7h 
Tpoaowet Kal yAveutépa Kal ovx OomEp D xov- 
dpvrAra: TO yap OXov | OUK eda@dupos arn Kal 
aBpwrtos Kat év tH pify Spimdv omov eye Kal 

"ABportos dé Kal TLKpa a amann: mpwiavOns 
dé Kal TaxXD ynpaa Kew Kal aroTranmobrat, elt’ 
ido puerta ™ ay Kal ado Kal TOUTO Tap ddov 
Towel TOV YEeL“a@va Kal TO Eap AXpL TOD Oépovs* TO 
8 avOos pn ruvoewés. 

‘Ocavtas oe Kab 1) mouxpis: Kab yap. auTn TO 
7p avOei, Kal TapatAnoia ov bdov TOU Xetpavos 
Kal tod Oépovs trapavbet: TH yevoe O€ Tixpa, Ov 
0 Kal Tov’voua eiAnde. TavTa pmev ovv év Tav- 

1 érdrrovs conj. Scal.; @¢rrovs UMAId. 
2 Plin. 21. 88. 3 7b conj. Sch.; rhy Ald. 
* Meaning not obvious ; oKAnpod is perhaps corrupt. 
5 _, broxorpls conj. Scal.; iroxépnois UMAId. ef. 7. 7. In. 
6 ody Somep : an adjective has perhaps dropped out between 
these words ; ? mixcpa (amara Plin. J.c.). 



and roots they exhibit great differences; for in 
some these are simpler and fewer,! but the stem 
of chicory is large and has many side-shoots ; also 
it is tough and hard to break, wherefore it is used 
for withes?; it makes side-growths from the root, 
and also has long roots, wherefore it is hard to 
kill; for, when the top is taken off to use as a 
vegetable, what remains? starts growing again. 
Moreover different parts of it flower at different 
times, and the flowering goes on till autumn, since 
the stem appears to be hard.* Also it bears a pod, 
which contains the seed, at the top of the stem. 

Cat’s ear® is smoother and has a more cultivated 
appearance, and is also sweeter and not like ® 
khondrylla* ; for the latter is altogether uneatable 
and ® unfit for food, and its root contains a quantity of 
pungent juice. 

Dandelion® is also unfit for food and bitter: it 
flowers early and quickly waxes old and the flower 
turns to pappus; but then another flower forms, and 
yet another, and this goes on right through the winter 
and spring up to the summer; and the flower is 

10 The like may be said of pikris: for this plant 
too blooms in spring, and like dandelion it flowers 
throughout the winter, and it flowers also to some 
extent in summer; in taste it is bitter, whence its 
name. These are the special points of difference 

7 xdvdpvAdAa conj. St.; xavdpy ackAa U; yxavdpd adda M; 
xavipas GAAG Ald. H.; cadryalia G(Tarv.); candralia G (Bas. 
Par. ). 

8 7d yap BAov od Cddd:u0s arn Kal conj. W.; 7d bAov odk 25. 
airy yap Ald.; aitn yap &Bpwros conj. Sch. from Plin, 21. 105. 

9 andnn conj. W.; apdun Ald. cf. 7.7. ln. 

10 Plin. 22. 66. 




tats tats Stahopais. etpatéov bé, ws éréyOn, 

\ a 5A / c ‘f 
Kal TOV AANoV AapPavew opmotas. 

XII. [odd € te yévos éoti Kat TOY capKop- 
pilwv 1 Keparoppifwv, & Kat mpos Ta GAXa Kal 
xa?’ avta tas dtahopas exer pitas te Kal pvr- 
Rows Kal KaVAOIs Kal Tals AdraLs pophais. Tar 
yap pilav, Oot ep elpntat TpdTEpor, ai wey NeTrU- 
prmders at O€ capx@des, Kal at perv exovcat 
droov ai & addhroror, ete O€ ai pev oTpoyyvraL 

€ \ / ‘ e \ > / € > 7 
ai O€ mpounKels Kai ai pev €d@dipor ai 8 &8pearot. 
pI / \ \ > , \ \ \ oo 
Edodip0L ev yap ov povov BorBol Kal Ta bpuora 
TOUTOIS, GAA Kal 7) TOD aodhodérov pita Kal 2 
Setov Kadovpévns, 1) amd THs ypjoews exer THY 
mpoonyoptav' aitn O€ atevopvAdrotépa Te Kal 

> , \ ve oe a \ TK \ \ 

Eéadipos 5é Kai % Tov dpouv Kai avTh Kai Ta 
gvrAra tpoadheynbévta év d&eu nat éotw deta 
TE Kal Tpos TA pyypwata ayabr}. mpos dé THY 

bY > vb ied > / 4 \ 
av&ynow avTns, Otav amopuvAdcwaty, Eyer O€ 
péya ahddpa To PUAXOr, avopvEavtes oTpéhovary, 
OTws av ps) dtaBAacTavyn GAA Tacav EXKy THY 

\ > e / A \ > \ “A oe 
Tpopynv els EavTHV, 0 Kal emt TOV BorPov TLVES 

lof. 7. J; Dad jin. 2 Plin. 19. 93 and 94. 

3 yuoppais: cf. 8. 4. 2. 47.9. 4. 

® The legends about Epimenides suggest that the ‘use’ 
was possibly in magic: ef. what is said of oxiAdAa 7. 13, 4. 
cf. Plin. le. 



about these plants; now we must endeavour, as was 
said, to set forth the special points of the other 
classes in like manner. 

Of herbs which have fleshy or bulbous roots. 

XII. ? There is a large class of these which have 
fleshy or bulbous roots : these exhibit differences both 
as compared with other plants and with one another 
both in roots leaves stems and their other prominent 
features. Of the roots, as has been said # already, 
some are in layers, some fleshy, some have a ‘ bark,’ 
some not; and again some are round, some oblong, 
some edible and some not fit for food. Among 
edible roots are not only purse-tassels and others 
which resemble them, but also the roots of asphodel 
and squill, though not of all kinds of the latter, but 
only of the kind called ‘Epimenides’ squill (French 
sparrow-grass) which gets its name from its use ®; 
this kind has narrower leaves and is smoother than 
the others. 

6 The root of cuckoo-pint is also edible, and so are 
the leaves, if they are first boiled down in vinegar ; 
they are sweet, and are good for fractures. To 
increase the root, having first stripped 7 off the leaves 
(and the leaf is very large), they dig® it up and 
invert? it in order that it may not shoot,!° but may 
draw all the nourishment into itself. This some 

8 Plin. 19. 96; 24. 162. 

7 amopvAAlowow conj. Sch.; atopvAdcowow U; aropvddac- 
cwow MAId. 

8 avopviavres conj. St.; 8 avopvtavres Ald. 

® cf. 1.6. 10; Plin. 19. 94 and 97, who seems to have read 
xatopitavres: soalsoG. ? ‘they plunge it in a pit.’ 

10 SiaBAactavy: of. C.P. 4 8. 1. 





moodat ouvtBévres® % O€ TOD Spaxovrion, Kadovor 
yap Tt Spaxovttov aipov bia TO TOV KavAOV exew 
Tia TOLKLNaY, aBpwros Kal pappaxwdys. 

"ANG 1) TOU pacyavov Kaoupevou yRuceta TE 
eynbeioa, Kat Tpipdeioa Beryvupern TO drevpep 
move TOV dptov yuk Kal aowvi}: orpoyyodn dé 
éore Kat aprot0s Kat amopucess éyouca puxpas, 
WOTTEP TO yn@vov" ToNas be ebpiaxovaw év Tals 
oKanroTriais: Xaiper yap Kalb avrAdéeyeL TO aon. 

‘H 6€ rod Onoeiov Th pev yevoes TiKpda, TpL- 
Bopeévn, dé Koudtay irroxabatper. pappaxaders dé 
TLves elo Kal €repat, TONKOV dé ovTe papyare- 
bets OUTE eda dior. Kal avrat pev ev Tails pilass 
ai Stadhopai. 

XIU. Kara dé Ta purra TOUS TE peyeDeow 
Kal Tots oXNATW. O Mev aapodedos poa.K pov cal 
OTEVOTEPOV Kat Um Oyo x pov exer TO hUAXOY, 1) 5€ 
oKira TAT Kal evdaiperov, To 6€ ddayavov 
vTro TIv@Y dé KaNOULEVOV Eidos Erhoedés, ober 
eryVeE Kal ToUvoua, 1) 5é ipis kadapoveaTepor" 70 
dé Tod dpou pos TH maTUTHTL Kal eyKotNov Kat 
aiku@oés eoTiv? 0 O€ VapKLOGOS aTEVOY Kal TOND 
Kal humrapov" BorBos be Kat Ta BorBadn TAVTE- 

Kavnov dé Ta pev ovK EVEL TO odov ove a 80s, 
@omep TO apov TO ed@dipov" Ta be TOV TOU 
avOous povov, @OTEP 0 vapKlg aos Kat ) KpoKos" 
évia dé € EXEL, Kabamep 1) uy oKiAXa Kal 0 Boros Kal 
» ipis Kal TO Eigiov: péytotov 6€ TavT@Y acdo- 

1 guyridévyres: sense doubtful. Sch. and W. mark the word 
as hy ato Sa , 
2 cf. 9. 20. 3; Plin. 24, 142; Diosc, 2. 166. 



do also with purse-tassels, when they lay them by. 
2 However the root of edder-wort (for a kind of 
cuckoo-pint is so called because of its variegated stem) 
is not good for food, but is used for drugs. 

But the root of the plant called corn-flag is sweet, 
and, if cooked and pounded up and mixed with the 
flour, makes the bread sweet and wholesome. It is 
round and without ‘bark, and has small offsets like 
the long onion. Many of them are found in moles’ 
runs*; for this animal likes them and collects them. 

4The root of theseion is bitter to the taste, but 
when pounded purges the bowels. There are also 
certain others of these roots which have medicinal 
properties, but of many the roots are neither 
medicinal nor edible. Such are the differences in 
the roots. 

XIII. ° In the leaves the differences are in size and 
shape. Asphodel has a long leaf, which is somewhat 
narrow and tough, while that of squill is broad and 
tears easily; corn-flag, which is called by some 
aiphos (‘sword’), has a sword-like leaf, whence its 
name, and iris one more like areed. That of cuckoo- 
pint, in addition to being broad, is concave and like 
that of cucumber; that of the narcissus is narrow 
substantial and glossy, those of purse-tassels and 
plants of that character are quite narrow, and that of 
crocus narrower still. 

6 Some have not a stem at all, nor a flower, as the 
edible cuckoo-pint ; some have only the flower-stem, 
as narcissus and crocus; some however have a stem, 
as squill purse-tassels iris and corn-flag ; but asphodel 

3 mapa tats oxadomais conj. Sch.; év rais ox. conj. W.; tais 
exoAonlas UMAId. 4 Plin, 22. 66. > Plin. 21. 108. 
6 Plin. 21. 108 and 109. 





SeXos* 0 yap avbepiKos peyLoTos" 0 O€ THS ipidos 
éNATTOV pev oKANpOTEpOS dé TO be dXov avOept- 
Koons. err dé Kal TONKAPTOS 0 aa podenos, Kal 
0 KapTos avroo Evrwdns TH Mev popop Tplya@vos 
TO O€ XPOmart pedas” yiverat be ev TO oT poy 
yoo 7 UTOKATW TOD avOous, éxtrimtes S€ Tod 
Bépous, 6 érav TOUTO Sra avn. THY avOnawy TovetTaL 
KaTa HEpos, OomTeEp Kal eT THS oKidhys, dpxerau 
dé¢ mp@Tov aro TaV KaTwOev. év 5é TO avOcpixw 
ouvicTaTaL oKxwrn€, Os els GAO peTaBadrrcs Cov 
avO pnvoetsés, ei?’ Grav o avOépixos avavOi Svea 
Giov éxmétatat. Soxet S€ iSvov exery 7 pos Ta 
advnra Ta NeloKavra, Sots oTevds @V aTrodiaers 
avobev EXEL Tone 5é eis tpodiy mapéyerat 
Xpyotwa: Kat yep 0 av épiKos edadip0s oTa- 
Jevopevos Kal TO om épja ppuyopmevov Kat TavT@V 
dé pddiora 7) pita KOT TOME peta ovKou Kal 
TretoTny dvnow exer Kat Hoiodov. 

"ATravrTa pev ovv prrofoa Ta Keparopprta 
padiota So n Kida Kal yap Kpemavyupevn on 
Kal TAELTTOV ye Xpovov dvapéver’ duvarat d€ Kat 
Ta Onaaupifopeva outer, TEP THY poav eumny- 
vupévou TOU piaxov, Kal TOV puTevopevev é évia 
Bracraver Oarrov év avrfy AéyeTat 6€ Kal po 
TOV Oupav THS elaodou putevbcioay anreEntHpLov 
elval THS emrupepopevns Onhijoews. Tavra € 
Taira aOpoa pvetar, Kabarep Kat Ta Kpopmva 
Kal Ta cKOpOda’ TapaBXacTavoveL yap ato THs 

1 éxninre: conj. W.; éxrimrev Ald. 
2 &vOnow conj. Scal.; &vavow corr. to avavow U; &vavow M ; 
avavow Ald.; floret ver partes G, 



has the tallest of all—for the antherikos (asphodel- 
stalk) is very tall: that of iris is smaller, but tougher, 
though in general it is like the asphodel-stalls. 
Asphodel also produces much fruit, and its fruit is 
woody: in shape it is triangular and in colour black ; 
it is found in the round vessel which is below the 
flower, and it falls out! in summer when this splits 
open. It does not produce all its flowers ? at once; 
in which respect it resembles squill, but the flowering - 
begins at the bottom. Inthe stalk of asphodel forms 
a grub which changes into another creature like a 
hornet, and then, when the stem withers, eats its 
way out and flies away. <A peculiarity of the plant 
as compared with others which have a smooth stem 
appears to be that, though it is slender, it has 
outgrowths at the top. It provides many things 
useful for food: the stalk is edible when fried, the 
seed when roasted, and above all the root? when 
cut up with figs; in fact, as Hesiod says,* the plant is 
extremely profitable. 

Now all bulbous plants are tenacious of life, but 
especially squill ; for this even lives when hung up 
and continues to do so for a very long time ; it is even 
able to keep other things that are stored, for instance 
the pomegranate,’if the stalk of the fruit is set in it ; 
and some cuttings ° strike more quickly if set in it; 
and it is said that, if planted before the entrance 
door of a house, it wards off mischief ® which threatens 
it. All these bulbs grow in masses, as do onions and 
garlic ; for they make offsets from the root, and some 

3of. 7. 90439. 906. 

4 Hes. Op. 41. 

5 of 2.5.5; O.P. 5. 6..10. 

6 Se. witchcraft. veneficiorum noxam Plin, 21. 108. 

VOL. I. i 



pifqs évia 8é Kal amo TOD oTépLatos pavepas, 
olov 6 Te avbépiKos Kal TO Nelptov Kal TO pacya- 
vov Kal 0 BorBos. 

"AAN idtov Todto tod BorBod AéyeTat, TO p22) 
amvo TwavtTwv Bractavew awa TOV oTEppdtar, 
AXAG TOD wev avTOET?s TOI) 8 Els vVéwTa, KAD dTrEpP 
Tov aiyikoTd hact Ka) 10v AwTOV. TOTO peV 
ouv eimep adnOés Kowov éETépwv. Kowvov O€ iows 
Kal TO wéAXOV AéyeoOat, TWAHVY Ov TOAD, Pav- 
pactov 5é éml wavtwv, Step él TE THS TKIAANS 
Kal TOD vapKiaaov ovpBatver TOV pev yap adwv 
Kal tov é& apxis puTevopevev Kal TOV Brao- 
Tavovtov Kal _@pav & ETOUS TO purrov aVATENAEL 
T™ parton, ei dotepov o Kavros: érl Sé TovTeY 6 

KaUNOS T pOTEpon. 

Tod vapxiccov dé 6 tod avOovs povov evOd 
TpowO av TO av0 os" THS 6 oKidrys ead? avror, 
eis UoTepov ert TOUT@ TO avOos avioxov. ™poo- 
Kad npevov: TOLELTAL be TAS avOnoets Tpets, @v 7 
fev TPwTY Soxet onpaiver TOV mparTov apoTor, 1) 
bé Seutépa | Tov pécov, H O€ TpiTn TOV ETXATOV" WS 
yap av avrat yeveovTar Kal ot dporot oxedov 
obT@sS éxBaivovow: dtav 6é ovTos arroynpaay, 
TOTE TOV puro Braornots TONAL Tpepars 
borepov" OoavTos dé Kal éml Tod vapKiacon, 
TV ouTe Kavdov Erepov ever mapa TOV TOU dav- 
Oous, WoTep eltromev, OVTE KapTrOV paveEepoV, ANN 

1 giylAwma conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 103; yiAwra UMAIA. 

2 €)0) mpowOav conj. W.; evOumpdwpov Ald.H. cf. Plin. 21. 
66, where however the statement is transferred to the 



plainly are also increased by seed, as the asphodel 
polyanthus narcissus corn-flag and purse-tassels. 

However it is said to be a peculiarity of purse- 
tassels that all the seeds do not germinate at once, 
but some in the same year, some the next year; a 
like account is given of aigilops! and trefoil. If then 
this is true, it is not peculiar to this plant. Nor 
perhaps is the following characteristic, which is not 
found in many-plants and is marvellous wherever it 
does oceur—and it is found in squill and narcissus : 
namely that, whereas in most plants, whether those 
originally planted or those which are produced from 
them in season, the leaf comes up first and then 
presently the stem, in these plants the stem comes 
up first. 

In the case of narcissus it is only the flower-stem 
which comes up, and it immediately pushes up ? the 
flower. But in squill it is the stem® proper which 
thus appears, and presently the flower appears 
emerging* from and sitting on it. And it makes 
three flowerings,’ of which the first appears to mark 
the first seed-time, the second the middle one, and 
the third the last one; for, according as_ these 
flowerings have occurred,® so the crops usually turn 
out. But, when the flower-stem’ has waxed old, 
then the growth of the leaves follows many days 
later. So also is it with narcissus, except that it 
has no second stem besides the flower-stem, as we 
said, nor any visible fruit; but the flower itself 

3 7,e, the whole ‘ bud.’ 

* avtaxov Ald.; avicxwy conj. Sch. followed by W. 

5 Plin. U.c.; cf. 18. 237, 

6 i.e. the flowering is the sign when to sow. The same is 

said of the fruiting of oxivos de signis 55. 
7 obros conj. Sch.; ofrws Ald. 


aro TO avOos dpa T@ KAVA@ xatapbiver Kal 
oTav avavO7y TOTE ra Uda dvarérneu. 

II pos pev ovv Ta ANN TA cuvappa tabra ova" 
mpos 6é 7a mpoavOodvta Tov purr Kal TOV 
KAUNOD, omep Soxei Tovey TO Tipvov Kal éTepa 
Tov avOikav, éte Te TaV Sévdpoyv 1 apuydarh 
padora i povon, 6TL TavUTA pev apa TO dvOet 

mpopaiver TO pUAXov o) evOus KATOTW; dare Kat 
SialnteicOar Tepl TOV, emt dé TOUT olov ap 
érépas apxns paiveras Kal dua TO TAHVOS TOV 
7} mEp@v Kal dua TO pay TpOTEpov Prac ravew mpl 
Tov mev TO avOos Tov O€ Kal oO Kavos OXOS aTro- 
ynpaon- 1) O€ Braornous TpoTépa pev THS oKin- 
ANS, voTépa dé TOU vapKiccov" TOAU dé TAEOV 70 
pvrdov ovTos adinat, Kat éotiv 9 pita arn px pa 
Kal ov peyahn, T pooeupepns dé KaTa TO oX Twa 
T@ BorBe, mv <ov> Aerrupl@dns. TAaUTA mev 
ov exer oKewuv. 

Tov 5é BorBov ore Trebo yevn pavepor, Kab 
yap TO peyedeu Kat TH Xpoa Kal Tots oXHpATL 

tag épouce Kab Tots vrols: Eviaxod yap obT@ 
yAuKels WoTE Kal @MLOUS éobierOat, cadamep é€v 
Xeppovnow TH Tavpixg. peyiorn dé kat WL@aTarn 
diapopa TOV éptopopev: EoTL yap TL yevos TOLOv- 
TOV; r) puerar fev év airyadois exe d€ TO épLov 
UO TOUS TPwTOUS YLT@VAS, WoTE ava pécor civas 

1 ripvoyv Ald., ef. C.P. 1. 10. 5; 7° Ipvov conj. W.; iphyum 
GBas.Par. cf. 6. 6. 11. 2 4 add. Sch. 

3 éx) conj. H.; wep) UMAId. 4 W. adds &. 

5 airh: sc. apart from offsets. 

§ uixpa conj. Sch.; od prod Ald. 



perishes with the stem, and when it has withered, 
then the plant puts up its leaves. 

These two plants then, as compared with the 
other bulbous plants are peculiar; and, as compared 
with those which bloom before the leaves and stems 
appear (as the autumn squill ! seems to do, and other 
plants with conspicuous flowers, as well as, among 
trees, the almond especially, if not alone), there is 
the distinction that, while these two put forth their 
leaves along with the flowers or? immediately after- 
wards (so that about some the matter is uncertain) 
in ® the case of these two the flower appears, as it 
were, from a different starting-point, there being a 
considerable number of days in between, and the 
growth of the leaves not beginning till,* in the case 
of one of them, the flower, and in the case of the 
other, the whole stem has withered. Squill produces 
its leaves before the flower, narcissus afterwards ; 
but the latter produces much more abundant foliage, 
and the individual ® root is small ® rather than large, 
resembling purse-tassels in shape, except that it is 
not formed of scales.’ About these matters then 
there is doubt. 

Of purse-tassels it is plain that there are several 
kinds; for they differ in size colour shape and 
taste. ®In some places they are so sweet as to be 
eaten raw, as in the Tauric Chersonese. But the 
greatest and most distinct difference is shown by the 
‘ wool-bearing °’ purse-tassels; for there is such a 
kind, and it grows on! the sea-shore, and has the 
wool beneath the outer tunic, so that it is between 

7 o& Aemwvpiddys conj. Sch. from G, non squamata; ovddé 
aupodn UMAId.; od Aerupwins H. 

8 Plin, 19. 95; Athen. 2. 64, 

® Plin. 19. 32. See Index. 10 éy after wev add. W. 



A > / a 3 \ \ a e / 

Tov Te €dwdiwou Tod évTOs Kal TOD éEw: Ddhaivetat 
dé é& avtod Kal médera Kal adra ipatia: SV 6 
Kal épr@des TodTO Kal ovy waTep TO év “Ivdois 

TIX\eiw 5€ Kal ta BorBoOdn kal €XaTT@. TadTA 
dé... KaOdtep TO AevKdiov Kal BorBivn Kal 
omitiov Kal KviE Kal TpdTOV TWa TO GLoUpiryxXLOV. 

/ \ lal ¢ / fal es 
BorBedn S€ tadta 6tt otpoyyvra Tais pifais: 
émel Tois ye Yp@pace AEVKA Kal Ov AeETrUPLwON. 
” \ a , \ rn c/s > / 
idtov S€ TOD cicupiyyxiou TO THs pi€ys avEdver Par 
TO KATW TPOTOY, 0 KaNODaL. . . KEtm@va, Tod 8 
Hpos UTopaivovTos TovTO pev TaTretvodabar TO O 
v \ > , > / \ \ \ 
dvw To édwdipov avédverPat. Kal Ta pev 
TotavTas éxer Tas Stahopas. 

XIV. "Idésa 8 Kai radta év Tots Trot@decw, 

/ ; Pay" “a > , a +Q\ \ 
olov To [te] él Tod adidvrov cupBaivoy: ovdé yap 
Uypaiveras TO PYANOY BpexXomevor vd émidpocoy 
€ott Sta TO py THY voTiav émipéverv, OOev Kal 
mpoonyopia. yévn 5é avtod dvo, TO pev NevKdV 

\ \ Ui , ie ft. , \ oy 
To 6€ pédav, Ypnotua & apporepa pos Expvow 
an fal > / / 7, \ 
Kepanrths tpryav év édaim tptBopeva. dverar Oé 

1 §” 6 wal ép. rovro: text probably defective. ? 87 8 Kal 
<xpnoioy To> épi@des rodTo: ‘wherefore this woolly kind is 
serviceable, which the Indian hairy kind is not.’ 

2 Plin. 19. 95. 

3 kal éAdttw* Tadra s¢: text corrupt and defective. 

4 émitlavy H.; 6 miriwy Ald.; pithyon Plin. l.c. ; émitiwy and 
Kvit Were possibly earth-nuts. 

5 ye conj. Sch.; te Ald, 



the edible inside and the outside: of it are woven 
felt shoes and other articles of apparel. Wherefore ! 
this kind is woolly and distinct from the Indian kind, 
which is hairy, 

2 There are also several kinds of plants of the same 
class as purse-tassels . . . .2 such as snowdrop star- | 
flower opition* kyix, and to a certain extent Barbary 
nut. These belong to this class only in having round 
roots ; for in colour ® they are white, and the bulbs 
are not formed of scales. A peculiarity of Barbary 
nut is that the lower end of the root grows first, and 
this is called . . . .; it grows® during winter, but, 
when spring appears, it decreases, while the upper 
part, which is edible, grows, Such are the differ- 
ences in these plants, 

Of certain properties and habits peculiar to certain herbaceous 

XIV. There are also the following peculiarities in 
herbaceous plants, for instance that’ which we find 
in ‘ wet-proof’ (maidenhair) ; §the leaf does not even 
get wet when it is watered, nor does it catch the 
dew,® because the dew does not? rest on it; whence its 
name. !! There are two kinds, the white ‘ wet-proof’ 
(English maidenhair), and the black (maidenhair) ; 
and both are useful to prevent the falling off of 
the hair of the head, for which purpose they are 
pounded up and mixed with olive-oil. They grow 

6 ‘Grows’ supplied from G and Plin. J.c., who have no 
trace of 3 KaAotvat. 

7 T have bracketed re. 8 Plin. 22. 62-65. 

® éridpocov conj. W.; érlinAov UP,MAId,; nec quicquam 
adhaesisse humoris constat G. 

10 uh} before thy add. W. 

 Plin. 2.c.3; 27. 188; 25. 132. 



partota Tpos Ta vdpnra. @s 6€ olovTai TLVEs, 
Kal Tpos oTpayyoupiay TO Tpryomaves Trovet> Eyer 
dé Tov KavAOY Gmotloy TO adidvT@ TH pédaVL, 
pvrra O€ puxpa cpddpa Kat TuKva Kal wepuKoTA 
KaTAVTLKpY adrAHNOD, pia Sé ody Urecte Ywpia 
b€ pide? oKiepa. | 

Tov 6é cata pépos avOovytav idiov TO Tepl TO 
avOepov, OTL TOV pev ANOV TaYTOV TA KaT@ 
mp@Tov amavOet TOUTOU dé Ta ave TuyXaver 8 
péow TO YAwpPOV? Kal KapTros Os éxTimte, KaOa- 
meEp Trois axavOadeat, KaTANTOY THY Tpoadhualw 
Kevnv: elon & avTod mrelo. 

"ldvov 6€ Kal TO Tepl THY aTrapiyyy, 1) Kal TOV 
iwatiov avréyetar Sia thy TpayvTnta Kal éote 
dSvcadaipetov' év TOUTM yap eyyiveTat TO Tpaxel 
TO dvOos ov mpoiov ovd¢ éxdaivov arXAN év éavTo 
cival TO oUpLBaivoy WoTEp éTL THY yaneov Kal 
pwov éxelva Te yao év éavTols woToKicavta 
Swoyovel, kal avTn TO avOos év éavTH xatéyouca 

XV. “Oca 6é tas avOjces NapBavover axo- 
NovOodvTa Tois doTpos, olovy TO %ALOTPOTLOV 
Kadovmevov Kal 6 oKOAUMOS, Gua yap Tails TpO- 
mats Kat ovtos, éts b€ TO YerALOoMor, Kal yap 
TOUTO Gua TO KEALOOVia avlel, TadTa dé Sokeev 
av Th pev voinvy exe THv aitiav TH be 

1 7.e. the white kind. Sch. followed by G adds 7d ka) 
Tptxouaves Kadovmevoy after Td wey AevKdy above. 



especially in damp _ places. Some think that 
trikhomanes 1 (English maidenhair) is also useful in 
cases of strangury. Its stem is like that of the black 
kind, but it has small leaves, which are close set and 
grow in opposite pairs ; there is no root below, and 
the plant loves shady places. 

Of those plants which do not flower all at once 
anthemon has the peculiarity that, while in all others ? 
the lower part flowers first, in this plant it is the 
upper part which does so; the outer circle of the 
flower is white,? and the centre green‘; and the 
fruit falls off, as in spinous plants, leaving the attach- 
ment bare. There are several forms of it. 

5 Bedstraw has the peculiarity that it sticks to 
clothes owing to its roughness, and it is hard to pull 
away ; indeed itis in this rough part that the flower is 
contained : it does not project nor show, but matures 
within itself and produces seed ; so that its habit is 
like that of weasels and sharks ; for, as these animals © 
likewise produce eggs in themselves and then bear 
their young alive, so this plant keeps its flower 
within itself, matures it and produces fruit. 

XV. 7 As to these plants whose flowering time is 
dependent on the heavenly bodies,’ as the plant 
called heliotropion, golden thistle (for this also blooms 
at the solstice), and also ‘swallow-plant’ (greater 
celandine)—for this blooms when the ® Swallow-wind 
blows—the reason in these cases would seem to be 
partly in their nature and partly accidental. 

2 YS.ov after mdyrwy om. W. after Sch. 

3 rd AeuKdy: ? AevKdy 7). 420m. 7d marore xAwpéy, 
5 Plin. 21. 104. 6 of. Arist. H.A. 6, 
7 Athen. 15. 32. 8 &arpors Conj. St.; Poi Ald. 

9 7? conj. Sch. ; Th MAIld. cf. Plin. 2. 122. 




Tlov\Aad 6& toradta éott Kal év érépois id1a* 
olov Kal 1) Tov aevfwov dvows TO Stapéverv vrypov 
del kal yAwpov, HUANOY capKades Eyov Kal Neto 
kal mpounkes. vetar dé & Te Tois adsTrédors 
Tois Te Eml TOV TELy@V avdHpois Kal OVX HKLoTA 
yee a / 4 > / n b] , 
él TOV KEepdporv, OTav éemiyévnTat Yhs Tis appo- 
dns cuppon. 

TlovAa 8 ay tis tows AaBou Kai Erepa TepiTTa. 
xpn Oé, Bomep TorAdKIs elpntat, Tas idLoTNTAS 
Oewpety kal Tas Suahopas mpos TA GANA. Ta pev 
év wreloow idéais eat Kal ayedopr olov OMwvdposs, 
@aoTEep 0 AWTOS' TOVTOU yap Eldn TOAXA diadé- 
povta Kal pvAXrols Kal Kavrois Kal advOecr kal 
KapTots, év ois Kal 0 pediiwTos KaXOvpEVOS’ Kal 
Suvaper 88 TH Kata Tiv Tpochopay, ETL TE TO pH 
TovS avTovs TOTroUs EnTeiy. opmoiws Oé Kal éTEpa 

Ta dé év édkatTooww, doTEp O orpuxvos OMMVU- 
pia Til TAVTEADS EiANMpEevOS* O MEV yap ed@bipOs 
Kal WoTrEp Huepov, KapTrov eywv paywdn, ETEpor 
Sé dvo eiciv, wv o pev Urvoy o 6é paviay éwrrotety 
dSvvatat, wAciwov © tt So0els kal KTeiver. opoiws 
dé todto Kal éd’ étépwv éotl ANaPeEiv, & ToAdHY 
éyes Sudotacw. Tepl pmév ody THY AAov Ta 
TOLWOMV LKAVOS ElpnTal. mept dé Tod ciTov 

1 ofov conj. W.; 8d Ald. 

2 GAumédois conj. Sch.; &Anwédois U; GAnwédois M; GAomwédors 
Ald. of. Xen. Hell. 2. 4. 30. 

3 re after rots add. W. after Lobeck. 

4 e.g. Awrds and meAlAwtos. See Index, Awréds, 

5 ueAfAwros conj. Bod.; peAlas otros Ald. 



Such peculiarities are common in other plants also ; 
thus! it is the nature of the house-leek to remain 
always moist and green, its leaf being fleshy smooth 
and oblong. It grows on flat shores,? on the? earthy 
tops of walls, and especially on tiled roofs, when 
there is on them a sandy accumulation of earth. 

Possibly one might mention many other eccen- 
tricities. But, as has been repeatedly said, we must 
only observe the peculiarities and differences which 
one plant has as compared with others. Some plants 
are found in several forms which have almost‘ the 
same name, for instance the Jotos; for of this there 
are many forms differing in leaves stems flowers and 
fruit, including the plant called melzlotos® ; there are 
also forms differing in the virtues for which ® they 
are used as food, and again in their fondness for 
different localities. So too is it with many other 
plants. . 

Others are found in fewer forms, as _ strykhnos,' 
which is a general name covering plants that are 
quite distinct ; one is edible and like a cultivated 
plant, having a berry-like fruit, and there are two 
others,’ of which the one is said to induce sleep, 
the other to cause madness, or, if it is administered 
in a larger dose, death. The same thing may be 
observed in other plants which are widely dif- 
ferent. Now about the other herbaceous plants 
enough has been said; but concerning corn and 
corn-like plants we must speak next; for this 
subject still lies before us. 

8 §& 7H conj. Sch.; Serra UM ; Sirrais Ald. 

7 cf. 7. 7.2; Plin. 21. 177-179; Diosc. 4. 70-73 ; Index. 

8 In 9. 11. 5 these two plants are said to be cvvévvpor, i.e. 
different forms of the same plant, whereas the ‘ edible’ 
orpvxvos is the same only in name (éuwvupia). of. 9. 12. 5. 


fasted bg tl oe 
‘, rileiaage 

Je stoitaiyt aie “hee fat 
ay ona UF 



Nie F vas Ant if 

inuRia wot AMests ATROPHY set Ans mane 
PEE © weer ie ey sali yoni 
tdaick ie gsivcaebe 

. ad ¥ $ 
pA OS 

deg bini 

qunene: “ir 
* a) iaal SE a 

pANHe > 5 take 
Hatt bi me acres psig nivdligh |: 

“vt ey 





T. Ilept péev ody Tov AdrA@V TOLwWddY ixaVas 
cipro rept 5€ olTov Kal TOV otTWdOY déryoopev 

a / 
Avo 5é avtod yévn Ta péyiota TYyydve Ta 
\ \ 0 ® \ 0 \ , \ \ 
pev yap otT@dn, olov Tupol KpiOal tidar Ceval Ta 
dda TA Omorotrupa 7) omoroKpiOa: Ta dé YedpoTra, 
* , Pet X eM, ee 
olov Kvapmos épéBivOos Triads Kal dd\ws Ta dom pia 

mMpocaryopevopeva’ Tpitov € Tap avTa Kéyypos 
éXupoOs oHoapmoV Kal aTAM@S TA év Tos OEpivois 
> / > / a , 
apoToLs aVOVULA KOH Tpoanyopta. 

yy be € \ / > an , \ c a 

Eore 6€ 7) pev yéveois avTov pia Kal ar 
hvetat yap amo o7mépuatos, €av pn TL oTdvLoV 

\ 3 / > \ an e7 kK \ a , 
Kal OrLyov amo Ths plifys. w@par Sé€ Tod omdpov 
Tov TAEcioToOV Sv0' TpeTNH pev Kal paddioTa 1) 

mept IInerddos Svow, 4 Kal “Hotodos nxorovdnke 

1 rev before roiwdav om. Sch. 
2 Plin. 18. 48-80. 
3 ZAvuos: weAtvn appears to be the Attic name for this 
en: Sch. would restore it for @Avuos here and 4, 4. 10; 
Saas 3, 




Of the three classes and the times of sowing and of germination. 

I. Let the above suffice for an account of the other 
herbaceous! plants; let us now discuss corn and 
corn-like plants in the same manner as those already 
treated; for this class of herbaceous plants we 

2‘There are two principal classes; there are the 
corn-like plants such as wheat barley one-seeded 
wheat rice-wheat and the others which resemble 
either of the first two; and again there are the 
leguminous plants, as bean chick-pea pea, and in 
general those to which the name of pulses is 
given. Besides these there is a third class, which 
includes millet? Italian millet, sesame and _ in 
general the plants which belong to the summer 
seed-time,* which lack any common designation. 

There is only one single way of propagating these ; 
they grow from seed, except that some may grow 
rarely and scantily from a root. There are two 
seasons for sowing most of them; the first and 
most important is about the setting of the Pleiad®; 
this rule we find even Hesiod® following with 

4 of. 8.7. 3. 

5 TAeddos conj. Sch.; wAeiddas U; wAciddav Ald. 
6 Hes. Op. 383. 



Kal oxedov ot TAEloTOL, dt 6 Kal KadodaL TLVES 
avTiv dpotov' addy 8 apyopévov Tod Hpos peta 
Tas Tporras Tob Xerpwavos. _ ov TOV avTav 6é 
éxatépa. Ta pev yap avTav iret mpwioTo- 
peioOat, Ta O€ Oe Sia TO pH StvacOa épew 
TOUS XEwovas, Ta 6€ mpos apoporépas Tas @pas 
* A : 
ov KaKds Exel, Kal Tpos Xetwdva Kal Tos ap. 

IIpwicmopa pév obv éote tupos KpiOn, Kal Tov- 
Tov » KpLOn twpwiotropwtepov' ete O€ Cea Tidy 
ddUpa Kal el TL ETEpoy OpmoLoTUpOY* amTdvT@V yap 
TKXESOV 0 AUTOS XpoVvos THs sTOpas: TaV bé YEdpo- 
yap Sia THY acbéverav tportaPely TH pilocer 
BovreTat Tovs yetwovas: Tpwicrropov Sé Kal oO 
Oéppos: ato THs ddhw yap hace Seiv kataRddrew 

"Owrioropa dé TovTwY ye a’Tav boa Siadhéper 
Tots yéveowy, olov tupay Té TL yévos Kal KpLO dV O 
Kanrovat Tpiunvoy dia TO év TOTOUT@ TEdAELOVTO AL’ 
Kal TOV YEedpoTr@V Ta ToLdbe, Pakods abaKNH TLGdS. 
év auotépats 5€ Tais Opais TOV XedpoTrav, KaOd- 
mep opoBos épéBivOos: ot S€ Kal Tov KVapov oe 
amas 6€ Tpwicmopodar Ta pev Ou loyvV ws 
duvapeva hépew Tors yem@vas, Ta O€ bu aaé- 
vetav, OT WS TPOAGBwot Tais evdiais THY avENoW. 
Svo pev ovv atta. tpitn b€ Tov CEepwwav iv 

1 A cultural variety of (ed. cf. 8. 9. 2. 

2 cav 5€ ye Ald.; ye om. Sch. 

3 Sxpos conj. W.; Kéyxpos Ald.; om. G. cf. 8. 3. 1 and 2. 
*of..8. IT.’3, 



most authorities; wherefore some call it simply 
‘the seed-time.’ Another time is at the beginning 
of spring after the winter equinox. However 
different crops are sown at the two seasons. For 
some of them leve to be sown éarly, some late 
because they cannot bear the winters, while some 
will do not amiss at either season, both towards 
winter and towards spring. 

Crops sown early are wheat and barley, and of 
these the latter is sown the earlier; also rice-wheat 
one-seeded wheat olyra,! and others which resemble 
wheat. For all of these the time of sowing is about 
the same. Of leguininous plants? bean and okhros,’ 
it may be said, are specially sown at this time; for 
these on account of their weakness like to be well 
rooted before the winter. Lupin is also sown early ; 
in fact they say it should be sown straight from the 

Those which are sown late are certain special 
varieties*® of these very kinds, as a certain kind of 
wheat, and of barley the kind which is called ‘ three 
months barley’ because it takes that time to mature ; 
and among leguminous plants lentil tare pea, 
However some of these plants are sown at both 
seasons, as vetch and chick-pea; some also sow 
beans late, if they have missed the first seed-time. 
To speak generally, some crops are sown early 
because of their robustness, since they can stand 
the winters, some because of their weakness, so 
that their growth may be secured® in the fine 
weather. These then are the two seasons; the 
third is that of the summer crops of which we 

5 rois yeveoww: TH yevéeorr W. i.e. ‘certain kinds which 
; Leg cng wagell x, todbrr said 
differ as to their germination, Sof. C.P. 4. 7. 2. 

| 145 
VOL, It. L 


elTroper, év My KEeYX pos omeiperae Kat pédtvos Kal 
ong apor, Eri & épvotpov Kal Gppuvov. xXpovot mév 
oby éxdoT@V OvTOL. 

Braoraver bé 70 pev Oadttov Td dé Bpadvrepov- 
Kal pin bev Kal Tupos éBdopaia padiota* Tmpo- 
Tepel dé 7 xpiOn pardov* Tao dom pia Tetaptaia 
7 meuTrraia Ty Kudpov" Kva Los dé Kal TOV 
oLTMo@Y evLa Treloow" evtaxod yap Kal mevte- 
KaiwexaTaios, 0 ore bé Kat eixoataios: ovogvéota- 
Tov yap TOUTO TaVTOV, éav oé on Kal TTApEVTos 
emi THEOV  Ddwp € emuyevntar, Kal TAVTEAWS. ei O€ 
ToV év Tols Hplwois apoToLs OatTov H Exduvats Sia 

Xp 5é tas avaBraotHoeas Kal tas Stadpioes 
TavTas aos emt TO Wav Sada Beiy: évioTe yap 
éviaxod Kal ép edt roow peas, kabarep év 
Aiyirrr@ <KprO>" TpiTatay yap pact Kal TeTap- 
Taiav avatéXrew Tap addois O€ év TAELoTL TOV 
elpnuevor, Strep Kal OvK aovov, oray Kab xXepa 
Kal ap Suahépy Kab mpwiattepov n oxpuaiepov 
apoon Kab Ta eruywoueva dvomova Tuyxavy. y} 
pev yap wavy Kal Kovpn Kat evKpaTe dept TAXV 
Kal pgdios avadsio@ow, 7} 4 5 yALoxpa Kal Bapeta 
Bpadéos, %) 88 tots térois abypwdeotépa Bpadd- 

"Ete € ay Xetpeves eruyevovTar Kal avxpol 
Kal evdolar Kal mwdadwW véata: Kal yap év ToUTOLS 


ToNUW Tapaddatrovelw. waavTws Oé Kal éay 7 

1 %yia conj. W.; év Ald. 
2 The reason is given CP. 4. 8. 2. 
2) TAs A, 



spoke, mn which are sown millet Italian millet 
sesame, and also erysemon and horminon. Such then 
are the times for each. 

Some are quicker in coming up, some slower. 
Barley and wheat-generally come up on the seventh 
day, but barley is the earlier. Pulses take four 
or five days, except beans; for they, like some 
kinds! of corn, require a longer time; in some 
places they take as much as fifteen days, or even 
twenty. This crop indeed is the slowest to start 
of all, and if after the sowing there is a long spell of 
wet weather, it is extremely slow.?, Whether the 
sprouting * of crops sown at the spring seed-time 
is quicker because of the season is matter for 

These times of sprouting or germination must be 
taken generally; for at some times and _ places 
germination takes fewer days, as with barley* in 
Egypt, where it is said to come up on the third 
or fourth day ; while elsewhere it takes longer than 
the period mentioned, which is not surprising when 
both soil and climate are different, when one makes 
the sowing earlier or later, and when the crop is 
subjected to different influences afterwards... For 
open light soil with a favourable ® climate produces 
quick and easy growth, while soil that is sticky and 
heavy tends to slow growth, and that of a specially 
dry district to slower growth still. 

Moreover the time of growth is affected, according 
as storms supervene, or droughts, or fine weather 
or again rain; for these conditions make wide 
differences. So too it makes a difference if the 

* «pry add. W. 
5 etxpat@ conj. Scal. from G (benigno caelo) ; edxdpmp Ald. 

4 2 



A if 
yf} Mpoeipyacuevn Kal KoTTpoY eEXovTa TYYXaVy, 
Kal éav pndev tovTwv' émel Kal mepl TO Tpwi- 
oTropely éxacta Kal oyiotropely ai x@pat dtadé- 
” \ \ \ \ ¢ - 4 
povowv. évior S€ Kat mept tHv “EAAdOa travta 
eo al Ss \ / a 
Tpwiattopey eoOacr dia YruxpoTnta Ths Xw@pas, 
an e a 
@otrep of Pawxels, OTwS AV ol YELMaVES Hn VHTLA 
II. Braotaver 5€ Ta pev ex TOD avTodD THY 
pifav adiévta Kal To PvdAov, TA Sé Exdtepov e& 
ae A \ \ 
éxaTépov TOU akpov. Tupos pev ovv Kal KpLOn 
\ / \ oo v4 , / 3 e / 
Kal tidy Kal ddhws boa o1thdyn Tdvta éE ExaTépov 
fa) ” , \ a 
a / \ es > \ \ a \ 
Tov maxéos THY pifav amo é TOD dvw Tov Brac- 
/ a n 
Tov’ év O€ TL Kal cuvexes yiveTat TO apdoty THs 
te pitns Kal Tov Kavrod. Kvamos 5é Kal Ta ddra 
I ¢€ , 3 ,.f n > a \ e7 
vedpoTTa ovy omolws, ANN eK TOD avTOD THY pitay 
\ / 27 A / a: 
Kal Tov Kavdrov, Kal 0 Kal » Tpocdvals avTav 
> \ \ r Bo > e \ » t > 7 23% 
éott Tpos TOV AOBor, ev G Kal Exovow olov apynv 
/ » Te Es om s \ \ > an , 
tia pavepav: én’ éviwr 5é Kal aidoddes haiverat, 
Kabanep ert Tav Kvdwov Kal Tov épeBivOarv Kal 
pddiota Tov Oéppwv: ex TovTov yap » pev pila 
4 \ \ 4 : <' x an 
KaT@ TO O€ PUAXOV Kal O KAUAOS aw YwpeEl. 
é i UA \ 9S Ps / n be e / 
avuTn pev ovY TH OLadEepel. TH O€ OpMOLwsS 
a \ \ f n na 
éyes TH TdvTa KaTa THY TpocdvoL Tod AoBod 
n / \ 
Kal Tod otaxvos adiévar tHv pilav Kal 1) 

1 &s mpoeipy. Ald. H.; ws om. Sch. from G. of. 8:8, &. 
3 Sonep conj. Scal.; mévra Ald. (? repeated by mistake). ef. 
O.P. 4. 7. 4. 



ground has been well tilled! and given dung, or if 
neither of these things has been done; for the soil 
makes a difference even as to the early or late 
germination of each crop. In Hellas some are used 
to sow everything earlier because of the coldness of 
the soil, for instance the Phocians ;? the object being 
that the winter may not overtake the crop while it is 
still tender. 

Of differences in the mode of germination and of subsequent 

IJ. In germinating some of these plants produce 
their root and their leaves from the same point, some 
separately, from either end of the seed. Wheat 
barley one-seeded wheat, and in general all the 
cereals produce them from either end, in a manner 
corresponding to® the position of the seed in the ear, 
the root growing from the stout lower part, the shoot 
from the upper part; but the part corresponding to 
the root and that corresponding to the stem form a 
single continuous whole. Beans and other leguminous 
plants do not grow in the same manner, but they 
produce the root and the stem from the same point, 
namely the point at which the seed is attached to 
the pod, which, it is plain, is a sort of starting point 
of fresh growth, In some cases there is also a forma- 
tion resembling the pents, as in beans chick-peas 
and especially in lupins; from this* the root grows 
downwards, the leaf and the stem upwards. 

There are then these different ways of germinat- 
ing ; but a point ® in which all these plants agree is 
that they all send out their roots at the place where 

4 rovrov conj. Sch.; tovray Ald. cf. C.P. 4. 7. 4. 
* of. CPL 40-7. 7. 




kabatep év tois Sevdpixois tisw avatrarw, olor 
apuvyiarh Kapvm Bardvm Tois toLovtos. év 
adtmacu O€ 1) pita MiKp@ TM poTepov expvetar Tod 
Kavdov" oupBaiver dé ev yé TioL TOV dévdpov 
@OTE TOV pev Bracrov é&y avT@® TO omréppate 
Praoravew T POT Ov, avéavouevov 88 Suictracbat 
Ta oT épuaTta—TravTa yap TwWS Kal TavTa Sipeph, 
Ta 5é 82) xedpoTra pavepas mavra diOvpa Kal 
owOera—rhy dé piSav evOds &&eo Tpowbeia Bac: 
év 6é Tots autnpois dia To Kal” év aura elvat 
ToUTO pev ov aupBaiver, mpoteped 5é 1) pita 
pu pov. 

‘Avadverat be 7 pev KpiOn Kal 0 Tupos povo- 
pudra, 6 68 miads Kal Oo vamos Kal o epéBvOos 
TONUHUARA. pitay dé € exet Ta pev xedporra TwavTa 
Evrodn Kab play amo o€ TAUTNS Kal arropucers 
hem Tas. Babuppiforatov | d€ ws eltreiy TovTMY 
6 épéBivOos, éviore dé Kal mapaxabinary GNX’ 
0 Tupos Kal 7 xpiOn Kal Ta adda Ta oLT@ON 
modvppiba Kal Ae roppita, be é Kal Tappodn. 
Kal mohvKdaba Kal TONUKAUAA mayTa Ta TowvTa. 
oxedov dé xal évaytiwcis Tus EKATEPOV éoti’ Ta 
pev yap yedpoTra povoppita ova TONNAS avo bev 
avd TOV KaVAoY aTropiceEls Eyer TAHVY KUdmOU* 
Ta 6€ olTNpa Trorvppita TOAXNOUS pe avinos 

1 Bardv@: S:ocBaddvp Sch. from mBod. 

2 riot TeV Sévdpwy con}. W.; oirddeow UMAIA.; rots Sevdpixois 
conj. Sch. This and W.’s other conjectures in this section 
are rather desperate, but are accepted provisionally as at 
least restoring a satisfactory sense. The passage looks as if 
it had been deliberately tampered with by someone who 
misunderstood it. 



the seed is attached to the pod or ear, whereas the 
contrary is the case with the seeds of certain trees, 
as almond hazel acorn! and the like. And in all 
these plants the root begins to grow a little before 
the stem; whereas in certain trees? the bud first 
begins to grow within the seed itself, and, as it 
increases in size, the seeds split—for all such seeds 
are in a manner in two halves, and those of 
leguminous plants again all plainly have two valves 
and are double—and then the root is immediately 
thrust out; but in cereals,® since the seeds are in 
one piece,‘ this does not® occur, but the root grows a 
little before the bud. 

Barley and wheat come up with a single leaf, but 
peas beans and chick-peas with several. 6 All the 
leguminous plants have a single woody root, and 
also slender’ side-roots springing from this. The 
chick-pea is about the deepest rooting of these, and 
sometimes it has side-roots; but wheat barley 
and the other cereals have a number of fine roots, 
wherefore they are matted together. Again all 
such plants have many branches and many stems. 
And there is a sort of contrast between these two 
classes ; the leguminous plants, which have a single 
root, have many side-growths above from the stem— 
all except beans; while the cereals, which have 
many roots, send up many shoots,® but these have 

oirnpois conj. W.; xedporots UMAId. 

Kad’ év abra conj. W.; Kara 7d adtd UMAId, 
ov conj. Seal. from G ; ody UMAId. 

Plin. 18. 51. 

Aerrds conj. St.; Aewral Ald. H. 

tappwdn: ef. 6. 7. 4. 

pev conj. Sch.; yap Ald. H. 

orn ane & 



Bractovs, atapadBracto Sé obToL, mrNV et TE 
yévos Tup@v ToLodror, ovs KadoveL oiravias Kal 

Tov pev ovv NELMOVA ev Th xrOn pever Ta 
atT@on, Stayeh@ons Sé THs W@pas Kavrov adinow 
éx TOU péoou Kal yovatovrar. oupPatver 8 
evdus € év TS TpIT@ yovart, Tots bé €v TO TeTapTo, 
Kal TOV oTaXvv exe GAN’ ov pavepov év TO 
Oyx@'—ryivetar O& é&v 7 odX@ Kadape melo 
TOUT@Y'—@aTe aXEdoY apa TH Karapodabar 
ovvictacbat <i> pot pov borepor arr ov 7 p0- 
TEpov pavepos yiverau mpiv ay mpoavéndels € ev TH 
KANUKL yévntat, TOTE O€ 1) KUNTLS havepa Ova TOV 

‘AmonvOels S evdvs avOei pe?” Hue pas TéeTTAPAS 
i) TEVTE Kab mupos Kar Kpedn Kal avoet axedov 
Tas leas, oi 8€ Tas TEioTAS AéyovTes ev Tabs 
émrd pacwy atravOeiv. andra TOV xed por ay 
Xpovtos » avOnats: Xpoviwrary dé TOV pev addov 
opoBov Kat épeBivGov, tovTwv 8 amavtwav Tod 
KUamov Kal év peyictn Stahopa TeTTapaKovTa 
yap nuepo@v avOeiy éyovot: TAHV of pev aél 
Tapavbobvtos éTepov Kal étépou he KaTa 
HE pos yap avOeiv, ot Oé aTROS. » yap avOnors 
TOY Hey oTAaXUNPaV abpows TOV O€ EAB wdav 
Kab xedpor ay TavT@V KaTa pEpos” TpPOTA yap 
avet Ta KATO, Kat oray TavTa aravOnan Ta 
éyoueva, Kal ottas aiel Babdifer mpds Ta avo. 

1 Plin. 18. 52. 2 Plin. 18. 56, 
o 0%. Fa. Fe 3B. 8A 



no side-shoots—except such sorts of wheat as are 
ealled sitanias and krithanias (¢ barley-wheat’). 

1During winter cereals remain in the blade, but, 
as the season begins to smile, they send up a stem 
from the midst and it becomes jointed. 7 And it 
comes to pass that the ear also at once appears in the 
third, or in some cases in the fourth joint, though 
it is not distinctly seen in the mass of growth (the 
whole stem contains more joints than three or four), 
so that it must be formed at the same time that 
the straw grows or but a little later ; though it does 
not become conspicuous till it has first swollen and 
formed in the sheath,’ and by that time its size 
makes its development visible. 

Four or five days after being set free* wheat and 
barley flower and remain in bloom for a like number 
of days; those who put the period at the longest say 
that the bloom is shed in seven days. °QOn the 
other hand the flowering period of leguminous plants 
lasts a long time; that of vetch and chick-pea is 
longer than that of most, but that of the bean is far 
longer than that of any of them ; they say that it is 
in bloom for forty days; some however give this 
period absolutely, others say that at different times 

different parts are in flower,® since the whole plant 
does not flower at once. For plants with an ear 
bloom all at once, but plants with pods and all 
leguminous plants bloom part at a time; the lower 
part blooms first, and, when this bloom has fallen, 
the part next above it, and so on up to the top. 

4 Sc. from the sheath. dmrodvdels Ald.H.; aroxv0els conj. 
Sch. followed by W. ef. amdxvors 8. 3. 4. 

5 Plin. 18. 59. 

5 sapavOotvros conj. H.; waparvOovvres Ald. 




5: 5 moda THY dpdBev TidreTaL TA pev KATO 
Kateppunkota Ta 8 dvw YAwpa TauTay. 

Meta 6€ tiv amdvOnow adptvovtat Kal TEdr- 
evouvTat Tupos péev Kal KpiOn TeTTApaKocTaia 
MamoTa TapaTAnciws Sé Kal Tidy Kal Tadpra 
Ta TolavTAa. TeTTapaKooTtaioy bé dact Kal Tov 
Kvapmov, wate év icats avOeivy Kal TereLtodcBat: 
ta & adda év €XdTTOCW: édXayioTas Sé Oo épé- 

‘BwOos, elrep amd THs oTopas év TeTTapadKovTa 

TeNevovTaL Talis amdcais BoTep TLvés hac’ 
3 4 ‘ ’ v4 ¢ , , € \ 
émel TO y OAov OTL TadytoTa davepov. ot Sé 
KéyxXpot Kal TA OnoapaA Kal ol pédALVOL Kal bros 
Ta Oepiva ayedov oporoyettar Tas TeTTapdKovO 
€ / 4 e / i / 
nuépas NawBaverv’ ot € hact Kal éXaTTOUSs. 
Avadépes 5é Kal pos THY TErElwoLv Yopa TE 
yopas Kal anp aépos: év éXNdTTOCL yap éviat 
a -] / av BA \ 4 
dSoKovGaLV EX PEPELY, womep addat TE KAL padloTa 
3 / Sy, > lal \ \ \ > 
éridy ros Aiyurtos: éxet ydp KpiOal pev év 
e , \ Ol 9 na ¢ r , \ 
éEaunve tupol o€ év Te ERSOuw Oepifovtac: Tept 
¢€ a 
dé tiv “Eddrdba xpiOai pév ev TO EBSOmo Tapa be 
Tois mAEioTols Oydom, Tupol Oé éTL mTpoceTt- 
AapBavovow. ov pv ovbé éxel TO ye TAY TAHOOS 
ev > >] 4 > > / rd sy 
ovUTwWS, GAN Ogoy els amapxXnv' KoulfeTat yap 
an nr , A 
mMpos lep@v TwWaY ypEelav adAdita véa TO ExTO 
pnvi Kai TadTa éx THY advw TOT@V UTép Méudw. 
, fal , 
Aéyetau 5€ kal év LuKedia THs Meconvias év 

1 uéAwot Ald.H.; fAvuor Vo. Vin. cf. 8. 1. 1 n. 


Wherefore, at the time when some of the vetches 
are gathered, the lower seeds have already fallen, 
while the upper ones are still quite green. 

After the flowering is over wheat and barley 
develop and mature in about forty days ; one-seeded 
wheat and other such plants take about the same 
time. So too, they say, does the bean, which blooms 
and matures in a like number of days: but the 
others take fewer, and fewest of all the chick-pea, 
since, as some say, it takes only forty days from the 
time when it is sown to that when it is mature ; and 
in any case it is clear that the plant as a whole 
develops very rapidly. Millet sesame Italian millet} 
and the summer crops in general, it is fairly well 
agreed, take the same number of days, that is, forty ; 
though some say that they take less. 

Of differences in development due to soil or climate. 

2 Again as to the development of the plant there 
are differences according to soil and climate. Some 
soils seem to produce the crop in fewer days; for 
instance, Egypt may be given as a specially con- 
spicuous example; in that country barley is reaped 
in six months and wheat in seven: while in Hellas 
the barley * harvest is in the seventh month, or in 
most parts in the eighth, and wheat requires an 
even longer time. However even in Egypt the 
whole harvest is not gathered at such an early date, 
but only what is required for the first-fruits ; for they 
gather new grain for the meal required in certain 
sacrifices in the sixth month, and that too in the 
regions high up the Nile, above Memphis. 

It is said also that in the Messenian district in 

2 Plin, 18. 49. 3 xpt0at conj. Sch.; mupo! UMAId. 


tais Kadovpévats Moras taxeldv twa yiverOar 
/ a / an 
THY TEeAeLwoLY TOV OYfiwy TOY TOV doTrpiwY péV 
a \ a 
yap omopntov && pivas, tov b& TO toTaTe 
omeipavta Oepifew dua tots mpwtos’ ayabiy dé 
SiadepovTas eivar THY Kopav, HoTE TPLAKOVTaYoa 
motel, éyew 5€ Kal vouds Oavyactas Kal drnv. 
év Myr O€ Tt Oavpaciwrepov Néyovaww ev yap 
TPLaKOVTAa 1) TETTAPAKOVTA Huépats oTapévta 
/ ~ -& \ / > \ ¢ / 
Gepifovar, de’ 0 Kal réyew avdTodvs Ste péypt 
tovtov det onreiperv Ews av dyn Tis Spaypa: 
la \ BA ” a + \ 
yivecOar 5€ ovTe dompia ToladTa ovTE TOANA 
a \ / nr , 
map avtois. Sewny o€ twa dadodvar THY Yopav 
3 / 
Tpopiyy: Kal yap eivat ottopopoy pev kal édato- 
/ > \ > / \ / 
hopov ayabiy autreropopov Sé petpiav. 
‘TrepBdarXov & Ett tovTov Kal mdévt@v Bavpa- 
of \ \ / \ A \ ¢ , 
oLWOTEpoY TO TEpl Xadkiav THY vncov THY “Podiwy 
a > 
yuvopevoy' éxel yap ghacw eivat tia ToTov 
mpwiov o'Tw Kal Eeipopoyv ws orapeicov KpLOdV 
a / 
da tats addats Oepicavtes tav’Tas omeipovew 
93 4 Ss -7 e n al 
eita tad, eita Oepifovor dpa Tots Rovtois: 
7 \ 3 yy > a / ef 5 / \ 
peyioTn peév ody, eltrep adnOys, avtn Svadhopd. TO 
yap eis étépavy yopav peteveyOévta Sdiradépew, 
@otep €x Kidixias dacly eis Kammasdoxiay kat 
drAws THY éréxewwa ToD Tavpov, rTov aToToV: 
a / 
havepa yap » TOV TOTMY SidoTacts. 

1 rpraxovtdxoa con}. Sch.; rpidxovra xoas Ald. 
2 of. C.P. 4.11.8 



Sicily at the place called Mylae the late sown crops 
mature rapidly ; thus the sowing of pulses goes on 
for six months, but he that made the last sowing 
gathers his crop at the same time as the first: also 
that the soil is exceedingly good, so that it yields 
thirty-fold!; and there are also wonderful pastures 
and forest-land. They tell of an even more wonder- 
ful thing in Melos*; there they reap thirty or forty 
days after sowing; wherefore it is a saying of the 
islanders that “ one should continue sowing till one 
sees a swathe.” However it is said that pulses? in 
their country do not grow like this, nor are they 
abundant. Yet they say that the soil is wonderfully 
productive ; for it is good both for corn and olives, 
and fairly good for vines. 

However what occurs in Chalkia,* an island 
belonging to the Rhodians, goes even beyond this 
and is more extraordinary than all the instances 
given ; there they say that there is a place which is 
so early and so fertile that, when the barley is sown 
after reaping the crop with the other crops, they 
then sow again, and then reap the-crop thus sown at 
the same time as the remaining crops; this then, if 
it be true, marks a difference greater than we find 
anywhere else. For it is less surprising that there 
should be a difference in crops transferred® to 
another region, as they say occurs when they are 
transferred from Cilicia to Cappadocia or in general 
beyond the Taurus; for these regions are obviously 
very dissimilar. 

3 bompia ToadTra I conj.; bya tadta UAld.; ehiua taira 
M.G; P omits tadra. 

4 ef. Thuc. 8. 41 foll. 

5 uetevexOevta dSiapépew conj. Sch. and W. from G ; werey- 
kévtas omelpew Ald, 




\ \ \ a Ka 7 
To 5€ tHv adthy dupopety, ev @irep ye atrak ai 
aat, cvvopov ovcav Kal play Oavpaci@tatov' 
7 \ Ss ? / lal 
airy pav oby ev peyloty Siahopa. 
\ ¥ LA , b) 
Ta 6€ xaTta Tas addAXNas Ywpas ov TOAANY 7 
ovdemiay ws eimeiy ToD ye xpovov AapBaver 
a \ a ce 
SidoTacww* mpoTeper yap Tais @pais ta *AOn- 
vnot TOV Tept EXAnotovTov nuépais TpidKovTa 
A Xx > nA , ? \ 9 \ 
6 oTopNToOS TpoTEpov, peTaOeots ay ein THS dpas: 
> wr A 4 / x e , 
et © apa, SAAov OTt THELwY AV O YpOVos. 
> \ \ a \ +O\ e U 
Ov pixpav Sé rrotoder Siagpopay ov6é of ToToL, 
\ \ \ a 
Kaitep éviot suveyyus évtes* Ta yap év Yadapin 
a \ lal bd a > a ? a \ 
MpoTEpel TOV TOV GAdwv TaV ev TH ATTLKH Kal 
ef 1 ad | / \ > a \ > \ 
dAws TA émiOaraTTLa Kal Els TATA Kal Eis TOUS 
v 4 e \ \ \ ? \ 
adXovs KapTovs, ws Ta Tepl THY AKTHY KaXov- 
rd a / \ \ > / 
pevnvy tHS IleXotovyncov Kal ta ev Parixo 
a f \ a 
ths Meryapisos: mAnv évtav0d ye cvpBarreTar 
\ \ 4 7 \ \ \ 
kal TO RemTOyewv eElvar Kai wadapayv Thy 
VOpPav. Kal Ta Mev TEplL THY yéverww Kal THY 
III. Avadéper 5é nal’ bra Ta yévn Ta Sinpy- 
péva ToV yevav, olov aitos yedpoTra Ta Oepwa, 

. - / c an \ 
Kal Kad’ Exactov yévos Ta oOpoyerh. Ta pev yap 

oLToon TO PUAXNOY EyEL KAAdMOV, TaV bé yedpo- 

1 j,e. and so in part account for the difference. ef rijs 
épas conj. Sch.; # ris xépas MP; etm tis xdpas Ald. H. 

2 ¢.e. we cannot say how far the difference is due to climate 
without knowing whether the seed-time at either place is 
the same, 



But that one particular land should produce two 
crops in the time that other lands to which it is close 
take to produce one, is very remarkable; wherefore 
Chalkia exhibits the greatest difference. 

The crops grown in other regions show not much, 
if any, dissimilarity as to time; those grown at 
Athens are only about thirty days or not much 
more before those of the Hellespont region. Now, 
if the sowing should turn out to be also earlier, 
that would shift the season back!; if it is at the 
same time, it is plain that the difference of time 
would be greater.” 

Again the particular district makes a considerable 
difference, even as between places which are not far 
apart; thus the crops of Salamis are far earlier than 
those of the rest of Attica, and so in general are those 
of places by the sea; and this applies to other fruits 
as well as these: for instance, those of the place 
called Akte in the Peloponnese and of Phalykos% 
in the Megarid are early; but here something is 
contributed by the fact that the soil is light and 
crumbling. Such are the facts in regard to growth 
and development. 

Of differences between the parts of cereals, pulses, and summer 
crops respectively. 

III. There are also differences between+ the 
whole classes which we have mentioned, namely 
cereals leguminous plants ® and summer crops, as 
well as between the several members® of the same 
class. Cereals have the leaf of a reed, while of 

3 év barinm I conj.: cf. 2. 8. 1; ev badrhep conj. W.; 
épartice U; éx parannw M; ex dadnxov Ald. 

4 xa@? conj. Sch.; «al Ald. H. 5 cf. 8. 1. 1. 

8 Suoyern conj. Sch.; duooyerR Ald. 




A \ \ / ® e 4 \ 
TOV TA pev Trepipepes, olov 6 KVAapos Kal ayEdoV 
Ta ThEloTa, Ta Sé TMpopnKéoTeEpor, olov 6 Tas 
Kal 0 NdOupos Kal 0 @Ypos Kal TA TOLADTA. Kal 
Ta pev ivodn ta 8 apreBa Kai diva. od Sé 
oncapmov Kal TO épvotpov idt@TEpa Tapa TadTa. 

4 n ~ 

IldAwv 0 Kavros ToY pev yovaT@dns Kal KoiXos, 
d? 0 Kal Kadeitar Kddapos: oO 5é Tod KUdpou 
KotXos, TOV 8 adrAwv yYedpoTav EvrAwWSéoTEpOS, 
Evkwdéotatos Sé 0 épéBivOos: Tov 5é Oepwwav 
KéyX pou pév Kal peXivov KaNap“odns, ono dmou bé 
Kal épvoipov vapOnkedns parrov. Kal Ta pev 
éotiv opSoKxavra, xaldmep mupos Kal KpiO Kal 
bAws Ta oiTwdn Kal Oepivd, Ta & TAAYLOKAVAG 
HadnXop, olov épéBivO0s SpoBos daxkds, Ta 8 émt- 

, 7 5 \ / e \ 
yeloxavra, Kabatrep wXpos miaos AaOuUpos: oO Se 
Sorrxyos, €av Tapaxatatynen tis Eva maxpa, 
avaBaive Kal yiverat kaptimos, ef 5é un, Padros 

ak, , ey cy | / a 
Kal épvatBwdns* povos 6 i) padiota TaV xYedpo- 

"Eyer 0€ kat Ta avOn Siadopav Kab tH pice 

\ a Oé ye 50 > a > ow 
Kal TH Oéoet, mepl oY axEddV Ev Tois KAO” Grov 
dieiAopev, OTL TA pev YVOWSN, KADdTrEp GiTOU Kal 
TavTos TOU oTayv@dors' TA 5é PYAA@SN, KAD- 

1 Plin. 18. 58. 2 ¢.e. summer crops’; cf. 8. 1. 1. 

* Sc. but not jointed. W. suggests that the original text 
may have been ray 5é d:dAov Koidos ofov 6 Tod Kuduov. 

4 wedtvoy Ald. H.; éAdmov V; éAdmov Vin. cf. 8.1.1; 8.1. 6. 

5 4 add. St.; om. Ald. H.G. $1.13. 1:(2) 

7 xvowdn. No rendering seems quite satisfactory: the 



leguminous plants some have a round leaf, as beans 
and most others, some a more oblong leaf, as pea 
lathyros okhros and the like. 14Some again have 
fibrous leaves, others leaves without veins and fibres. 
Again sesame? and erysimon? have leaves quite 
distinct from these. 

Again the stem of cereals is jointed and hollow; 
wherefore it is called the ‘reed, while that of the 
bean is hollow,? and that of the other leguminous 
plants is more woody, that of chick-pea woodiest 
of all; of the summer crops that of millet and 
Italian millet* is reed-like, that of sesame and 
erysimon is more like the stem of ferula. Some 
again have erect stems, as wheat barley and 
in general the cereals and summer crops; some 
have rather a crooked stem, as chick-pea vetch 
lentil ; some a creeping stem as okhros pea lathyros ; 
while calavance, if long stakes are set by it, climbs 
them and becomes fruitful, whereas otherwise the 
plant is unhealthy and liable to rust; the bean, 
most of all leguminous .plants, if not® alone among 
them, has an erect stem. 

The flowers also shew differences in character 
and in position (of which matters we have to some 
extent treated in our general account) ®; - thus 
some are ‘downy,’ as those of corn® and of any 
plant that has an ‘ear’; others are ‘leafy,’® as 
those of leguminous plants, and in most cases they 
are irregular? flowers; for most of these have 
meaning is that such flowers may be classed with those 
distinguished by this term in 1. 13. 1, as not being petaloid. 

8 glrov Kal mavtds Tod oraxvdédovs conj. Sch. from G, wt 
omnium fere gerentium spicam; mov cal naytds Tod xvAsdous 
UMAId. 9 Se. petaloid. 

10 cf. 6. 5. 3. a.e. they depart from radial symmetry. 

VOL, Il, M 



} : 5 
Ta yap TodAAa KodoBavOy: xvomdes 5é Kal TO 
a / an 
Tov Kéyypouv Kal pedivov Tod dé onoduov Kal 
a / cal 
Tov épuvciwov dvdAdAWbes. Kal OTe Oy TA peV 
éyer Tepl avTOV TOY KapTOV, Olovy Ta aiTHdyn Kal 
\ per. 
Keyypodn tepl Tov otdyuy' Ta be yedpoTa é& 
n ‘al 4 iol fel nr 
avTov Tas Tov avOous i) amo ye THS aUTHS apxs 
/ \ \ ” Q va \ \ > / \ \ 
yiverat. Kal THY avOnowy, Ott TA ev GOpoav Ta bé 
a = ; 
KATA épos TrovetTat* Kai TANNA Sé TA TapaTAHoLA 
€ / be \ \ \ \ 4 7 \ 
Opoiws 5€ Kai Ta KaTa TOs KapTrOvs, OTL TA 
pev exes otayur, Ta O€ yedpoTa AoBov, Ta Sé 
© / . e de a ny) > / 
Keyxpodyn hoBnv: 7 dé Kadauwdns atroxvets 
, \ > > 4 \ \ > 
poBn. To 8 6rov évayyewooTepua, Ta Oe évu- 
/ \ \ / 
pevootepua, Ta Sé yupvooTeppa: Kal ett TA pev 
> 4 \ \ 4 \¢ \ 
aKpoxapTa, Ta Sé TaYLOKapTrA, Kal doa 81) ara 
TavTns éxeTat THS Oewpias. 
4 \ 
"Orws 5 roAvKapToTepa Kal ToAVvYovGTEpA 
\ 5 , / 8 4 AN \ @ \ 
Ta yedpord, Toray 8 eT’ paddov Ta Oepwa 
KéyxXpos Kal onoapov, avTov Sé TaV yedpoTraV 
a \ 
pardiota phakos. amos dé TA pLKpOoTrEpLOTEpA 
HGAAOV ws eiTElv, WoTEP Kal TOV NaYaVwWdoY 
Tepa 5é€ Tmpos pev TOV YEeLlm@va Kal bros Ta 
an \ \ 
Tov aépos Ta oTHpd, Todos Se THY Tpohyv Ta 

» weAlvov Ald.H.; éavuov Vo.Vin. cf. 8. 3. 2 and reff. 

2 of. 8. 3. 3n. 3 Plin. 18. 53. 

4 ardxvo1s conj. Sch. from G3 amrépuors P,Ald. ef. 4. 4. 10, 
amoxeita:; 8. 10.4; C.P. 3. 21. 5. 

5 +b 8 bAov: 27a 98 olor. 



such flowers. Those of millet and Italian millet! 
are also ‘downy, ? those of sesame and erysimon 
‘leafy.’ Another difference is that in some cases 
the flowers are round the fruit; thus those of corn 
and millet are round the ear; while in leguminous 
plants the fruit comes as it were from the flower 
itself, or at least from the same _ starting-point. 
Another difference is that some produce all their 
flowers at once, others in succession. And there are 
other differences akin to these. 

In like manner there are differences in the fruits ; 
some have an ‘ear, leguminous plants a pod, and 
millet-like plants a ‘plume’?—which is the name 
given to an inflorescence‘ such as reeds have. Again, 
generally speaking,? some have their seeds in a 
vessel,° some in pods,’ some naked; and further 
some bear their fruit at the top, some at’ the 
sides; and there are other differences which bear on 
this enquiry. 

In general the leguminous plants produce more 
fruit and are more prolific, and the summer crops 
millet and sesame are even more so than these, while 
among the leguminous plants themselves lentil is 
the most prolific. ® Generally speaking, those that 
have small seeds are more prolific, as cummin among 
pot-herbs, which are all prolific of seed. The seeds 
of cereals are more robust as to standing winter and 
conditions of climate generally, while those of 
leguminous plants are stronger as to providing 
sass ®° However it may be that in this respect 

6 nev or vaereseet conj. Sch.; wey éyyerdorepua PAld. of. 
C.P. 4.°7. 5 

7 of. 1. 11. 2. 8 of. CP. 4. 15. 2. 

® z.e. what has just been said perhaps applies only to human 
food. Sense fixed by 8. 9. 3 ad jin.: ef. Plin. 18. 50. 

mM 2 



yedpotda. Taya dé TovTO ye Huiy Tois aARoLS 

+ i Ta pev ov dda yévn ToLavTAS exet dva- 
popas: Ta. O€ omoyevt} OjAov 6TL KaTa THY TOV 

bepov dvopanay, olov TOY olT@OOY TUpos 
KpiOns orevopurOTEpov Kab AeLoKavrAOTEpov Kal 
TUKVOTEPOV Kal Ya x poTepov EXEL TOV Kavnov 
Kal uaa ToT Epo" dpa Sé Kai Oo pev & 
NUTOOU TOXoIs ” dé yupvov' paduota yap on 
yupvoam épparov 7 «p07. TOVNOT Ov dé Kal y 
Tidy Kal 1 ohvpa Kal Tavra Ta TovatTa Kal 
pediora TAVTOV os elmeiy oO Spopos. eo dé 
Kal bypmroreEpos 0 KaNA 1105 Tov mupod o) THs 
KpOis, Kal TOV ordxuy amnpTnpévov exer Tod 
pudrov padXov 0 TUPOS. 

"Tdzov dé xal TO dxupov TOU KpiOivov TO TUpLvoV" 
eyxXuAorepov yap Kal parakarepor. _ Ovapéper dé 
4 KpiOn Kal ToUT@ Toy mupav D fev yap oTot- 
xerwdns, o S€ Tupds adoTovyos Kal TavTayobev 

To pev ovv OA@ yévEL ™ pos ryévos Towadrat 
TWES elo Suapopat. «al? éxatepov Oé TOUT@Y 
TaN, otov TuUpOW Kal Kkpilorv, TOXNA yer Kat 
Tots KapT ois avTots Svahépovta wal Tois oTaXUCL 
Kal Tals GdAXais pophais Kal Ett Tais dvvapecs 

1 of 7. 4. 9: 

2 After d:adopas UM add ra duotoryern, Ald. ra wh duoroyer7 5 
om. Sch. and W. after G. 

3 6uoyern conj. Sch.; duocoyerh UMAId. of. 8. 3. 1. 

* SvcbAacrdétepov conj. Scal. from G, ruptu difficiliorem ; 
SugadrOataérepoyv UMAIA. 

5 Plin. 18. 61. moAvAomoy conj. Salm.; roAvAoBoy Ald. 



the other animals are affected in the opposite! way 
to men, 

Of the differences between cereals, 

IV. There are then these differences ? between the 
various classes; and as between plants of the same 
class * there are plainly differences due to the unlike- 
ness in the various parts. Thus among cereals wheat 
as compared with barley has a narrower leaf, and 
a smoother stem of closer texture tougher and less 
brittle. Again the seed of wheat has several 
eoats,> that of barley is naked, that plant having 
its seeds specially naked. Also one-seeded wheat 
rice-wheat and all such plants have their seed in 
several coats, and above all, it may be said, is this 
true of oats. Also the ‘ reed’ of wheat is taller than? 
that of barley, and wheat has its ear less distant 
from the ‘ leaf.’ 

Further the husk of wheat is distinct § from that of 
barley, being less dry and softer. Barley also differs 
from wheat in this respect ; it has grains in a regular 
row,’ whereas those of wheat are not in a row, but 
the ear is as it were quite simple in form.” 

Such then are the differences as between one 
whole kind and another. But in each of these 
kinds again, for instance in barley and wheat, 
there are many sub-divisions differing both in the 
actual fruits, in the ear, and in the other characteristic 

§ Bpduos conj. Scal. from Plin. Uc. and G; xpéuos PM ; 
kpdxos Ald.; Bp&puos Vin. 

? 4 conj. Sch. from Plin. lc. and G3 «at Ald.H. 

8 iov Ald.; #S:0v Vin.H. from G: go Sch. and W. ef. 
Col. 6. 3. 3. 

9 ororxermdns. 2? eroixddns: v. LS, 

10 Suadhs conj. Sch.; duady UMAI. 




Kal Tos mafeot. Tov pev KplOd@v ai pév eior 
Sictorxor ai Sé tpiatovyot ai Sé TeTpdoTovyor 
kal wevtdotoyou. TrEtoTOv 8 éEdoToLyor, Kal 
yap towodTo Te yévos éoti. muKvotepas Sé del 
Kata thy Oéow as etl may ai TodvaTOLYOTEpal. 
diahopa bé€ peyddAn Kai TO TapaBdacTyTLKHY 
civat, KaBdtep eltropev thy ‘Ivduxnv. Kal ot 
oTdxyves O€ TOV péev meyddor Kal pavdTepor Tats 
kpi0ais tov S€ éXNaTTOUS Kal TUKVOTEpOL, Kal 
amréyovtes S€ ToD dUAXOU TaV pev TOAD TaY bé 
puxpov, BoTrep TOV AyiAdElwV KadoUpévoV. Kal 
avTav € TAY KpLOaY ai pev oTPOyyUAOCTEpAaL Kal 
érdtrous ai S€ mpounkéotepar Kat peiftous kal 
pavotepar KaTa TOV oTayuY. Ett Se ai pev Rev- 
Kal, at dé péravar Kal éritropdupifovcat, aitep 
Kal moAvddrdutor Sokodow evar kal mpos Tods 
verwavas S¢ Kal TA TVEtpaTa Kal bXws TOV dépa 

TIovAa 6é yévn nal Tov Tupav éotiv Eed0ds 
aTo TOY xYwpov éxXovTa Tas émwVvuUpias, obov 
AcBveot Tovtixot Opdxes Acovpior Aiydrrriot 
Duxeroi. Siapopds 5é cal tais yporais Kal toils 
peyéOeot Kat tois eldeot xal Ttais idvoTnoww 
éyouat Kal év tais duvdmeot Talis Te GAXaLS Kal 
padtota Ttais mpos THY aitnow. Tivés Kal at 

1 Explained below, 8. 4. 4; cf. 8. 4. 3. 

2 ddeot: ef. 1. 1. 1 n. 3 Plin. 18, 78. 

4 rArelorov 8 é=dorotxov, Kal yap To1odTo conj. W.; mwAciorov 
EEdoroixov ToovToyv UM; mAciora: Kal éfdorixot Kal yap Tot- 
odtov Ald. H. 



features; and again in capacities! and properties.” 
° Of barley different sorts have respectively two, three, 
four, and five rows of seeds; the largest number 4 
known is six, for there is a kind which bears that 
number. And those which have more rows have 
generally the grains set closer together. Another 
great difference is that of having side-shoots, as we 
said of the Indian kind.® Again in barley® the 
ears are in some kinds large and of looser make, 
in some smaller and set closer; in some kinds 
the ear is some way from the ‘leaf,’ in some it is 
nearer to it, as in the kind called ‘ Achillean.’? 
Again of the grains themselves some are rounder 
and smaller, some more oblong and larger and set 
at wider intervals on the ear. Moreover some are 
white, some black or reddish, and the latter are 
thought to produce much meal and to be more 
robust than the white as to bearing winter wind or 
conditions of climate generally. 

There are § also many kinds of wheat which take 
their names simply from the places where they 
grow,? as Libyan Pontic!® Thracian Assyrian 
Egyptian Sicilian. They show differences! in 
colour size form and individual character, and 
also?? as regards their capacities 1° in general and 
especially their value as food. Some again get 

5 Referred to 4. 4. 9, but without mention of this feature. 
tais xpiOais conj. W.; Tris xpiOjs Ald, 

cf. O.P. 3. 21. 3; 3. 22. 2. 

8 eorw evOds conj. W.; evOds éorw Ald, 

of. O. P. 3; 21.2; Plin. 18, 2: 

10 Tloytixol conj. Sch.; mévtio: Ald, 

1 Siapopas conj. W.; diapépovres Ald. H. 

12 kat conj. W.; 5€ Ald. 

13 Explained below, 8, 4. 4: pace of growth, 





4 \ / / 
dd\Nov Tas TpocHyopias, oloy Kayxpuvdias oTreEY- 
\ > / e € 4 > A > , 
yos “AreEdvdpetos: av atavTwv év Tots eipnpévors 
tas Swadopas AnTTéov. ovK Heiota 8 oiKetar 
/ la 
el Tis NapwBavor Tas TovavTas oldv eiow oi pév 
Pia € \ ” \ > n \ 7 € 
mpwiot ot de Orla, Kal evaveis Kal TrodvyYoL OL 
, ) 
dé <puxpol> Kal orvyoxor, Kal peyadootaxues oi Oé 
pikpooTaxues. Kal ot wev év KddNUKL TOADY XpPOVOV 
eo dV / v 4 € / \ / 
oi © dXiyov évovtes, BaTep 0 AtBuKos. Kal Kddra- 
prov of pev AeTTOV of SE Taxydy: Kal TodTO oO At- 
\ BA \ be \ € bd, y be 
Buxos éxer, maxdy dé Kal o Kayxpvdlas. ert 
an td \ > , id \ 4 ¢e € 
€ e 
Opaxios. Kal o pév povoxddapos o 6é TodvKa- 
Napmos, Kal warXov 6€ Kal Hrrop. 
¢ /, be \ y / yi 
Opoiws b€ nal ef te TapatAnotovy TovToLs 
“ 4 / 
#) Tois mpoTepov eipnuévors Kata Tas Suvdpers. 
ai yap Towadtar dvotxwtatat Sokatev av eivar 
Tov Siahopav. év als Kal TO TOV TpLLHVeY Kal 
TO TOV Oupynvev Kal el TE yévos év éXaTTOOLW 
Hhucpats terevodTat, Kabdmep ghaciv eivat trepl 
thv Aivetay, ot TeTTapdKovta Hépats GTO Tis 
omopas abptvovtat Kal Ttédos toxovow: elvar & 
ioxupov tovTov Kai Bapvy ovy wamep Tov Tpi- 
pnvov Kovdov, dv’ 6 Kal Tots. oixéTais Trap- 
éyew, Kal yap ovdé mitupov éyew TOV. oTra- 

1 ordeyyts. Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer conjectures cidryus : 
cf. Plin. 18. 184, LS. o:Alynovr. 

2 cf. Geop. 3. 3. 11. 3 7.e. colour, size, etc. 

ae add. W. to correspond to eiavie?s (conj. Sch.; edateis 


EE ——————— 


their distinctive names for other reasons, as kankh- 
rydias stlengys | ‘Alexandrian ’?; all of which must be 
distinguished by the above-mentioned? characters. 
Again, if one takes such differences as the following, 
they are quite characteristic—thus some are early, 
some late, some are vigorous and prolific, some 
are small+ and produce little, some have a large, 
some a small ear. The ears of some remain® a 
long time in the sheath,® of some it remains but 
a short time, as that of the Libyan kind. 7 Again 
some have a slender, some a stout haulm; the 
Libyan kind has this characteristic also, and that 
of kankhrydias is also stout. Again the grain of 
some has few coats,® of some many, for instance the 
Thracian.? Some kinds have a single ‘reed, some 
more than one, and in the latter class the number 

10 So too must we distinguish any differences like 
these or those mentioned above which are found in 
the several capacities; for these would seem to be 
the most essential differences. In this connexion 
we may distinguish kinds which mature in three or 
in two months, and those, if there be such, which 
take a less number of days; for instance, they say 
that in the region of Aineia there is a kind which 
ripens and attains perfection within forty days from 
the time of sowing; they say too that this grain is 
strong and heavy, not light like that which takes 
three months; wherefore they give it even to the 
servants, for it also does not contain much bran. 
Now this kind is the rarest and the quickest to 

évovtes conj. W.; €xovres Ald. 
of. 8. 2. 4. 7 Plin, 18. 69. 8 7.e. glumes. 
of. C.P. 4. 12. 5; Plin. Le, 10 Plin. 18. 70, 



As et \ \ / , / \ > 
ovTos. eal b€ kal Sipnvot tives oltrep Kal éx 
/ > / > > , > / x 
Luedias exopicOnoay eis "Axaiav: dduyoxdor dé 
Kal Oduyoyover Kal KovpoL KaTa THY Tpoahopav 
Kal noets. Kal arrow Sé Tives of Tept KvRorayv 
elol Kal padiota év TH Kapvotia. tpipnvor 8é 
iol Kal pdduota év TH Kapvotia. tpipn 
, \ \ na n z eS / 
\ / \ \ + \ >i. 
Kal “ovokddrapor KaTa THhvy Expvow Kal TO drOv 
aoGeveis. Kovpotatos ev ody ws aTAMS ElTreEtD 
na > 
mupos 0 Llovtixds: Papitepos S5é TeV Els THY 
‘EdrAdda tTapayiwopévov 6 Keds: TovTov & 
4 4 € / a \ / iA 
éte Bapvtepos 0 Bowwrds* onpetov 5é Néyouawy 6T1 
e \ > \ > a / 3 e / 
ot péev aOdntal év tH Botwtia tpi’ HucxyoiiKa 
ports avaricxovow, "AOnvafe dé bray &Owor 
/ > € 4 e 7 lol \ \ e > 
Tévd Huryotvika padiws. Koddos Sé Kal o ép 
th Aaxovxh. TovTav pev ody &y Te Tals yo- 
pais Kal T@ aépt TO aitiov émel Kal wept THv 
‘Aclav ov troppw Bdxtpwv év pév tive tore 
oUT@s aopov eivat hac. Tov citov waTE TUpPHVoS 
édaias péyeBos NapBavewv, év bé tois Iltoodrous 
> a 
Karoupévors oUTwS taxUpoOV WoT El TLS TAELOY 
mMpoceveyKoito StappyyvucOar, Kal tov Make- 
Sovev Kal todNovs TodTO Tabeiv. atotrov Sé 
Kal avopmoXoyovpevoy mpos THY TOY TPLUnVaY 
\ a 
KkovpoTnta To mept Tovs Llovtixods cupPaivor: 
LA A e \ \ > \ e \ \ 
elol yap of pev okAnNpol Hpwol ot dé paraxol 
/ \ \ , a , id 
Yeiweptvol* TorAvD yap Siadhéper TH KovpoTyts oO 
/ e / be \ bu > , e 54 
Harakos. [opwoiws d€ Kat dvo apotous ws EoLKE 

1 tpl jutxolvixa conj. Sch.; tpinurxolvina M 3 rpinusxolvina 
gAld. Hh, ' 


mature. But there is also a kind which takes two 
months; this was brought to Achaia from Sicily; 
it is not however prolific nor fertile, though as 
food it is light and sweet. There is another such 
kind which grows in Euboea and especially in the 
region of Karystos. There are several kinds that 
take three months, and these, wherever they are 
found, are light and not prolific; their growth 
consists of a single ‘reed,’ and in general they are 
not robust. Lightest of all we may say is the 
Pontic wheat; the Sicilian is heavier than most of 
those imported into Hellas, but heavier still than 
this is the Boeotian ; in proof of which it is said 
that the athletes in Boeotia consume scarcely three 
pints,! while, when they come to Athens, they easily 
manage five.2 The Laconian kind is also light. 
The reason for these differences is to be found in 
the respective soils and in the climate ; * for in Asia 
not far from Bactra they say that in a certain place 
the corn is so vigorous that the grains grow as 
large as an olive-stone, while in the country called 
that of the Pissatoi it is so strong that, if a man 
eats too much of it, he bursts, which was actually the 
fate of many of the Macedonians. There is one 
curious thing about the corn of Pontus, which is 
an exception® to the rule as to the lightness of 
crops raised in three months; for there the hard 
crops are those of the spring, the soft ones those 
of the winter; for soft kinds are exceedingly light. 
Two sowings, as it appears, are made of all corn 

2 rev jusxolvixa conj. Sch.; mwevOnuoxolvina M; mevén- 
puxotvixa P,Ald.H. 3 Plin. 18. 70. 

4 7.e, in Alexander’s army. 

5 dvouoroyoumevoy: of. O.P. 4. 8.2; Plat. Gory. 495. 



TavTos Tov trou moovvTat, TOV joev Net pLepLvov 
Tov 6€ npwov, év @ Kal Ta bompia KaTaBdr- 
Novo |. 

Kiot 6é Kal ot fev Kalapol ai pv, Gomep 0 
Tov rexds Kal o Atyorrios: Kkabapos Sé érrtet- 
KOS Kal 0 YtKerOs Kal padiorta o Axpayaytivos 
ove aipwdns. 

OD bé LuKEdos idzov exer TO pede upov Kanov- 
pevov, 6 eaTw aBraBes Kai ov @oTep ” aipa 
Bapvd xal ceparanyés. GXXa TA pev ToavTa, 
Kadamrep enex9n, Tais y@pais avaberéov Kal doov 
omen ee TOLS yéveow, 

"Ev 6é Tois dot pioLs ovx. opoiws éorl 
naBety TAS ToLaUTAS Suapopas, elT oov d:a TO 
1) efera lew 0jL0LwsS ele Kal 1a TO povoessé- 
oTEpa Tuyxavel’ é&w yap épeBivOov Kab paxod 
Kal én ONyoU Kudpou Kal opoBov, Ka?’ bcov 
4) TOV Xpopdreov Kat TOY XUNOV diadhopd, TOY 
y adXwv ov rotodow idéas. of Oé épéBivO ou 
Kal Tots peyeect Kal Tois yxvAols Kal Tois 
Xpopace Kab tais pophais tabépovoty, otov 
Kptol dpoBiaior ot ava Meco. éml maou be Ta 
Neve ypruKvrepa Kal yap 6 GpoBos Kal panos 
wal épéBivOos Kal KVaLOS Kal onoapov: ote yap 
Kal ono a mov AevKov. 

"AXA MaAXOv év Tols ToLoiade Tovey éotL TAS 
diadopas olov, émel mdvta TtadT éAdXoBa, TA pev 

1 Suolws... Kar aBddd over bracketed by Sch. as a gloss. 
> But ef. 8. 8. 3. § ef. Diose, 4, 116. 

4 7.e. when it gets into the bread. 

5 of. Plin. 18. 156; Diose. 2. 100. 

5 bo0v émiBddAAe: of. Arist, Pol. 1. 13. 8, 



alike, one in winter and one in spring, at which time 
they also plant the seed of the pulses.! 

Some kinds are free from darnel, as the Pontic 
and the Egyptian ; the Sicilian is also fairly free from 
it, and that of Akragas is especially immune from 

2Peculiar however to the Sicilian is the plant 
called melampyron,° which is harmless* and not, like 
the darnel, injurious and productive of headache.® 
However such peculiarities, as was said, must be 
ascribed to the soil, and to a certain extent to the 
different characters of different kinds. 

Of the differences between pulses. 

V. In pulses we cannot find such differences to 
the same extent, whether for the want of equally 
careful enquiry or because there is actually less 
diversity in these plants. ‘For, apart from chick- 
pea lentil and to a certain extent bean and vetch 
(in so far as in these we find differences of colour 
and taste), among the rest® no distinct forms are 
recognised. Chick-peas however differ in size colour 
taste and shape; thus there are the varieties called 
‘rams, ‘ vetch-like’ chick-peas and the intermediate 
forms.® In all pulses the white are the sweeter, . 
and this applies to vetch lentil chick-pea bean and 
sesame, of which also there is a white form. 

10 However it is more possible to recognise the 
differences in such points as these :—all these plants 
have pods, but whereas the pods in some kinds have 

? Plin. 18. 124. 8» conj. Sch.; 7 Ald. H. 

® of after dpiBiator add. Dalec. For ava wéoor cf. 3. 18. 2, 

10 Plin 18. 125. 

1 Z\AoBa conj. Seal. from G ; éAAéBopa Ald. H.; €AadBopa U ; 

éxe) mdvra Tav’r conj. W.; ém mdvra ra Ald.H. 




7 A LO / A ee / 
avToV adltappaKkTa Kat WoTEp GUpAyavoYTA TVY- 
‘ \ an 
yavet, Kabdrep GpoBos Triaos Kal oxEdOV TA THEL- 
ota, Ta O€ diatrreppaypeva, KaBaTrep Oéppos, ere dé 
n / , 
HarXov Kal iditws TO oHoapwov. Kal Ta ev 
/ \ be \ / / € 
paxpodoBa Ta € Kal oT poyyvrohoBa, Kabatrep o 
> ¥ Q 4 Py > @ al \ \ . Aa] 
epeéBivGos. ava Noyov 0 akodoveEi Kal Ta TAHON 
a \ a n 
TOV OTEpUaTwV' EAaTTW Yap év Tos puLKpots, 
al , an a 
@otep &v Te TO TOV EpEeBivOwy Kal &v TH TOY 
/ e ¢ 
Kat tapamdnovas 6 tows at Trowadtat Kal as 
él TOV oiTNPOV ééyomeV TEPL TOV aTaYvoV Kal 
avTOV TOV KapTOV: érrel Kai oi KaXovpEVOL AOBoL 
axedov axddov0or Tois oTépuaciv eicwy, of pev 
émriTAaTEls, WOTTEP Ol TOV Haxov Kal THs addxns, 
TOU TLcOv" TA yap oTéppata éExaTépwrv ToLladTa 
a \ at 
Tols oXHmacl’ AAA Tas pev ToLavTas Siapopas 
jmodras av tis evpor Kal’ Exactov, @Y ai pev 
tal \ 
Kolval Taow ai bé idtat KaTAa yévos. 
df be / / val a \ 
Ori d€ mavTa tpootéepuKe Tots AOPois Kal 
éyer Kabadtep apynv Twa, TA pev TpoéxXovaar, 
e e 
@omrep 0 KVapos Kal o €péBivO0s, Ta O€ Kal 
»” e / \ BA > ” 4 \ 
éykotAov, woTrep Oépmos Kal aAX aTTa, Ta Oé 
oUTH ev ov havepayv éXdtTw O€ Kal woTEP aTro- 
onpaivoveay pmovov, Snrov pev ato THs dvews: e& 
HS Kal Otav onmaph Practave, Kal prlodrar, 
xkabarep édévOn, Kat apyas Oé Kal avta Ttpé- 
, n n / 
deta mpoonpTnuéva TO ROBO, péxpt ov av 

1 Gdidgpaxtra conj. Scal. from G, non intersepta ; didppakra 
Ald. H. i! Pay YG 8 

3 Siaredpaypéva conj. Sch.; Acta mepparyueva Ald. H, 

4 of. 3. 18. 13. 



no divisions,! but the seeds as it were touch one 
another,? as in vetch pea and most kinds, in some 
there are divisions,? as in lupin and still more in 
sesame, in which the divisions are of a peculiar 
kind.*| Again some have long, some round pods, as 
chick-pea. And the number of seeds follows in 
proportion, since they are fewer in the small pods, 
as in those of chick-pea and lentil. 

Possibly these differences correspond to those 
which we mentioned in the case of cereals as to the 
ears and the actual fruits ; for what are called ‘pods’ 
also® fairly correspond to the shape of the seeds, 
some being flat, as those of lentil and tare, some 
more or less cylindrical, as those of vetch and pea °: 
for in the case of either pair of plants the seeds 
correspond in shape. However one might discover 
and distinguish many such differences, of which 
some are common to a whole kind,’ others special to 
particular varieties. 

In all cases the seeds are attached to the pods and 
have a sort of starting-point, which in some cases 
projects, as in bean and chick-pea, in some is 
hollow, as in lupin and some others,-and in some 
is not thus conspicuous but smaller and, as it were, 
only indicated ; this is plain from observation ; it is 
from this point that the seeds germinate and take 
root when they are sown, as was said*: but to start 
with they are themselves nourished by being so 
attached to the pod until they are matured. This 

5 7.e. a8 does the form of the ear in cereals. 

6 Kal Tov mov: Ta yap conj. Scal. from Plin. /.c. and G; rod 
migod yap Ta UMAId. 

7 7.e. which either differentiate (e.g.) pea from lentil, or one 
variety of pea from another. cf. 8. 4. 2 n. 
* 3.20 2. 



TereLwOy havepov Oé éott Kal ex TOV viv Kal éx 
a a x 

Siahopas ads. 
VI. Srreipew O€ Evudepey Tavta padtoTa pev 
év Tois @patots apoTots: ov pnv adda Kal év Enpa 
paiors dpérousy oF mip » Enpd 
Kpi0as @s paddtota avtapKeiy Suvdueva, OTrov py 
7 By » / > \ e , a 
dpviaw 7) aAXows Onpiows Ericivyns 7 X@pa. SoxKel 
A a / 
yap ws éml Tay 0 TpwTOS apoTos apeiver eivat, 
a / 
xeiptatos O€ amropos év vrais HusBpoyots: amor- 
AUTAL yap Kal ExyadaKxTodTaL TA oTéppaTta, Kal 
aya EvpBaive. roav avapvecOat mordHv. pera 
\ / a 
dé tHv oTropay Bdwp émuyiverOat Tact Evudéper,. 
\ i A / ca) ec 4 
TAY baa dSvaBAATTH yiveTal MaAXOV, MaTEP O TE 
Kvapmos Soxel Kal TOV Oepivov oncapoy Kal KU- 
pulvov Kab épvotmov. 
an a \ 
Ilvevooropetv 5é Kat pavootropety Kali Tpos Tas 
a \ / 
yopas Br€rovTa yYpH* TAElov yap 1) Tietpa Kal 
b) INGA ft na ¢ / \ a 
ayabs dtivatat hépew Ths Ubappov Te Kal AeTTHS. 
/ Uy / € ie yen t € A Q\ 
\ , 
éXatTov % avTy déxyeTat Yopa Kal oiwvifovTat 
\ ‘ e > > / an \ > 7 
TO TWAE€OV WS OVK ayabov, TeWhy yap evODs hact 
THY yhv: ovTos pév ovv laws evnbéotepos ROrvos. 
el O€ Tis Tpos TA OTréppaTta Dewpoin Kal pddoTd 
ye pds avTovs Tovs TOToVs aua TO eddder 
kal thy Oéow avabewpav tiv ye Tpos TA TveEv- 

1 abrapxety Ald.; avrapxety U. 
2 émiowhs conj. Dalec.; émiwhys UMAId.; obnoxia G. 
8 i.e. after the rains. 


ea) Wr 


is clear both from what is said now and from what 
was said before. Enough then about the points of 

Of sowing, manuring, and watering. 

VI. It is expedient to sow all these, if possible, at 
the early seed-time; however some plant the seed 
even in dry ground, and especially wheat and barley, 
on the theory that they are most likely to hold 
their own! at a time when the ground is not in- 
fested? with birds or other creatures. For it 
appears that in general the first sowing is better, 
and worst that which is made in _half-soaked 
ground ;* for then the seeds perish and become 
‘milky ’;* moreover many weeds come up at that 
time. After the sowing however it is beneficial 
for all that rain should fall on them, except in 
the case of some which appear to germinate then 
with more difficulty, as seems° to be the case with 
beans, and among summer crops with sesame cummin 
and erysimon. 

6 As to sowing thickly or scantily one should have 
regard to the soil as well as to other considerations ; 
for a fat good soil can bear more than one which is 
sandy and light. However there is a saying that the 
same soil can take at one time more, at another less 
seed ; and in general the former condition is taken 
as an unfavourable omen, for then they say -at once 
that the soil is hungry; however this is perhaps a 
rather foolish saying. If a man should have regard 
to the kind of the seed and especially to the actual 
situation, considering the aspect in respect of winds 

4 of. yaddxtwots, C.P. 4. 4. 7 and 8. 
5 Soxet conj. W.; éd6xer Ald. § Plin. 18. 196. 






\ \ c/ > / xX / \ 
pata Kal Tov HALOV, olKELOTEpov Av AapBavor Tas 

> \ / ae 4 - wey / al , 
Ava doyov &é vet Kal ) KOTpLaLs TOls aTOpoOLs 
> an 
Mpos TAS YoOpas’ veros & apeivwv  yYeEeLpéepios THS 
€apwys. éviaxod Sé ov Evudépeww Babeiav apo- 
Tplav, Bomep Kal év Lupia, d’ 6 piKpois apoTpo.s 
XpOvTal. Tap ado b€ TO Mav éLepyafecPar 
Brarre, cabatrep ev Suxedia, bv 6 Kal Tov Eévav 
@s €olKe TOAAOL StayapTavovel. TavTa pev ovv 
Mpos TAS YoOpas. 
Atatpodot 5& Kal Ta oméppata Toia Troiov 
/ \ Lal Lal nr 
mpoaopov: év yap Tais Yetmeplvais Tupov pwadAXov 
} Kpionv, cal ws citov 7) yedpoTa Kedevovow 
év tais yépoos Kal dia ypovou Kivovpévais: Kal 
yap avTa: mupov dépovot waddov % KplOnv. Sé- 
¥. n a n 
yeTar € Kal érouBpiav waddov Tupos THs KpLO hs, 
Kal év Tols axotrpots pépet MaAAOV. @aatTws Oé 
Kal AUTOV TOV TUPOY Totes TH Toia mpoadopos, 
®@ 5) A \ , \ a \ n 
olov aya0n Kal mieipa Kal yapapg Kal rerTH 
\ an ” € / 
<Kal> Tals adXrals Omoiws. 
ac a \ , ? \ / 
Towp dé drav pév xXroNphopjon Kal KUO 
a e y b] na \ an \ 
mrelov amacr Evudéperr avOovar Sé tupois pév 
Kal xpl0ais Kal tois ovr@dect BNaBepov: amron- 

1 &y AawBdve: conj. Sch.; dvardauBdvo Ald. H. 

2 «émpiois conj. Sch.; «émpnois Ald, 

8 of 20. PL 3. 2.7. 4 of. C.P. 3. 20. 5. 

5 rdvra pev oo» M3; tadra wey Ald.H.; ratra wey ody conj. 
Sch. followed by W. 

6 xeAevovcw conj. W.; nal dAws Ald. H. 

7 «vovpévas conj. Sch. (ef. C.P. 3. 21. 4, 51a xpdvou yewp- 
younévn yi) 3 Kevoupeveus UAId.; xavoumévers Vin. 



and sun, as well as the soil itself, he would more 
properly gauge! the differences. 

Similarly manuring ? for the sown crops should be 
done with regard to the soil; and it is better to turn 
up fallow? land in winter than in spring. And 
there are some‘ places in which deep ploughing 
is not expedient, as in Syria; wherefore they use 
small plough-shares. In other parts to work the 
ground too much is injurious, as in Sicily: wherefore 
many settlers in the country, it appears, make a 
mistake. From every point of view® therefore the 
soil must be considered. 

The seeds are also classified according as each 
suits a particular soil; in wintry lands wheat is 
sown rather than barley, and in general they say ® 
that corn rather than leguminous plants should be 
sown in barren soils which are only disturbed’ at 
long intervals; and such soils bear wheat better 
than barley.2 Moreover wheat welcomes abundant 
rain® more than barley, and bears better on land 
which is not manured.!® In like manner they dis- 
tinguish among wheats themselves’ which suits 
which kind of soil, namely which grows best in 
good 14 fat soil and which in crumbling light soil, 
and}? so on with other kinds of soil. 

13 More abundant rain is beneficial to all crops when 
they have come into leaf and formed the flower; 
however it is harmful to wheats and barleys and 
other cereals when they are actually in flower ; for 

8 ris xpiOjs conj.W.; Kal «pidjs UM; % Kpi0h Ald. ; 4) xpiOh H. 

> of. OOP. lc. 

10 Explained C.P. /.c. 
1) @ya0j conj. Casaub : so Vin, a Ald, (and so with the 

other datives). 12 wal add. 
13 Plin, 18. 151 and 152. 

wn 2 



uot yap" dompios & aBraPes TV épeBivOov: 
OUTOL yap amoxdva belans THS adpns amoAXvVTAL 
opaxedtCovres Kal br Kap ov KaTec Oto pevor’ 
la-xuporepos dé 0 pédas épéBwOos Kab 0 Truppos 
Tou NevKOD? cuméper bé, gaciv, év Tols épvdpous 
TOTrOLS Oye amet pel avtov. Kvapmos bé& avOar 
Hadtota iret BpéxesOat, ds 0 Kal ovx é0é- 
ovaly orpuo mopeir, OOT ED elropen, OTL Toy 
avOet peta O€ TY am avOnow odiryou Taper ay 
bdatos Selita: civeyyvs yap 7) TeXelwots. GAN 
dtav adpuvO7n Kai Brantew Soxet TA TiTw@dN Kal 
KprOnv §3 jTupov padrov, 

"Ev Alyirt@ 6€ cat BaBvrAdve cat Baxrpors, 
Omrouv py VeTarn YOpa <i> oTraviws, ai Spdcot TO 
dXov ext pépovawy. ére Kal ot ‘rept Kupiny Kal 
Eveorepioas TOTFOL. KaIpLaTaTa be TATLW WS 
aTAS eireiv TA Hod OS 0 Kal % SKedia 
TOAVCLTOS’ TOANA yap TOD Hpos Kal paraKa 
yiverat, Tou 6€ Xetpavos oniya. Syrei de ” pev 
AeTTOyEWS TONKA KATA pLKpOV 2 dé mietpa Kal 
TAHO0s pev éveryKetv duvarat Kal dvdpiav—mpos 
d€ THY Yopas av dpiay TOVTLA TVEU MATA Kat avpar 
doKovcs Eupdépew, ara dé Tap adows ToLavTa, 
KkabaTrep Kat TpOoTepov elpnTal,—@s éml TO 7 av 
dé pardov AUX LOS i) érrouBpia Evudéper TO CiT@" 
ot yap ouBpor Kab ad\dAws évavtiot Kal Tonnes 
avTa Ta omépuata SvapGelpovow, et dé un TrA- 

TpanerlCovres : cf. 4. 14. 4. 
26 muppos Tob Acvicod conj. Seal. from G and Plin. 18. 124; 
6 rasa tov mupov UAld ; 6A. 7. wuppod H.; 6 A. 7. mupds M. 
3 of. C.P. 3. 22. 3. 
4 Setra: conj. Sch.; Se?oGa: Ald. H. 




it destroys the flower. But to pulses it is harmless, 
except to chick-peas; for these, if the salt is washed 
off them, perish from rot! or from being eaten 
by caterpillars. However the black and the red ? 
chick-pea are stronger than the white, and it is 
beneficial, they say; to sow this crop late in moist 
soil. The bean® likes especially to receive rain 
when it is in flower; wherefore men are unwilling, 
as we said, to sow it late, because it flowers for a 
long time ; but after it has shed its flowers, it needs 4 
very little water, since its time of maturity is now 
near. But, when cereals have matured, it appears 
that water actually injures them, and barley more 
than wheat. 

In Egypt Babylon and Bactra, where the country 
receives no rain, or but little, the dews are sufficient 
nourishment; and so is it also® in the regions about 
Cyrene and the Euesperides. However to all, 
generally speaking, it is the spring rains which are 
the most seasonable; and that is why Sicily is 
rich in corn; for there is abundance of soft rain 
in spring and little of it in winter. A light soil 
requires plenty of rain, but little at a time; while 
that which is fat can indeed bear both an abundance 
of rain and a drought; (for a droughty country sea- 
winds’ and breezes seem to be helpful, and various 
breezes of this kind prevail in various countries, 
as has been said already). Yet in general drought 
suits corn better than excessive rain; for heavy 
showers, apart from the harm which they do in 
other ways, often actually destroy the seed, or at 

5 # add. Scal. from G: so Vin. 
§ @r1 conj. St. from G (?); éwe? Ald. 
¥ «rdvtia conj. Sch.; wdvra Ald. ef. 8. 7. 6. 



Qos ye Totodar Botavyns, Wore KaTaTviyed Bar Kal 
? a 

VII. Tay pév ody GAXwv oTrEeppaTtay ovder eis 
Gro twépuxe POerpomevov, mupov 
dé kal xpiOnv eis aipdy dace Kal paddov Tov 

/ / \ a: 9 b] a b] LA \ 
mupov, yiverOas 5é TovT év Tats érropBpias Kal 

/ > a A \ > , , 
pdrdata év Tots evvdpots Kal ouBpw@dect ywpio.s. 
24 > > 54 > \ e = / . 
étt O ovK EoTW Hplwov 4) aipa KaOarep  adAN 
TOA, TWElpaVvVTaL yap Tes TOUTO éyeL, éxeiOev 

n bara aS \ An fa) \ , 
Sjrov* evOUs yap TOV YEeltwavos havepa yiveTat 
mepuxvias Kat Siadéper roddois: exer yap TO 

4 \ \ \ \ / \ / 
hvrAXrov orevov Kal dacv Kal NiTrapov, Kal ToUT@Y 
’ , x / . e€ \ PS / \ cal 
iovw@TaTov TO ALTAapOY » yap SacUTHS Kal Tols 
TOD aiyihwmtros Urapyxel, GAN éxhavys yiverar em 
TOiS TOD aiyiAWTrOS TOV Hpos. TODTO péev OdV LdLoV 

a ; * \ 
TOUTwWY, Kal éTL TOU Aivov' Kal yap éK TovTOU 
\ / \ 3 
fact yiverOar THv aipar. 

Tov dé épeBivOou mpos Ta dda yedpoTra TO TE 

mept THY avOnaow NexPev Kal TO TaXLOTA TEdELO- 

n 5] / x \ dé. \ 
Kaptreivy taxupotatoy ov Kat EviwdéoTaTor, Kal 

1-Plin. 18. cetinge he st - CLP. 4. 5. 2. 

2 ra: ? grasses 5 cf. 8. 6 

® metpavra ydp Ties H.; ‘ Heicere: aitiavra: yap tives U; 
& mweipovra aiti@vra: yap twes PM: so also Ald. Bas.Cain. 
with mark of corruption. 

+ ebOvs yap Tod conj. Sch.; ed@bs 7d rod Ald, 



least cause a luxuriant growth of leafage, so that the 
grain is choked and becomes abortive. 

Of the degeneration of cereals into darnel, 

VII. 1Now, while it is not the nature of any 
other of these seeds to degenerate and change into 
something else, they say that wheat and _ barley 
change into darnel, and especially wheat; and 
that this occurs with heavy rains and especially in 
well-watered and rainy districts. But that darnel 
is not a plant of the spring, like other weeds? (for 
some endeavour? to make this out) is clear from the 
following consideration: it springs up and becomes 
noticeable directly * winter comes; and it is dis- 
tinguished in many ways; the foliage ® is narrow 
abundant and glossy, and this gloss is the most 

-marked of these differences; (the ® leaves of aigi- 

lops’ are indeed also abundant, * but this character 
does not shew itself in them till spring). This 
then is peculiar to the seeds of wheat and barley, 
and also to those of flax ; for that too, they say, turns 
into darnel. 

Of the peculiar character of chick-pea. 

A peculiarity of chick-pea as compared with other 
leguminous plants is that which has been mentioned 
as to its flowering; and also the fact that it is 
the quickest to mature its fruit, being very strong 
and woody; and again there is the fact that in 

5 of. CIP. 4.4. 11. 8 rots conj. Sch.; tis Ald. 
7 Plin. 18. 155. 
8 GAN’... aiylAwmos: text a makeshift. Wanting in Ald. 

and all MSS. except U; GAN’ exdave?s ylvovrat Ka Tots Tod aly. 
U; éxparijs yivera: conj. Sch.; ém) for cat conj. W. 



vad / \ 
TO OXov jun) TroLEtY VEeLoy <@s> KapTrLComevor" T1)V 
dé woav éEaTroAdvot Kal padiota 86 Kal TayioTa 
Tov TpiBorov. brws dé ovdé % TUXODGA SvvaTaL 
/ > / > \ / / a \ / 
hépe avTov, AXA peraryyerov Twa Set Kal TrieL- 
s lal \ » ens av. \ 27 kh n 
pav eivat. tov 5é ddXr@v 1) apioTn vELos ATO TOY 
Kaprrov pepovTa@v. 
a a / na 
Ta 8é év tots Oepivois dporots Odéyou Set TavTa, 
\ \ \ \ a / a 
dact O€ Kal Ta vayatiaia cuphépery padrov 
avtois Tav éx OLos, pédwwor S€ Kal KéyXpor 
éXattous vdatos: éav yap ~ywot TreEtov puddo- 
/ a > / YX / € \ / 
Borovowv. tayupotepov 5é 0 Kéyypos’ ot Sé pwédwvOL 
i . 
yAuKUTEepos Kal aobevéotepor. onoapov Sé ovdév 
<f@ov> éabier yAwpov ovdé Oéppov. ef dé pnd 
épvorpov pundé Oppivoy oKertéov' Kal Tadta 
/ BA \ \ \ > 4 4 4 
mTikpd. ore O€ TO pév épvotpov buovoy oncdpo 
\ a BA \ 2 4 lal / 
Kal Nimos éxets TO O€ Oppuvoy KUpVddes pwérav: 
omeipeTas O€ dua Kal TO oHTamoVY. Tepl pev od” 
> \ an > nan , \ N 5 
Ep 5€ rats dya@ais ya@pats mpos TO wn pudXdo- 
paveiy émivéwovot Kal émiKeipovot Tov itor, 

1 Lit. ‘does not make fallow land.’ ef. C.P. 4. 8. 3. 

2 &s napmiCduevov I conj. after W. (Kapmi(duevoy thy yijv); 
kapwos U; capris M; xaprov Ald. ef. C.P. lc. and 4. 8.1; 
4. 8. 3: uh Kapri€ecOa thy yy GAAd veiby Toteiy (? <véos >) 
kapmots, ‘for fresh crops.’ 

. = Oe conj. W.; ye Ald. 4 of. COPA. 3.3. 

5 4 aplorn veids conj. W. (ef. 8.9.1; CP. 4. 8.1); xewplorn 
Wits U; xewplorny vamos MP; xaarrlorn yeids Ald. cf. also 
P. 3. 20. 7. 



general it does not reinvigorate the grownad,! since 
it exhausts? it ; but it destroys weeds,’ and above all 
and soonest caltrop. And in general ¢ it is not every 
kind of soil which suits it; the soil should be black 
and fat. Of the other leguminous plants the bean 
best > reinvigorates. the ground, even if it is sown 
thick and produces much fruit. 

Of special features of ‘ summer crops.’ 

All those crops® sown at the summer seed-time 
need little water,’ and they say also that spring water 
is better for them than rain water; and Italian 
millet § and millet need less water, for, if they have 
too much, they shed their leaves. Millet is the 
robuster plant, Italian millet is sweeter and less 
robust. Sesame and lupin are not eaten green by 
any animal’; whether the same is true of erysimon 
and horminon is matter for enquiry; for these too 
are bitter. Erysimon is like sesame and is oily; 
horminon is like cummin and black, and is sown 
at the same time as sesame. ‘These matters then 
require investigation. 

Of treatment of cereals peculiar to special localities. 

10 In good soils to prevent the crop running wildly 
to leaf they graze and cut down the young corn, 

6 Plin. 18. 96 and 101. 

7 dAtyou, sc. bSaros, but the omission is strange; perhaps 
due to misunderstanding of éAlyou def by a scribe. Sch. joins 
the words ra 8... mdyra to the last sentence, and supplies 
Kapricera: Thy ynv (dAlyou Sei =almost). 

8 wéAwor Ald.H.; @uwo: Vin. ef. 8. 1. 1. n. 

9 (gov add. Sch. from G aud Plin. 18. 96. ef. C.P. 6. 12. 12. 

10 Plin. 18. 157-162, 




aomep Kat év Octradia. cvpBaiver S av pev 
eriveMMoW oTocaKkltaody pndeév adXoLodaOaL TOV 
, x A. 3 / 4 4 dge/ 
Kaptrov, av oé érrikeipwow amrak& povov éEictacbat 
TOV TupoV Kal yiverOat paxpov Kal ovy adpor, dv 
KaXOvoL KapaKiav, Kal ovK amoxabiotacbat 
a \ / > a \ 
ovpBaivov Metrarol Néyovow. év BaBvrdvi bé 
/ , 
dé tpitov Ta mpoBata éradgiacw: otto yap hver 
\ / >? \ \ lal / \ \ 
TOV KavNrov, et Sé ut) HvAOpavet> yivetar Sé M1 
a / 

KANOS Epyacapévols TEVTNKOVTAYOA, Tots Oé émL- 
al / a 
MEAS ExaTovTaxoa. 7 é épyacia TO ws TAELOTOV 

Npovov éupévery TO VOwp, OT@sS tAY ToLnoH 
: \ a 
TOAD" Tielpav yap ovcay Kal TUKYIY THY Yhv 
del trovjoar pavnv. trAnv Sé od déper Kal troav 
womep év AiyuTT@. Ta mev ody TOLAadTA YwpasS 


Pietra 5 cal amo pilav mupds kal KpiOy 
n a © / yy > ,' \ * 
Bracravovtos. waavtws b€ Kav vO YeELmavos 
éxtrayh twapaBracTdaver yap vdaTwv érruyivopé- 
Totovrav. Bractdvovot Sé TO baoTépw EeTEL Kal 
@aTe pndev eivar OHAOV @s eEiTretvy, olov Grav 

1 jAby conj. Sch. from Plin. 18. 162; #Anv Ald. H, 
2 Text perhaps defective: ¢f. Plin, Le. 




for instance in Thessaly. And the result is that, 
however often they graze it, the crop is not im- 
paired; while if they cut it down not more than 
once, the wheat changes in character and becomes 
tall and weak—what they call ‘long-shafted’ corn, 
and, if seed of this is sown, it does not recover 
its character. This the Thessalians tell of as having 
occurred in a few cases. At Babylon however 
they cut it down twice always and as it were 
systematically, and after that they let the sheep 
on to it; for in that case it makes its straw, but 
otherwise it runs wildly to leaf; and, if the ground 
is ill cultivated, it produces fifty fold, if it is care- 
fully cultivated, a hundred fold. And the ‘¢ culti- 
vation’ consists in letting the water lie on it as 
long as possible, so that it may make much silt!; 
for the soil being fat and close must be made open. 
And at Babylon? the ground does not produce weeds 
and grasses, as it does in Egypt. Such are the 
things which depend on the quality of the soil. 

Of cereals which grow a second time from the same stock. 

’ Wheat and barley also in many places grow from 
the root in the next year, or in the same year from 
crops cut down for fodder, since a second haulm 
shoots up. The like happens also if the plant has 
been nipped by winter ; for it shoots again when rain 
comes; but such plants produce an ear which is 
imperfect and under-sized. There is also new growth 
the next year from plants which are roughly treated 
or trodden down* so that hardly anything remains 
visible, as happens when an army has marched over 

Sof. 0.P.4.8.5. 4 ¢f. OP. he. 



/ , e / \ s 
SiéXOn otparoredov, Kal ol oTdxves puxpol Kal 
; An Y a an 
TOUT@Y, ods Kadovow apvasy TaV bé yedpoTrdv 
; a a € 
ovdev SUvaTaL TOLODTOV TroLEtY 4) OVY OMoiws. “Kal 

II pos av&now S€ Kal tpodnv péytoTta pev 1) Tot 
>/ A / oF ¢ a 
aépos Kpaois svpBddreETAL, Kal ONwS 1) TOD ETOUS 

, \ a 
KaTadoTacls: evKaipwv yap bddtev Kal evd.dv 
Kal YEeLlmovov yivowévov aravta evhopa Kal 
7 x > € , \ / 5 
modvKapTa, Kav év Gduodeor Kal NeTTOYElOLS 7° 
db: 0 Kal Tapo.pialopmevoe Néyovow ov KAKOS OTL 
ce” s > \ + ” 


/ \ e a / > / a 

Méya 8 cal ai y@pas Stagépovow ov povoyv TO 

, \ A oe \ > , 
miepar Kal reTTAl Kal ErrouBpor Kal avypodes 
<eivat> adra Kal TO aépt TO TEpléyovTs Kalb Tots 
mTvevpaci* éviat yap ovoat reTTAal Kal Padrat 

a \ \ 
Tereadopovor Sia TO pos TA TVEvMATA TA TOVTLA 
KelcOat KaAXaS. Ara Oé AAXaLS TOLAdTA, KAO aTrEp 
/ ¥ n \ \ \ \ cal 
moNraKkis elpntat Tails pev yap Ta Cehupixa Tais 
dé ra Bopeva tais Sé Ta voria. 

SupBarretar 5é€ Kal ov pixpa 4 épyacia Kai 

parol 1) <arpo> Tod omopou: KaTepyacbeioa yap 
¢ bi > / A see f be 4 ra) n 
paciws éxpéper. Kai % Kompos dé peydra Bobet 
na / \ / / \ 
TO Sraeppaivery Kat oupmerrew MpoTpeXet yap 

tovtwy conj. Sch.; tovrovs Ald. H. 

ef. Lewis and Short s.v. agna. 

C.P. l.c. gives the reason. 

TocavTaxas conj. Scal.; rooavraxe?s Ald. H, 

m= © bt = 


ei tt is 



the field; the ears in such cases! too are under- 
sized and are called ‘lambs.’? But no kind of 
leguminous plant ® can do anything of the kind, or at 
least not to the same extent. In these various 
ways * may new growth occur. 

Of the effects of climate, soil, and manuring. 

For growth and nourishment the climate is the 
most important factor, and in general the character 
of the season as a whole; for when rain, fair weather 
and storms occur opportunely, all crops bear well 
and are fruitful, even if they be in soil which is 
impregnated with salt or poor. Wherefore there is 
an apt proverbial saying ® that “it is the year which 
bears and not the field.” 

But the soil also makes much difference, according 
as it is ® fat or light, well watered or parched, and it 
also makes quite as much difference what sort of air 
and of winds prevails in that region ;. for some soils,’ 
though light and poor, produce a good crop because 
the land has a fair aspect in regard to sea breezes. 
But, as has been repeatedly said already, the same 
breeze has not this effect in all places ; some places 
are suited by a west, some by a north, some by a 
south wind. 

Again the working of the soil and above all that 
which is done before® the sowing has an important 
effect; for when the soil is well worked it bears 
easily. Also dung is helpful by warming and 
ripening the soil, for manured land gets the start by 
as much as twenty days of that which has not been 

5 Quoted also C.P. 3. 23. 4. 
® efva: add. Sch. 2 of. OP. 3; 23, 5. 
® rps add. W. ef. C.P. 3. 20. 6. 




ee \ > / \ / > , 
dmac. S€ ov Evydéperr Kal yxpijocipmos ov povov 
A \ \ rat > \ \ fal By " \ 

\ / \ 
mTeploos, TavTnv Sé PUcipew hacw émiBadXo- 
pevnv. amodduTat Oé } TTEpls Kal ETLKOLWOLEVOV 
a / ¢ / / p wa \ 
Tov TpoBaTwrv, ws 5é Ties Aéyovat Kal 7. Mynézx71) 
dua THY KOTpOV Kal TO Ovpor. 
VIII. Tév 8 omeppatav Exacta Kal mpos THY 
a 4 / 
THs X@opas Pvow appmoTTel, Kal Odws yévn Tpds 
al a e 
yévos Kal év avtois Tots opoyevéow, & 81 TreL- 
pavrat Svarpety. poetaBadre O€ ta Eevixa Tov 
OTEpHaToOV pddioTa pev ev TpLoly ETEGW Eis TA 
/ n a 
emuyopia. oupéper O€ Ex TOV areewov Eis TA 
\ a a 
flKpov HTTOV adeewWa Kal Ex TOV WuyeWoV ava 
li a \ 4 \ 1 Pe fa) 
Noyov trovetoOar tiv peraBoryv. Ta & ék tav 
ducxelpeplv@v €v Tois mpwiors Oe atoyxettat, 
e > > ’ > a / 2\ \ ” ¢e/ 
@oTt am avxpov pOeipetat, éav pr Orriov Udwp 
, \ nr \ > / AN \ 4 
coon. Sia ToUTO Kai EvAaBNTEOY faci TO pioyeL 
a \ 
ra Fevixa Tots éemuywplos éav pn €& omoias, OTe 
n \ 4 " 
aovppova TH YOpa KaTa TOV oOTOpOY Kal KATA 
7 / a 
TH yéverl, WaTE Kal épyacias éTépas SetTat Tas 
a a \ \ \ n 
Te THS ys Stadopas Kal Tas TMV oTrEpuaToV 
Suvdpets Kal és TAS ExdoT@V pas. 
/ / 
"“Orav 5é evernpia yévntat, Kal TONVVOTTOTEpPA 
/ an 
Ta oméppata yivetar. “AOnvnose yoov ai xpial 

1 of. Col. 2. 2. 13. The reference is perhaps to fern 
grown for litter, or possibly for medicinal use. ef. 9. 20. 5. 

2 xépas conj. Sch.; épas Ald. 3 & conj. Dalec.; ay Ald. 

4 Puxewayv conj. W.; yuxixav UM ; Wuxpar Ald. 

5 aroxeitat conj. Sch., cf. dmédxvois 8. 3.43 aroxe?ra: Ald. 
of. 4. 4. 10. 



manured. However manure is not good for all crops ; 
and further it is beneficial not only to corn and the 
like but to most other things, except fern,! which 
they say it destroys if it is put on. (Fern is also 
destroyed if sheep lie on it, and, as some say, lucerne 
is destroyed by their dung and urine.) 

Of different qualities of seed. 

VIII. There is a particular kind of soil 2? which best 
suits each kind of seed, whether we compare one 
class with another or those of the same class; and 
attempts are made to distinguish these. Foreign 
seeds change into the native sorts in about three 
years. It is well that they should be imported from 
a warm climate to one that is rather less warm, or 
from a cold one* to one that is rather less cold. 
Those imported from a wintry climate, if they be 
those of early crops, are late in coming into ear,® so 
that they get destroyed by drought unless rain late 
in the season saves them. Wherefore they say that 
one should take good heed not to mix foreign with 
native seeds, unless they come from a similar place, 
since ® they do not agree with the soil’ as to the 
time of being sown and of germinating, and ac- 
cordingly need different cultivation ; and so that one 
should take good heed to the differences of soil, 
the properties of the seed, and further the seasons 
appropriate to each. 

When however there is a good season, the grain 
also is fuller. For instance at Athens the barley pro- 

8 $7: conj. Sch.; é: UMAId. 

7 xépa conj. Sch.; &p¢ UMAId. 

8 roduvoordrepa: cf. vdormos, C.P. 4. 13. 2, Geop. 2, 16. 1, 
and other reff. in Sch.’s exhaustive note, 



Ta Trelota Towdow additas KpiOodopos yap 
a >] lal / 
apiatn tovTo & ovy Stay TrEloTaL yévwvrat 
o n a 
GAN’ btav AAByn Twa Kpadow. év bé TH Paxids 
> / e \ fal e / \ 
mept “EXdrevay of mupol trotovow ulodva Ta 
ddevpa, Kal év Lorous THs Kidrrxkias cal ot mvpol 
Kal ai kpi0at Kal wap adds GANA Tpds aTreEp 
> \ Lae , \ 5 \ , \ 
euduns exadoTyn. PBerTiw pev OvV Kal YELPW TA 
\ /- a 
oméppata Kal Sia thy épyaciav cal dia thy yhv 
\ fa) n 
yivetat’ Kal yap amayptodTat Kal pepodrat, 
kadatrep Ta Sévdpa* Kal 6das peTaBddrAXre <KaTa> 
oe \ A \ 
T™pos TO YELpoV. 
Tévos & 6Xov é€adradtTew eis Erepov ovdev 
\ / 
adnro tépuKe TAY Tidy Kal Cera, KaOaTEp elTro- 
pev év TOis TPWTOLS AOYoLsS, Kal 7 aipa & ex TaV 
a \ n , x 9 \ a 
mupav kal KpiOav SiapOerpopévav: 7 et pt) TODTO 
GANG hirel ye pariota ev Tots Tupots yiver Oar, 
/ A. oe / € \ \ \ 
xabamep Kal 0 peradutrupos o Llovtixos Kal TO 
fal a Ul a 
tav BorBav oméppa, kal adr\a@ Oé ev AdrXOlIs TOV 
4 n an 
omepuatov: émel cal 0 aiyitww Soxet waddov év 
a a al nr BA 
Tats xpilais, ev 5€ Tots haxols apakos TO TpAaXD 
\ , > \ a > a c in 
Kal okAnpov, ev O€ Tais addKaisg 0 TeAEKiVOS 
A a / \ 
Gpotov TH Over TH medEKEL axXEdoV Se Kal? 
éxactov éoTt TO cuvEeRTpedomevoy Kal ovvava- 

1 kara add, W. cf. 2. 4. 1. 
2 rwa conj. W.; te P; r@ Ald.; rd H.Vin.Vo. of. 2. 2. 6. 
3 Cerd conj. Scal.; fea Ald. H. 42.4.1. 



duces more meal than anywhere else, since it is an 
excellent land for that crop; and this is so, not 
merely when a very large crop is sown, but when the. 
weather has been favourable for it. And in Phocis 
about Elateia the wheats produce half as much meal 
again as elsewhere ; while at Soli in Cilicia this is true 
of both wheat and barley ; and in other parts there 
are other crops for which the soil is severally well 
adapted. Wherefore grain turns out better or worse 
because of the soil as well as because of cultivation ; 
for in some places it changes into the cultivated from 
the wild form, or the reverse, like trees; and in 
general it changes according! to the soil in which it 
is grown, just as some? trees, when transplanted, 
forthwith deteriorate. 

Of degeneration of cereals, and of the weeds which infest 
particular crops. 

But no kind can change altogether into another, 
except one-seeded wheat and rice-wheat,’ as we said 4 
in our previous discussions, and darnel which comes 
from degenerate wheat and barley: at least, if this 
is not the true account, darnel loves chiefly to 
appear among wheat, as does the Pontie > melampyros 
and the seed of purse-tassels,6 even as other 
seeds appear in other crops; thus aigilops seems to 
grow for choice among barley, and among lentils 
the rough hard kind of arakos, while among tares 
occurs the axe-weed,’ which resembles an axe-head in 
appearance. Indeed in the case of nearly every 
crop there is a plant which grows up with it and 

5 of. 8. 4. 6, where foe was said to be peculiar to 
Sicily. ef. C.P. 4. 
7 Blin, 18. 155 ; 27. 121; Diose. 3. 130; Hesych. s.v, BéAAexus. 

VOL. Il. oO 


i. 7 \ \ Ul 4 > v 
puryvdpevov eite Sta TAS Yopas, 6TEp OvK AdoYor, 
elite Ov GAAnY TWA aitiav. Evia 5é Kal havepas 
-3 \ / > \ \ \ , ” 

> a 7 / / / e 

traw ev0eveivy idva TovTaY paivetat, Ka0dtTep 1 
b s fal >) ¥ \ A of) 2? ld a n 

dpoBayxXn Tov opoBoy Kai 1) aTapivn TOV Pakor: 

GANA 7) pev pddiota étixpatel TOV dpoBav bia 
\ > a e \ > / / » > al 

Tv acbéverav: 7» O€ amapivn padiota év Tots 

A a / 
haxots evtpodel: tpoTov Sé Twa Kai TapaTry- 
a.ov €ote TH OpoBayyn <T@> eTiBdadrew Kal 

oUTasS, dev Kal Tovvopa eine. 
To & der opuepevon evOds ek ris pitns Te 
Kupive Kat T@ BovKép@ TO aipodwpov Kadovpevov 
ral e / 

BarXop idia. Eats S€ TO aipodwpov povoKavrov 

> > / an n : \ 7 / 
ovuk atrendepés [TH Kavr@]|, TANVY BpayvTepov Te 
morv, Kal avobév ti Keparades exer pifav Sé 

e , / > \ \ 4 ? / 
vmroatpoyyvrov: ovlev dé Erepov adavaivetat 
4 , A lal a 
mapa To BovKepas. ywetar 5é€ TavTa év Tails 
a) an / el 
AeTTals ovK ev Tails Tleipais, WoTEp Kal THs 
> , > nr / \ > / \ \ 
EvBoias év tT AnddvtT@ pev ov yivetar Tepi dé 

\ , \ v ”. lal f 
tov Kaynfov Kai et tis adXOS TOLOUTOS TOTTOS. 

1 7 BAAN twa conj. Sch.; &AAns twa U; &%AAny Ald. 
5 Te add. Sch. 
3 arexrdvats conj. W.; wAexraves U; wAextavns M ; wvexrdvny 
Ald.; veluti brachiis G. 
4 Plin. 19. 176, who however calls this aiuddwpov. See 
Index App. (26). 



mingles with it, whether this is due to the soil, 
which is a reasonable explanation, or to some other! 
cause. Some plants of this character evidently attach 
themselves to more than one kind of crop, but, 
because they are specially vigorous in some one 
particular crop, they are thought to be peculiar to 
that one, as ‘vetch-strangler’ (dodder) to vetches 
and bedstraw to lentils. But the former gains the 
mastery over the vetches especially because of the 
weakness of that plant; and bedstraw is specially 
luxuriant among lentils ; to some extent it resembles 
dodder, in that? it overspreads the whole plant and 
holds it fast as it were in coils,’ for it is thus that 
dodder strangles the plant, and this is the origin of 
its name (‘ vetch-strangler ’). 

4The plant which springs up straight from the 
roots of cummin and the plant called broom-rape 
which .similarly attaches itself to ‘ ox-horn’ ® (fenu- 
greek) are somewhat more peculiar in their habits.® 
Broom-rape has a single stem,’ and is not unlike... ,8 
but is much shorter and has on the top a sort of head, 
while its root is more or less round; and there is no 
other plant which it starves except fenugreek. 
These plants grow in light and not in fat soils ; thus 
in Euboea they do not occur at Lelanton,? but only 
about Kanethos!° and in districts of like character. 

5 Plin. 24, 184. 

8 idt2 MSS.; ? 6a. 

7 of. CP. 5, 15.5, where the same is said of Actuddwpor (cf. 
Plin. 19. 176). But Ald. Bas.Cam. give aiuédwpov here; hemo- 
dorum G. 

8 +@ kavAg probably conceals the name of a plant. 

® cf. Strabo, 10.1.9. L. is the name of a Euboean river in 
Plin. 4. 64. 

10 ef. Strabo, 10. 1. 8, Ap. Rhod. 1. 77. 

o 2 



an \ / 
an a \ 
parXov ev Tots eipnuévois Sid THY aobéverav. 
To dé tépapov kat atépamov éyerar pev eri 
an > / , > BA be \ > \ n 
TOV OoTpim@Vv povov, ovK Aroryov S€é Kal éml Tov 
fal / x \ eae , 
»,> \ 8 \ \ \ \ a5 5 , > 
GAA Oia TO yn THY avTHY elvat ypEiayv ovY 
e / ’ / 3 \ 1O b] \ 4 e / 
opoiws eudhavés' émrel ovd éml Tovtay amayTwv 
ec 4 > \ / » Pa | lal / , 
\ a y_? 5 \ s r 
Kal PaKkov, eT OVY Kal padoTa TacyYoVTwY 
+) \ \ \ 4 / , 
elre Kal Oia THY xXpeiav hawopévov. yiverat 
youv mAEovayas' modkdaxovd yap ToToL TIVés 
€ / 
elaw ot aiel hépovar tepdmova Kal addov Tad 
> / \ w ce >’ \ n e / n 
aTepapova: TO O€ ws emt TAY ob AeTTOYEw UAAXOV 
Tepapova’ Kal aépos KaTdoTacis Tis Tove THY 
4 4 a \ 4 by 
TOLAUTHY TapadrAaynv: onpuetov S€ OTe TavTa 
/ \ 4 / > Oé / \ \ 
xopia Kal opoiws épyacGévta héper troté pev 
Tepapova <ToTé dé aTEepdmova.> epi PirlaTovs 
\ ¢ , , 2\ ce. ow A > 
dé 6 KVapos ALKW@pEVOS, Edy VITO TVEvMATOS éey- 
, n , By > /, 7 
xoplov AnPOH, Tepduwv wv aTepduwv yiverat. 

na \ 9 7 é , n lal oy a 

lof. 2. 4. 2; CP. 4. 12; Plin. 18. 155, who makes 
ateramum, teramum plants. 

2 rreovaxa@s: toAAaxov I conj. ; mA€ov: moAAax@s MSS. 

3 more 5¢ drepduova add. H. from G. 

4 of. CP. 4. 12. 8; Plut. Quaest. Conv. 7. 2. 3; Plin. lc. 



The reason then why these plants, which attach 
themselves to more than one kind, grow stronger 
when attached to the plants specified, is that the 
latter are not robust. 

Of the conditions in the seeds of pulses known as * cookable’ 
and ‘uncookable,’? and their causes. 

1'The terms ‘ cookable’ and ‘uncookable’ are only 
applied to pulses, but it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that conditions like those indicated, if not 
identical with them, occur also in cereals, though 
they are not so obvious, since these plants are not 
put to the same use. Indeed it is said that these 
terms are not applied even to all pulses alike, but 
chiefly to beans and lentils, either because these 
are specially subject to these conditions, or because 
the use to which they are put makes them more 
conspicuous. At all events the conditions occur 
for a variety of reasons; for in many parts 2 there 
are places which regularly produce seeds that are 
‘cookable,’ while others again produce seeds that 
are ‘uncookable’; in general however it is light 
soils which tend to produce the former. Now it is 
a certain condition of the climate which causes this 
variation ; a proof of which is the fact that the same 
piece of land, tilled in the same manner, produces 
sometimes seeds that are ‘cookable,’ sometimes 
seeds that are ‘uncookable.’* In the district of 
Philippi, if the beans, while being winnowed,‘ are 
caught by the prevailing wind of the country, they 
become ‘ uncookable,’ having previously been ‘ cook- 
able.’ These facts prove that for various reasons, 
of districts ® which are close together, have the same 

5 airav conj.W.; 6 tay Ald, ef. a similar expression 8, 2. 10. 



/ ” / \ e , / rif 
Yoplwov éua ovvopa Kai opoiws KaOjueva Kai 
ovdepiav éyovta Kata Thy yhv Siahopay TO pév 
Tepduova TO 8 atepdpova déper, cal éviote pdovov 
avraxos dSioprfovens. 

/ a 
IX. Kapriferar tiv yhv pddtota tupos eita 

/ > A 1 ee \ bd \ a , € \ 
KpiOn, dv” & Kat o péev ayabny Entre? x@pav 2 Sé 

\ / \ > ta] , > 
xpi, Svvatar Kai év tais wadhapwrépais €x- 

/ ca) \ a / 7. 
hépev’ Tov dé yYedpoT@v padiaota €péBivOos 
lal a e 
Kaitep éiaxtotov Ypovoy év TH yn pévav, Oo Oé 
7 A 3 / \ 4 > \ \ 
Kvamos, WoTrTep EEYON, Kai GrXws ov Bapv Kal 
ére xomrpiCew Soxel Thy yhv 61a pwavotnta Kal ed- 
onviav: 8: 6 Kal of wept Maxedoviay cal Oetta- 
Aiav Otay avOdow avatpéovat Tas apovpas. 
Tév dé opotomipav Kai opotoxpiOwr, olov Ceras 
, ~~ / ; vow, > , 
Tipns odvpas Bposov aiyiAwtos, toxXUpOTAaToOV 
Kal pddiota Kapmilouevov » fed: Kal yap 
moduvppifvov Kal Baddppifov cal moAvKddamov: oO 
dé KapTros KovpoTtatos Kal mpoodidas Tao Tois 
A a Se ae e / 4 \ 
feos. tov dé ddrov o Bpoposs morvppitos yap 
\ ® \ U € SD , 
Kal ovTos Kal TmoAvKdAapos. 1 5é GAVpAa pada- 
K@TEpov Kal aalevértepov TovT@Y. % dé Tidy 
mavtwv Koupdtatov: Kal yap Kal povoxddapov 
<kai AeTToKdrAapmov,> bv 06 Kal yopav [Entei 

Pof.- OP. 4.1251. 2 cf. C.P. 4, 8. 3. 

3 Plin. 18. 120; Varro 1. 23. 3; Col. 2. 10. 7. 

4 8. 7. 2, 

5 7.e, dig in the bean-plants if the soil is poor, before the 
pods are formed enough to make it worth while to gather 
the beans. So Varro d.c, ® Cited by Galen, 




aspect and shew no difference of soil, some bear 
‘ cookable’ some ‘ uncookable’ seeds, and that some- 
times when there is only! the breadth of a furrow 
between them. 

Of the grains and pulses which most exhaust the soil, or which 
improve it. 

IX. Wheat exhausts the land more than any other 
crop, and next to it barley; wherefore the former 
requires good soil, while barley will bear even on 
somewhat crumbling soils ; ? and of leguminous plants 
chick-pea is the most exhausting, although this crop 
is in the ground only a very short time. 3 Beans, 
as was said,* are in other ways not a burdensome 
crop to the ground, they even seem to manure it, 
because the plant is of loose growth and rots 
easily; wherefore the people of Macedonia and 
Thessaly turn over the ground when it is in 

°Of the. plants which resemble wheat or barley 
—such as seta (rice-wheat) one-seeded wheat olyra? 

*(rice-wheat) oats aigilops—zeia is the strongest ® and 
most exhausts the ground; for it has many roots 
which run deep and many stems ; but its fruit is the 
lightest and is welcome to all animals. Of the rest 
oats® is the most exhausting; for this too has many 
roots and many stems. Olyrais amore delicate plant 
and not so robust as these. But one-seeded wheat 
is the crop which is of all the least burdensome to 
the soil; for it has but a single slender stem !°; 
wherefore also it requires a light soil and not, like 

7 See Index. 
8 taxupétaroy conj. W. from Galen ; ioxupdétepoy Ald. 

. 5, Peeeee moAvppiCos yap conj. Sch.; B. woA.* Kad yap Ald. 
° gat AewroxdAapor add, Bod, from ‘Galen. 



/ > iA ¢ \ / \ > 4 
AeTTHV, OVX WaTrEp 1) Fed Tieipay Kal ayabrp. 
lal € a a 
gore dé 600 TavTa Kal opoLldTata Tots Tupois H TE 
/ e e 
<fera kal 9 tidn,> o 8 aiyitwW Kal o Bpomos 
@oTEp aypt ATTA Kal avrypepa. 
> / x / \ ce Dir iA X 
Emixapriferar 6€ ofddpa Kai 0 aiyitwy TH 
a 2 / \ 4 e \ 
ynv, Kat éote TrodvppLfov Kal TodvKadAapov: 7 Se 
aipa TavTEeh@s aTnyplo@pévov. TeV O€ év TOFS 
o \ lal 
Gepivois apotous TO onoapmov SoKet YaXeT@TAaTOV 
eivat TH yn Kal pddtota KapTiverOar Kaitou 
Tonuppilotepov Kéyxpos. Stadhéper O€ Ta TE pds 
THY yhv Kovpa Kal TA TPOS THY HwETEpay TpOhHy. 
évia yap évavtiws, @omep TA yedpoTra Kal oi 
/ \ \ \ ey A Ze x» / \ 
KéyxXpo Kal Ta Tpos Huas dé, daoTep EXEXON, Kal 
5 a \ aA z ¢ 
/ \ an / \ \ \ 
X. Noonpata 6€ TOV oTEeppadtory Ta pev Koa 
/ > / e ae. , \ er ay, / 
mTavTov éotiv, obov ) épvoiByn, Ta O idiad TivHr, 
e ¢ \ Aare , \ eee 
oiov 0 odakertcpos Tod épeBivOov, Kal Td wd 
KapT@v KkatecbiecOar Kal bro WvuAdOv, Tiva Oe 
kal um ddd@v Onpidiov. évia bé Kal Wopid cal 
Grud, Kabatep Kai TO KYuvoY. Ta O éTLyWO- 
ra \ fal , an 
peva Cha py €€ avTav adr éx Tov &Ewber ody 
, \ 
opoims Brame. erriyiveTar yap 7 pev KavOapls 

1 4 re Cera kal 7 Thon add. W. from Galen. 

2 6 8 conj. Scal.; 67° Ald. H.; #7’ UMP. 

3 «altro: conj. W.; nattAld. cf. C.P. 4. 15.1. 
4 7a add. St. 5 8. 3. 5 ad fin. 

8 kal ra Ald.; nat oi ra UMP; ? xa ad 7a W. 



zeta, one that is fat and good. These last two,! 
zeia and one-seeded wheat, are also those which are 
likest to wheat, while? aigilops and oats are as it 
were wild and uncultivated things. 

Aigilops also greatly exhausts the land, having 
many roots and many stems; while darnel is a 
plant which has become altogether wild. Of the 
crops sown at the summer seed-time sesame seems 
to be most severe on the land and to exhaust it 
most; yet® millet has more numerous and stouter 
stems and more roots. Moreover there is a difference 
between crops which # are called ‘light’ in relation 
to the soil and those called ‘light’ in regard to 
human use. For some, such as leguminous plants 
and millet, are light in one sense but not in the 
other; and, as was said,®> what® is light for men is 
not necessarily so for the other animals. Now 
enough of these matters. 

Of the diseases of cereals and pulses, and of hurtful winds. 

X. 7 As to diseases of seeds—some are common to 
all, as rust, some are peculiar to certain kinds; thus 
chick-pea is alone subject to rot® and to being 
eaten by caterpillars and by spiders®; and some 
seeds are eaten!? by other small creatures. Some 
again are liable to canker and mildew," as cummin. 
But creatures which do not come from the plant 
itself but from without do not do so much harm; 
thus the kantharis is a visitor among wheat, the 

7 Plin, 18. 152 and 154, 8 of. 4. 14. 2. 

% YvAAGy: described by Arist. H.A. 9. 39. 1. 

10 §¢ add. Sch.; ? karecOleoOa- KkarecOletat 5€ Kal bard W. W. 
1 Ywprg cal chug conj. W.; Padpas nal dAuars Ald. ef. 7.5.4 n. 
#2 Plin, 18. 156. 





cal a \ / / 
év Tois mupois, TO 5é hardyytov év apdBors, adda 
& év adXors. 
"EpvaiBa & ws ads eitrety TA o1TwON MAd- 
“a , a \ 4 a 
Nov TOV OoTpiov avTa@V é TOUT@Y KpPLOn wadrov 
) Tupds' Kail Tov KpLOav Etepar éEtépwv, udduoTa 
A f ee a 
& ws eimeiy 1) AxirArnls. Suadépes 68 xal 4 TadY 
vopiwv Oéois Kat  pvaois ov puiKpdv: Ta yap 
/ \ / > > a. Khe & 
mpoonveua Kal petéwmpa ovK épvorBa i) %HrTov, 
\ » \ » , , 
GANA TA éyKotNa Kal aTvoa: yiverat bé 1) épvai Bn 
, s > / \ qr tig TIN 
TAVGEAHVOLS padioTa. aToAAvTaL bé Kal v0 
an \ \ 
TOV TVvEvLaTwV Kal TUpOS Kal KpLOn, Stay H 
> a a iA > / \ > n 
avOodvra AnPOH } apts amnvOnkota Kal acbevi: 
n / a 
parrov S€ KpiO}, wodddxis. & Hdn év tO adpv- 
\ 4 \ 
veoOat odca, éav peydda Kal Treiw ypovov ért- 
/ \ \ a 
yévntar: Enpaiver yap Kai afavaiver, 6 Kadodot 
a / 
rives eEavewodaobar. SvaTrordrvor 6é Kal HALOS O 
BA \ tal \ 

Exvéhenos Aupw Kal “adXov trupov 7 KpLOyv, Hore 
> PHaS, +4 \ 4 ot 4 y 
pnd émidnrov eivat Tov otayuy TH der dvTa 

Tov d€ mupov amodXvovart Kab of cxoAHKES Of 
\ > \ / Ld \ ce? € \ 
pev evOds Katecbiovtes pvopuevat Tas pitas, oi dé 
dtav avypavtTes atroxvOjvar wn Sivwvtar TOTE 
, e 4 , \ 
yap éyyuvopevos 0 cK@NHE EoOier TOV aTroTnrL{o- 
yy a 
pevov Kadapmov' éoOies b€ aypt TOD aTayvOS, EIT 

1 Plin. 18. 154. 

2 épvo1BG conj. W.; épvoi8a Ald.; eis add. Sch, 
8 7a add. Sch. 4 of. C. P.3. 22..2. 

5 épvo184 conj. Sch.; épuciBac Ald. 

6 ef. CLP. 4. 13. 4; Plin. 18, 151. 

7 wéyada conj. Sch.; ueyddn UMAId, 



phalangion in vetches, and other pests in other 

1Generally speaking, cereals are more liable to 
rust? than pulses, and among these barley is 
more liable to it than wheat; while of barleys. some 
kinds are more liable than others, and most of all, 
it may be said, the kind called ‘ Achillean.’ More- 
over the position and character of the land make no 
small difference in this respect; for lands which ® 
are exposed to the wind‘ and elevated are not 
liable to rust,® or less so, while those that lie low 
and are not exposed to wind are more so. And 
rust occurs chiefly at the full moon. © Again 
wheat and barley are destroyed by winds, if 
they are caught by them either when in flower, 
or when the flower has just fallen and they are 
weak ; and this applies specially to barley, indeed 
it oecurs when the grain is already ripening, if 
the winds are violent’ and last a long time; for 
they dry up and parch the grain, which some call 
being ‘wind-bitten.’ Also a hot sun after cloudy 
weather destroys both, and wheat more than barley, 
so that the ear is not even conspicuous, since it is 

Wheat is also destroyed by grubs; sometimes they 
eat the roots, as soon as they appear,’ sometimes 
they do their work when by reason of drought the 
ear cannot be formed ®; for at such times the grub 
is engendered, and eats the haulm as it is becoming 
unrolled; it eats right up to the ear and then, 

8 @uduevar conj. Sch.; @uduevoy Ald. ef. C.P. 3. 22. 4. 

9 Gmwoxv0jva: conj. Sch. after Vin. Vo.G 3 amrodv0jvae UM 
Ald. ef. C.P. 3. 22.4; 4. 14.1. 

10 Gxomnvi(duevev: lit. ‘unwinding itself.’ All edd. mark 
the word as corrupt. 



éEavahooas aToAduTat Kal édv pev Odov exhayn 
/ 2 oN e / \ \ ; ee, as n 
TEMEWS AUTOS O TuUpds, éav Sé emt Odtepov Tod 
\ n 
Kandapmov Kal éxBidontat TIY aToXYVaLY, TOUTO 
pev avov Tod otaxvos Oatepov bé byes. ryiveras 
dé ov TavtTayod TO Tepl Tovs Tupods, olov év 
OetTanria, adda KaTAa Yowpas TiWds, OoTEP ev TH 
/ \ n > / > A / 
AtBin Kat ths EvBoias év r@ AndavTo. 
/ \ / a 
LK@ornKes b€ yivovtar Kal év Tois @Ypows Kal 
a 7 a lal an 
Tots AaPvpots Kai Tots Ticois, bTav bypavOdc. 
, A 
Kal Oepunpepiar yévwvtTat, Kabdmep Kat év Tots 
> / e 4 / \ b] , 
épeBivOows ai Kara. tavta 5é éFavadooarTa 
/ n al 
Tas Tpopas aTOANVTaL Kal év Tots YAwpOtS Kal év 
lal ral lal iy nr 
tois Enpots Kaptrots, olov of Te imes Kal ot év Tots 
\ na 
an n 4 
év Tois dSévdpecu Kal ev Tots Evrous EXEXON, TAY 
na an / \ iA 
TOV KEepacT@v Kadovpévwmv. Tpos aravta 8) 
n , e na 
TavTa peyara Siadépovew ai y@pat ovK adoyws: 
\ 4 lal \ 
6 yap anp evOvs dvdhopos TH Oeppos 7) Wuyxpos 
5 x e \ x U e 8 9 e /, ? 
elvar 7) vypos 7) Enpos: obTos & Hv 0 yovevov 
A X +2 e I / > pyre." 4 
0 Kal év ols ei@Oact yivegPat ovK del yivovTaL. 
n g 
XI. Tav dé orepuatav ovy 4 adtn Svvapis 
? ” \ / \ > / 
éotiy eis Te THY BrYAoTHTW Kal eis Onoavpicpor. 

avtds: se. the grain. dvaivera: conj. W.; ? abatvera aitds. 
6drepov conj. Sch.; @arépov Ald. 

cf.C P. 3. 22. 3. &xpots conj. St.; dxpors Ald. H. 

caddrep rat conj. Sch.; kat caddmep Ald. 

naayra conj. W.; 7a Ald. 


ao rec t 


having consumed it, perishes. And, if it has en- 
tirely eaten it, the wheat itself! perishes; if 
however it has only eaten one? side of the haulm 
and the plant has succeeded in forming the ear, 
half the ear withers away, but the other half remains 
sound. However it is not everywhere that the 
wheat is so affected; for instance this does not occur 
in Thessaly, but only in certain regions, as in Libya 
and at Lelanton in Euboea. 

Grubs occur also in okhros® lathyros and peas, 
whenever these crops get too much rain and then 
hot weather supervenes; and caterpillars occur in 
chick-peas under the same conditions.4 All° these 
pests perish, when they have exhausted their food, 
whether the fruit in which they occur be green or 
dry, just as wood-worms do and the grubs found in 
beans and other plants, as was said of the pests 
found in growing trees and in felled timber. But 
the creature called ‘horned worm’ © is an exception. 
Now in regard to all these pests the position makes 
a great difference, as might be expected. For the 
climate, it need hardly be said, makes a difference 
according as it is hot or cold, moist or dry; and it 
was the climate which gave rise to these pests’; 
wherefore they are not always found even in places 
in which they ordinarily occur.® | 

Of seeds which keep or do not keep well. 

XI. The seeds have not all the same capacity for 
germination and for keeping well. Some germinate 

6 of. 4.14. 5; OP. 5. 10. 5. 

78 hv 6 yovedov I conj.; 8 Av 6 vebwy UAld.; & fvo- 
vevov M ; 8 éoriv 6 yovebwy conj. Sch.; 8 6 yovedwy conj. W. 

8 ze. because the atmospheric conditions are not always 
favourable to the pest. 





eva jev yap Sraoraver Kal TeXeLodTaL TaXvoTe 
Kal Onoaupiverar Kpatiora, Kabamep EAvjos Kat 
KéYX pos évia o€ Bracraver pev ev TAXEWS be 
OnTETAL, Kaldmep 0 0 KUaMOS Kal pearXov oO Tepa- 
Mov TAXD. 5 4) adbakn kal o SoAtyos" KptOn be 
mupod <Oairtov'> Oartov 6é Kal 0 KovLopT@oys 
cites Kal o év oikypact KoviaTois 7) AKOVLATOLS. 

Tiverac 87 pO erpopévors oT EpMact iva Coa, 
cabdmep eréxOn, may épeBivOou: povos yap ovTos 
ov. Cworyovet. Kal TNTOMEVOLS pev Tact onan’ 
KOTTOMEVOLS dé xa?’ &xactov idvov. TWavT@v be 
paduor a Srapevovew €péBvP os Kal dpoBos, TOU- 
TOV O ere paiddov 0 Oépmos: arr’ Eotxé yy ovTOS 
OO TEP drypic. 

Aragéper dé ws eouKxe xXepa xopas Kat anp 
aépos eis TO KOTTECOaL Kal Hi, Ta omépwara év 
"ATroAovia your 7H mept TOV Loveov ovK €obie- 
c Jai gaow bAws KVamor, dt 6 Kal eis Oncavpio- 
pov amoribed Bat Sapever dé Kal mept Kugixov 
él TAELO. peya be pos Srapovny Kal TO Enpa 
Oepivery éharTov yap 1) vypoTns: Gepifover 6 
¢ " /XUAOTE pa. TQ pev xeSpora Tpos TO aN Xov Kal 
pdov avdr€Eal, TaXY yap KaTappel Kal avavbévta 

1 ef conj. W.; ov Ald. 2 onmera add. W. 

3 of. 8. 8.6; C.P. 5. 18. 2. 4 @arrov add. W. 

5 nal 6 Kov.... d&xovidTols conj. W., cf. CP. 4. 16. 1; 6 Kove- 
opt wns Kar 6 kovlopros- Kat 6 év rots Kovioprois ev dmacw, ofov 
kovidros }} akovidrots Ald.; so also UM, but omitting ro?s; U 
gives koviarois; } 6 a&koviopos for nal 6 Kovloptos mBas. cf. 
Plin. 18. 301, Varro 1. 57. 1, where the use of a cement of 
pounded marble is recommended. 

8 8h POetpouévors conj. Sch.; diapPerpouévorcs UMAId. 



and mature very quickly, and keep excellently, as 
Italian millet and millet. Some germinate well,! 
but soon rot,? as beans, and especially those that are 
‘cookable *’ ; so do tare and calavance ; also barley 
perishes sooner‘ than wheat ; and dusty® grain and 
that which is kept in plastered store-rooms perishes 
sooner than that which is kept in unplastered rooms. 

Again, as seeds decay, they engender special 
creatures, except chick-pea, which alone engenders 
none. As they rot,’ all produce a grub; but, as 
they get worm-eaten, each produces a_ special 
creature. Chick-pea and vetch keep best of all, and 
better still than these lupin; but this, as it were, is 
like a wild kind.® 

®It appears that soil and climate make a difference 
as to whether the seed gets worm-eaten or not; 
at least they say that at Apollonia on the Ionian Sea 
beans do not get eaten in this way at all, and there- 
fore they are put away and stored; and about 
Cyzicus they keep an even longer time. It also 
makes a great difference to keeping that the seed 
should be gathered dry, for then there is less 
moisture in it.1° However the seeds of leguminous 
plants are gathered with a certain amount of 
moisture in them," because then they can be collected 
in greater quantity and more easily; for otherwise 
they are soon shed and get shrivelled up and split ?; 

7 7,e. rot is produced in all cases by the same creature 
(oxwAnt), but the condition called being ‘worm-eaten’ is due 
in each plant to a different pest. 

8 7.e. and so the seed is hard and not liable to these attacks. 
ef. 8. 11. 8; O.P. 4. 16. 2. 

® of. C.P. 4. 16. 2. 10 j.e, liability to rot. 
I éyxvAdrepa conj. Sch.; ebxvadrepa Ald.H.Cam.; edxnadrepa 
Bas. of. C.P. 4. 13, 3. 2 Plin. 18, 125, 




\ \ \ \ / A 
Opitretat, Tovs dé Tupovs Kal yévos TL KpLOdv 
\ 7 
dua TO BeATious eis TA AdXGiTa yiverOar pH aTe- 

Av 6 kal eis O@pous ovvTiOéact Kai Tupods Kal 
xplOds, Kal Soxodow adpbver0ar év Oop@ wadrov 
RY a > > / \ a e e \ 
) AuTOcapKeElV. OvK ea ieTat Sé ciTos, dtav tabels 

a > , \ / / e / 
OepicO7 abépiotos S€ padtota Orapéver Oo Tupos, 
a ¢ 
éTe O€ padrov o Oéppos: ovdé yap Oepifovar 
TOUTOV TpoTepov i) DOwp yevéa Car, Sid TO exTNddv 
OepiCopevov Kal aworAdvaOat TO oTréppa. 

IIpos éxpuow 5€ Kai THY OAnv oTopay dpiota 
Soxel Ta évdeva: Ta bé Steva Yeipw Kal Ta Tpieva, 
7a 8 brepteivovta ocxedov dyova, mpos O€ THY 
citnow apKodvta. Bios yap éatw éxdoToLs wpic- 
mévos eis younv. Kaito. Kal TavTaLs TapadAaTTEL 
tais Suvdapect 1a Tovs TOTOUs év ols av Onoaupi- 

a / 
Covtat. tHS youv Kamadoxias év ywpio tii 
T@ Karoupévo Létpa cal tettapaxovta érn d1a- 

7 \ : / \ / \ / , 
peévery hac yovipa Kal ypnoiwa Tpos oTopor, eis 
Sé tHv citnow éEnKxovta 7 EBSounKoVTAa: TO yap 
er > , \ XY ex ory \ \ o 
éXov ov Kom@TecOar: Ta Oé imatia Kal THY adAdXnV 

/ , \ \ / ” 
yabav KxoTTecOat. TO yap xXwploy adXws TE 
e \ J \ BA Ns 2a S24 \ 
inpyrov eivar Kal evrrvovy Kal évavpov aiel Kal 
am avaTorns éxover kat dSvoews Kal weonuBpias. 

1 4 Avwooapkeiy conj. H.; jAlka owpdv U; jAtka capkav M. 
W. brackets as due to a gloss. cf. CP. 4, 13. 6. 

2 Stay iodels conj. Scal.: so Vo.; 6 tavvodeis Bas.Cam. 
epio Oj conj. W.; mepipvg MSS. 



and wheat and one kind of barley are gathered 
before they are dry, because then they are better for 

Wherefore the grain of wheat and barley is put 
into heaps, and it seems to ripen in a heap rather 
than to lose substance.! (However corn does not 
get worm-eaten when it is reaped after exposure to 
rain.)* Also corn lasts better than other things if it 
is left standing, and so does lupin to an even greater 
extent ; indeed this crop is not even gathered till 
rain has fallen,®? because, if it is gathered, the seed 
springs out and is lost. 

Of the age at which seeds should be sown. 

*For propagation and sowing generally seeds one 
year old seem to be the best; *those two or three 
years old are inferior, while those kept a still longer 
time are infertile, though they are still available as 
food. For each kind has a definite period of life in 
regard to reproduction. However these seeds too 
differ in their capacity according to the place in 
which they are stored. For instance, in Cap- 
padocia at a place called Petra they say that 
seed remains even for forty years fertile and fit 
for sowing, while as food it is available for sixty 
or seventy years; for that it does not get worm- 
eaten at all like clothes and other stored-up articles. 
for that the region is, apart from this, elevated and 
always exposed to fair winds and breezes which 
prevail alike from® the east, the west, and the 

3 apdtepov } conj. W.; tov tpdrov UAld. ef. C.P. 4. 13. 3; 
Plin. 18. 133. 4 Plin. 18. 195. 
5 of. 7.5.5; Geop, 2. 16. 
6 am’ conj. Sch.; ém P,Ald. 
VOL, Il, P 



gact 8& kat év Mndecia xal tais adXats Tais 
inpnrais yopais Suapéverv Onoavpifoueva Trodvv 
xpovov. €épéBivOov 5é 54 Kal Péppov Kal dpoBov 
, \ / \ \ A 8 4 a 
Kal Kéyxpov Kal Ta TotadTa SHrov 6tt TOAAM 
TrELw TOUTOY, WoTTEp Kal év Tots Tepl THY EXXdSa 
, >. \ A , Py y n 
4 y 
TOT@Y lova. 
Aoxet € Kal yh Tis elvat Tapa Tiow % Sia- 
"OnvvO@ Kal ev KnpivOe tis EvBoias: trovet dé 

veipw ev eis THY aiTnow adpoTepov SE TH Tpoc- 

/ 4 \ / > \ 4 
over: TapaTdttovaer Oé YoiviKka eis TOV pédipvOV. 
IIupobévta mavta ta oméppata amodduvTaL 
kal aBracTh yivetar Kaitot wept ye BaBurAadva 
\ \ \ \ \ > n 7 
hace tas KpiOas Kal Tovs Tupovs érl THs dro 
a \ n 
mndav, @oTEp TA Hpvyomevas adda OSfrov Ott 
4 / 3 a é x ¢ fal 
duahopa tis é€ott THs Oepporntos, 7) aTABS Tas 
/ 7 \ S / \ »N \ 
Oeppacia yivetar [kat] 4 mndnou. Kal Ta pev 
nr \ e \ / x 9s 
TotavTa oxedov watrepel Kowa dokevev av eivat 

4 XN a , 

1 cf. C.P. 5. 18. 3; for millet-seed see J.H.S. vol. xxxv. 
part i. p. 22. 

2 Siararrouevn conj. H.; diamdattomévn UMAId.; d:axorro- 
pévn Py. ef. Plin. 18. 305. 

3 xapamdrrove: conj. Sch., ef. Geop. 2. 21. 3; (€umdocewv) ; 
mnapatartovot UMAId. ef. Varro 1. 57, 1. 



south. They say that in Media! also and other 
elevated countries the seed when stored keeps for 
a long time. And it is plain that chick-pea lupin 
vetch millet and the like will keep a far longer time 
than these seeds, as they do even in districts of 
Hellas. However these peculiarities, as has been 
said, are due to the particular region. 

Of artificial means of preserving seed. 

There appears to be a kind of earth in some 
places, which when sprinkled ? over the seed helps 
to make wheat keep, for instance, the earth found 
at Olynthos and at Kerinthos in Euboea; this 
makes the grain inferior for food, but fuller in ap- 
pearance ; the earth is sprinkled ® in the proportion 
of one pint to twenty-four of grain. 

Of the effect of heat on seeds. 

All seeds if exposed to fire perish and become 
infertile. Yet they say that at Babylon‘ the grains 
of barley and wheat jump on the threshing-floor 
like corn which is being parched. However it is 
plain that it is some particular kind of warmth® 
which produces this effect: or else the jumping 
is simply another effect of heat.6 Such behaviour 
would appear to be common to most,’ if not to all 

4 i.e. the grain is there exposed to great. sun-heat. ef. 
de agne 44. 

> 7,e. the sun’s heat is different in kind, and therefore in 
effect, to that of a fire. 

8 Gepuacta con). Sch.; @cpuacta Ald. A. 

7 @omepel Kowa COnj. Sch. from G; domep cixdvaa UM ; domep 
eixdves Ald. H. 

Pp 2 


a , 
8 “Ema 8é éyes Twa idsoTnTa Kal Tov SoKovVTMY 
\ / \ \ 
@omrEep ayptwv eivar Kal KATA THY yéveow Kal THY 
yy ef € A \ € SERS e \ 
expuaolv, @oTrep 0 Oéppos Kal 0 aiyidNwy: o meV 
, x e \ \ 
yap Oéppos Kaitep taxupoTaTos OY Ouws, €av py 
>9\ > \ a e/ A \ 4 ‘ 
evOvs amo THs GAw KaTaBryOH, Kaxoguns yivetai, 
KaBamep érévyOn, xal TO Srov Sé ovK EOéres 
KpuTTecOar TH yn, Sv 0 Kal ovX UTapodvTes 
EI / 
omelpovot: TodAdKis O€ Kav eis DANY Rotary 
/ \ / 
Tiva Téon, SlwoadpEevos TAUTHVY GUVaTTEL THY pilav 
a a \ / / \ o val 
Th yn Kal Bractdve. yopav S€ bpaupov Entei 
Kal avranv padrdov, To Sé Grov ovK eGéret 
pvecOar év Sisetpyaocpévy. 
\ a 
9 ‘O 6é aiyitow avdradw: év yap TH yewpyou- 
/ / eer na . , > \ 
peévn KaAALOV* Kal éviaxod dé TpoTepoy aBAaGTNS 
x 2\ n / \ / 7 
av éav yewpynOn BractTdves Kai yiveTas ToXUs, 
+ om de cal , > fal / mn) be > a 
Kal drws 5é dire? yopav ayaOnv. idiov dé adTod 
NéyeTaL Tpos TA AAa TA COLTON OTéppata Kal 
) Tap éviauTov BraoTHOLS ExaTépov THY oTEp- 
patoav. 6s 8 Kal ot BovrAdpevos TeAéws POctpar, 
4 \ \ 7 / \ > / 
SiopPaptov yap 6) pice: TUyxXdveLr, TAS apovpas 
avidow aotopovs émt ovo étn, Kal btav ava- 
/ \ / > fa / a 
BractTHon Ta TpoPaTta érmradiaot TodAAKIS, Ews 
av éxveunOaot, cal arn yiverar dOopa ravre- 
¢ \ a a 
Ans apa O€ TOUTO wapTupEl Kal THY Tapa pépos 

2 «al conj. Sch.; # Ald. H. 
2 of. 8. 1.3, 3 of CLP. 4. "7. 3. 
4 brapodyres conj. H.; iramopodvres UMAId. cf. C.P. 3.20.8. 



Of certain peculiarities of the seed of lupin and aigilops. 

Some even! of those kinds which seem to be 
more or less wild have peculiarities as to their 
germination and growth, for instance, lupin and 
aigilops. For lupin, although it is very robust, 
unless it is planted immediately after leaving the 
threshing-floor,? turns out of poor growth, as was 
said, and refuses altogether to be buried in the 
ground ;* wherefore they sow it without first 
ploughing * the land. And often if the seed has 
fallen amid thick undergrowth or herbage,® it 
thrusts this aside, fastens on to the earth with its 
root and grows vigorously. It seeks sandy and 
poor soil for choice, and will not grow at all in® 
cultivated” soil. 

Aigilops has the opposite character; it grows 
better in tilled soil; and in some places where at 
first it would not grow, if the ground is tilled, it 
grows and yields a large crop, and in general it 
likes good soil. A peculiarity ® mentioned in regard 
to it as compared with other cereal seeds is that one 
seed in two does not germinate for a year. Where- 
fore those who wish to destroy it entirely, (since 
it is naturally hard to destroy), leave the fields 
unsown for two years, and, when it springs up, 
send in® the sheep several times till they have 
grazed it down, and this is a way of completely 
destroying it. At the same time this testifies to the 
fact that the seed does not all germinate at once. 

5 of. 1. 7. 3; Plin. 18. 134. 8 éy conj. W.; 7H Ald. H. 

ef Sit = Sef CP. 4. 6. 1. 

9 éragiaiot conj. Sch., cf. 8. 7. 4; apijor Ms aglnor P; 
aptao: Ald, 





nips, pbabk. aval 

se if BYR lf 

ae t 

le 5% r 
ee OF ay 
a vied ix ds 
7 = 41 
y ~aF 

‘ oat 
ae bark. 

a TOT 

Ak Pin ryt apo) 
epeyo soikt jot gs 
‘ mae eare $3 BS 
ifog F ENGEL. ' wi 3 ae 
Y i0e Tite sr! ¢ 
F7 ‘shiske bith “a¥e0% 
meted: ail fess ess of 

3eh4 He0 dae 6 meres se 
‘ake re : 

1 TOV ore a fe Se Heap rit es 
Pre v Bait ‘| ‘Saag ey ba iE! . - 
19 sabes: a Asia" os ; + us, thes " ar > sue 

lus “Se PIS 


2 iad a1} si bi ts 

- : ATOR) , eur Aare . 
how a ? 
+ | 7 3 ot » a 
Wiest WRI VePR F109 G 

L ‘H byporns oikela TOV PUTO?, iy 59 Kanodat 
TWeEs OTTOV OVOWATL Kou TpooaryopevovTes® dwva- 
_ pv 66 ~ Xe OMAOov Tt THY ‘eae aoriy EKAOTN. Xupos 
dé Tals pev paddov Tats e TTOV axonrovdel, Tals 

dhws ovK ay Sofever, obras aabevis Kal bdapijs 
tis éoTe. TELTTH bev ov UmdpxKer waar KaTa 
Thy PrdoTHOW, LoxvpoTtaTn Sé Kal pwddoTa 
éxpaivovea THy éavTis Pvow Grav Hdn Tavontar 
Kal Bracrdvovta Kal KapTroyovowvTa, oupBaiver 
bé TIOL TOV purav Kal xpdas idias € éyewv* Tols 
pev NevKasS olov TOUS OT @dert, Tos 0 aipaToders 
olov TO KevTaupie Kab TH atpaxtunior Kaovpery 
axdvOn, Tots O¢€ XAwpor, Tots & év addy X pod. 
évdy ha dé padrov Tatra év Tots émetelous Kal 
- Tols éreTELoKavAroLs 7) Tots Sévdpots. 

‘H & byporns TOV péev Tayos exeEL povoV, OaTEP 
TOV OTWOU' TOV O€ Kal Saxpu@dys yiveTat, KAOd- 
ep ears TEVKNS TepeBivGou TiTvos apuysaris 
Kepdaou Tpoupyns dapxevOov KéOpov Tis axavOns 
Ths Aiyurrtias mrereas, Kal yap altn déper Komp 

of. CP.6. 4A: 16. 

2 | have omitted 7 and restored 8 before @ye: (om. Scal.; 
found in UMAId. ). 

3 «g@ xevtavply conj. Scal. ef. Plin. 25, 32; xevravptd: conj. 
St.; «evrnpla P,Ald.G, of. 9, 8. 7. 


— m7 



Of the various kinds of seat yes and the methods of collecting 

I. ! Moisture belongs to plants as such and some 
eall it the ‘sap, to give it a general name; and 
it plainly has? special qualities in each plant. 
This moisture is attended by a taste, in some cases 
more, in some less, while in some it would seem to 
have none, so weak and watery is it. Nowall plants 
have most moisture at the time of making growth, 
but it is strongest and most shows its character when 
the plant has ceased to grow and to bear fruit. 
Again in some plants the juice has a special colour ; 
in some it is white, as in those which have a milky 
juice ; in some blood-red, as in centaury * and the 
spinous plant which is called distaff-thistle ; in some 
green: and in some of other colours. And these 
qualities are more obvious in annual‘ plants and 
those with annual stems than in trees. 

Again in some plants the juice is merely thick, as 
in those in which it is of milky character ; but in some 
it is of gummy character, as in silver-fir fir terebinth 
Aleppo pine almond kerasos (bird-cherry) bullace 
Phoenician cedar prickly cedar acacia elm.® For 

4 éy inserted here by W. instead of before rots éweretots. 

5 wredéas after xédpov P,Ald.; transposed by Sch. after 
Tobias Aldinus. ef. Plin. i3. 67. . 




\ A a lal 
A. 233. @ e / 1 a / / \ 
bé af’ av 0 AiBavos Kal 7 cpipva, Sdxpva yap 
kat TadTa, Kal TO Baddoapov Kal <)> yarSavn 
kal €t TL TOLOUTOV ETEpOV, Olov hace THY aKkavOav 
\ > 7 ed 3 @ / / cA n 7 
Thy ‘Ivdixnv, ag’ Hs yiverat te Gwotov TH omvpvn’ 
/ n a 
cuviotatar b€ Kal él THs oyivov Kal emt Tis 
> / n 3oe/ / bp] & e / 
aKdavOns ths iEivns KaXoupévns, €& Ov ) pacTixn. 
7 a 
“Aravta 6€ TadTa evoopa Kal oxedov boa 
TLOTHTA Tiva &YeEL Kal Nitros: boa 8 ahiTh TadTa 
8 doopa, Kabdrep TO Kompe Kal TO THs apvy- 
n »” \ / \ € hes ¢ > 4 
darjs. exer dé Sdxpvov nai » ikia 4» év Kpnrn 
Kal » TtTpayaxav0a Kadovpévn? TtavTnv dé Tpo- 
/ / a 
Tepov wovtTo povov év Kpntn dvecOat, viv dé 
\ \ > 7A i a II / \ 
gavepa kal év ’Ayaids tis IleXorrovvycov Kal 
G@drr06t cat ths “Acias wept tHy Mydecav. Kal 
oTEAevedt KAL TOIs aKpEem“oat TO Sakpvov" éeviov S 
év tais plifais, WoTEp TOU immocedWoU Kal THs 
/ \ ” n a 
ckKappovias Kal ad\AwV Tokay happaKxodor. 
Tov O€ Kal év TO KaVA® Kal év TH pify Kal yap 
\ \ Dues ed \ \ es e 
TOV KavAOV OTriCovolw eviwy Kal TAS pias, Wome 
Kal TOD ciAdiov. 
5 an / a 
To pev ovv Tod immocedivov Tapopooy TH 
4 % > 4 e > a "é 
apuvpyn Kat Ties akovoavTes ws évTedOev % 
cptpva nyodvta, Practdavew é€& adtis immocé- 

1 KwpdK@ conj. Sch. ; ; SS pe H.; ayelw P,Ald. probably a 
gloss on kwpixw, for which cf. 2. 8. 3 and reff. in note. Plin. 
l.c. has preserved the right word rept an absurd blunder 
—in Coryco monte_Ciliciue. 



this last also produces a gum, though it does not 
exude from the bark, but is found in the ‘bag’! 
of the leaves; there are also the juices from which 
come frankincense and myrrh; for these too are 
gums ; so too are balsam of Mecca khalbane? and any 
others of the kind that there may be, such as, they 
say, the Indian akantha, from which comes some- 
thing* resembling myrrh; and a similar substance 
forms on mastich and the spinous plant called izine 
(pine-thistle), whence mastic-gum is made. 

All these have a fragrant odour, as in general have 
those which contain a viscous substance and are 
fatty ; while those that are not fatty have no scent, 
as gum and the juice which exudes from the almond. 
The pine-thistle* of Crete has also a gum, and so 
has the plant called tragacanth ;° this was formerly 
supposed to grow only in Crete, but now it is well 
known to grow also in Achaia in the Peloponnese 
and elsewhere in Hellas and in Asia in the Median 
country. In all these plants the gum occurs in 
the stems the trunks and the branches, but in 
some plants it is found in the roots, as in alexanders 
scammony and many other medicinal plants. In 
some it is found in the stem and also in the root; ® 
for of some’ plants they tap the stem and the roots 
as well, as is done with silphium. 

Now the juice of alexanders is like myrrh, and 
some, having heard that myrrh comes from it, have 
supposed that, if myrrh is sown, alexanders comes up 

2 galbanum. cf. Plin. 12. 121; 24.21. Verg. G. 3. 415; 
4, 264. See 9. 7.2; 9.9. 2n. 

3 +. I conj. ; 7d MSS. * itia=itivn. See Index. 

5 Plin. 13. 115. © of; O.P. 6, 11.. 15. 

7 évlwy kai conj. Sch.; kat éviwy Ald. 



Auvoy pureverar yap, @orep énéx On, Kal amo 
Saxptov TO imaroo é\uvov, Kabatrep 1 KpWeavia. Kal 
arra. TO oe Tob otdpiov Spop, cabamep avTo TO 
otdduov: 6 yap omds Kadovpevos TOD ourpiov 

Sdxpvov € eoTW. » 6€ cxappovia Kab el Tt ano 
TOLOUVTOV, WATEP 2néyOn, pappaxa@ders Exovat TAS 

5 Iavtey dé TOV elpn Levon Ta pev AVTOMATHS 
ouvioTaras, Ta 0 amr evTopns, Ta & dupotépaber: 
Téuvouct dé OHAXov OTe Ta xpiorpa Kal TH pad dov 
emubnToupera. Tov © amo THIS apvyoanns ov- 
Sepia x peta Saxpvou, du O KOvK adehodar, TAHV 
éxeivo rye pavepov OTL @v avTOMATOS ” THEI 

avtny & dpav aravtov ai évTopal Kai 7 THES, 
GNA TO pev THS autrérov pddtota cuvicracbai 
pacty éav puck pov ™po Tis Praorioews THNON, 
Tod bé peTOT @pov Kal apxopevov TOD YeLwsvos 
HTTOV" KalToL TpOs YE KapmoToKiay at @paroTarat 
Tats ye Trelorais avuTat. TIS &é reppivOov Kal 
THS wevKns Kal ei Ex Tivo” AArwY pyTivyn yiveTaL 
pera THY Braornow- TO O Ohov OUK eméTELOS o) 
TOUTWV, ANN els Theo Xpovoy y évTOMn. TOV ce 
AtBavorov Kal THY omipvav bro Kiva gaat Kab 
Tats Gepporarars Huépars eévtéuvew @aavTws 
dé Kal TO év Yupia Baroapov. 

7 ~AxptBeatépa 88 Kab erdtrav 4 Kab todrer 

1 é abrijs conj. Scal.: ef. Plin. 19. 162, where smyrniwm is 
given as a nen) év avrots Ald. 
eo Pail 36.6.8; CP. 1.4. 6. 
39.1, 3. 4 of. CLP. 6. 11.15, 



from it ;1 for, as was said,? this plant can be grown 
from an exudation, like the krinonza (lily) and other 
plants. The juice of silphium is pungent like the 
plant itself; for what is called the ‘ juice’ of silphium 
is a gum. Scammony and similar plants, as was 
said,®? have medicinal properties. 

In all the plants mentioned the juice either forms 
naturally, or when incisions are made, or in both 
ways,* but it is obvious that men only make incisions 
in plants whose juice is of use and is specially sought 
after. Now there is no use in the gum which 
exudes from the almond, wherefore men do not tap 
it. However it is plain that in plants whose gum 
forms naturally the flow of juice is greater. The 
incisions and the clotting of the juice do not take 
place at the same season in all cases; ‘but the juice 
of the vine clots best they say if the incision is made 
a little before budding begins, less well in the 
autumn or at the beginning of winter ; (although in 
regard to production of fruit these ® seasons are the 
best in the case of most® vines). However with 
terebinth fir or any other tree which produces resin 
the best time is after the period of budding; yet 
in general these trees are not cut every year, but 
at longer intervals. The frankincense and myrrh 
trees they say should be cut at the rising of the 
Dogstar and on the hottest days, and so also the 
‘Syrian balsam’ (balsam of Mecca). 

The cutting of these is also a more delicate matter 

5 uadrAov emiCntrodpeva Tod 8 ard THs a. conj. W. supported 
by G3 maAdov> énl yodv 7d ard ris & UMAId. 

8 Kodk apeAkoda conj. Scal., cf. 9. 2. 13 Kav apéAnovow U; 
Kav apéAcwot MAId. ef. Plin. 24. 105. 

7 Plin. 24. 106. 8 « iconj. W.; «at UPAId. 
9 ye conj. Sch.; d¢ Ald. of. C.P. 3. 13, 2. 



évTopy” Kal yap a Tuppon THs UypornTos éNaT- 
Tov av O€ Kal oO KAaUNOS eVTEUVETAL Kal 7) pita, 
piov, Kal kanodor dé TOV om OY TOUT@V Tov pev 
Kavrlav Tov bé pugiav: Kab eo Bedriov o 0 prtias 
cabapos yap Kab Svaavns: Kal Enporepos. 0 6¢ 
Kavdtas Dry poTEpos” Kal 62a TovTO deupov atte a 
TEplTaTTovGt T pos THV THEW, THY a pay THS 
eVT OMS ioacw ol AiBves: ovToL yap ob oihguov 
NéyouTes. @oavtTas o€ Kal ot prforopoe rat ot 
TOUS pappaxaders oTroUS ouANEyorTEs" Kal yap 
ovToL TOUS kavovs omifovar TPOTEpor. aT NOS 
dé mavres Kal of Tas pilas Kal ot Tods dtrovs aUA- 
AéyouTES THY OiKelay Wpav éExdoT@Y THpodcL. Kal 
TOUTO bev 61) KOLVOV. 

i. °H be pyrivy yiverat Tove Tov TpoTrov: év 
ev Th TevKY Orav aperxobetans 7) n Oas efarpeO 9, 
ouppel yap eis TO EAKopa ToUTo Telov 9 y) DypoTns, 
év O€ TH ENATH Kal TH Titi OTav yevodpevolr TOV 
EUiwv adedkxoowow: ov yap Tas adopiopos 
omotes: apedcodor yap Kal Tas TeppivOous év 
ap oiv Kal év TO TEREX EL Kal €v Tots aK pepoow" 
atel be TAEL@V Kal Bedtiov 7) eis TO oTéXexXoS 
cuppeovca THS Ets Tous dxpemovas. 

Atadépovar dé kal Kara 7a dévdpa. Berriorn 
pev yap 1) TeppivOivn? Kat yap. cuvesTnKvia Kal 
evmdeoTATN Kal xouporarn TH oo mh aXNW’ oniry). 
devTEpa dé uy éxativn Kal murvivn, Kouporepar 
yap THs mevxivns. wrelotn O€ 4 TevKivyn Kal 

1 of. 6. 3.2; C.P.6. 11. 16. 
2 alagiov conj. St.; ciApiov UM ; ciAguoréyovres PAld. 



and is done on a smaller scale ; for the: flow of juice 
is less. In those plants whose stem and root are 
both cut the stem is cut first, as also with silphium ; 
and the juices so obtained are called respectively 
stallx-juice and root-juice, of which the latter is the 
better, for it is clear transparent and less liquid. 
The stalk-juice is more liquid, and for this reason 
they sprinkle meal! over it to make it clot. The 
Libyans know the season for cutting, for it is they 
that gather the silphium.? So also do the root- 
diggers and those that collect medicinal juices, for 
these too tap the stems earlier. And in general 
all those who collect whether roots or juices observe 
the season which is appropriate in each case. And 
this remark applies generally. 

Of resinous trees and the methods of collecting resin and pitch. 

II. ® Resin is made in the following manner :—in 
fir it is done by removing the resinous wood after the 
tree has been tapped ; for then the juice flows into 
the hole so made in greater abundance ; in silver-fir 
and Aleppo pine it is done by tapping the wood, after 
tasting it. For there is no fixed rule for all alike ; 
thus with terebinth they tap both the stem and the 
branches ; but the juice which runs into the stem is 
always more abundant and better than that which 
flows into the branches. 

There are also differences in* the resin obtained 
from different trees. The best is that of terebinth ; 
for it sets firm, is the most fragrant, and has the most 
delicate smell ; but the yield is not abundant. Next 
comes that of silver-fir and Aleppo pine, for these are 
more delicate than that of the fir. But that of the fir 

3 Plin, 16. 57. 4 xara conj. W.; Tatra Ald.H. 


/ \ / \ 4 / 
Baputdtn Kxal mitt@dertatn Sia TO pddioTa 
évdadov elvar Thy TevKnV. aryetar 8€é év aoKois 

vypa, KaTELTA OUTW GUVicTAaTAaL. KalTOL pact Kal 
THVv TéppvOov TiTTOKAaAUTELa Oat Trepl Yupiav: Eat 
yap Gpos, Kabartrep év Tots Eutrpoa Dev eltroper, méeya 
TeppivOarv weotov dtrav peyarov. 
"R bé \ \ / \ \ £8 be 
viot S€ hac Kal Ti TiTVY Kal THY Kédpov Sé 
\ / > \ n \ e > / 
tiv Dowiikyny: ara TadTa péev ws evdeyoueva 
lA \ \ 4 > \ A \ 
AnTTéov Sia TO oaviov' éerrel of ye wept Make- 
/ fa 
” a \ v \ 
THY appevas KadovoL yap aAppeva THY M1) Kap- 
n \ / >7 n € fa 
mopopov. THs S&é Onrelas édv Twa Tov pilav 
AdBwow: adtraca yap évdabos revKn Tais pifais 
/ \ / Y p : \ 4 / p he, ‘ 
KaAMoTn O€ TITTA yiveTat Kal KaDapwTdtn 1) ex 
Tav opodpa mpocciiwy Kal mrpocBoppar, ex oé 
an / 4 \ , > 
TOV TAadicKio@v BrocupwTEepa Kai BopBopwdns’ év 
\ n , / +O\ “d 7 
yap Tots ododpa marioxios ovde pvetat TevKN 
TO Tapatray. 
\ , 
"Kote 5€ Kal adopia tis Kal etpopia Kal rrH- 

\ n \ 

Gous kai KadXovhs: Stay pev yap yetmwv péTpLOS 
\ , 7 

yivntal, TOMAY yiveTat Kal KAN) Kal TO YpopaTte 


NevKoTépa, Otay 5é icxyupds, odLyn Kal poxOnpo- 

Tépa. Kal Tadta yé éote Ta oOpitovta TAHGOs Kal 

\ fal 

1 mirroxavteta bat con]. Sch., cf. 9. 3.453 mirroxavéica U; 
mrtwbetoa Ald. = 3s 2, b: 
sf 38 con}. W.; wal Ald. H. cf. 3. 12. 3. 
4 uh conj. W.; ye Ald.H.; os yh Cod. Casaub, Vin.; ye why 
Vo. (Thy &xapmov ’mBas. ). of. 3 
5 Plin. 16. 59. 



is the most abundant, the grossest and the most pitch- 
like, because this tree has the greatest amount of 
resinous wood. It is carried about in baskets in a 
liquid state, and so acquires the more solid form which 
we know. However they say that in Syria pitch is 
extracted even from the terebinth by burning!; for 
there is in that land a mountain which, as we said 
before,” is all covered with great terebinths. 

Some ? say the same of Aleppo pine and also of 
Phoenician cedar; but this must be taken as only 
indicating what can be done, the practice not 
being common; for the people of Macedonia do not 
extract pitch by burning even from fir, except from 
the ‘male’ kind (they call the kind which bears no 
fruit+ the ‘male’); the ‘female’ kind they only 
treat in this way when they have found roots con- 
taining pitch; for all firs have resinous wood ex- 
tending to the roots. °The finest and purest pitch 
is that obtained from trees growing in a sunny 
position and facing north®; that obtained from trees 
growing in shade is coarser’ and muddy; (in ex- 
ceedingly shady places the fir does not even grow 
at all). 

Again the yield may be either good or bad as to 
amount and as to quality; thus, when there is a 
moderate winter, it is abundant and good and whiter 
in colour, but, when there is a severe winter, it is 
scanty and of inferior quality. And it is these 
conditions, and not the tree’s capacity for bearing 
fruit, which determine the amount and quality of 

5 Apparently because this is the dry quarter in the Balkan 

7 Broowpwrépa conj. Sch.; Bpornpotépa M ; BrAoonporépa Ald. 
of C.P. 6. 12, 5. 


VOL, Il. Q 




f / a \ 
Oi dé rept tiv “Idnv daci, Starpodvtes Tas 
, \ \ \ n b] / \ \ 
mevKas Kal THY pev KarodvTes “Idatav tiv 8é 
7 \ b] an 2 y / \ 
mapaniay, Thy éx THs “ldalas mrEiw Kal pedav- 
FA , \ / \ \ ¢ 
TEpaV yivecOar Kat YAUKUTEpay Kat TO OXOV 
evmbectépav pny, EnOcicavy Sé édAaTTW éx- 
, , \ ” \ ? ’ » A A 
Baivew: mreiw yap exe Tov oppor, de 6 Kat 
/ n 
AeTTOTEpay eivar. THY dé THs waparias EavOo- 
/ \ / b] 4 v4 \ \ ” 
Tépav Kal TaxuvTépav wpnv, OoTe Kal THY Adee 
éhaTTo yiverGat, dadmdectépav dé Tiv *ldaiav. 
ws 6€ aTAas eirrety Ex THs tons Oadds TAELw Kal 
58 / > Lal > /, / Q@ * ° 
bdapectépav év tats éropBpiars yiverOar 4 év 
Tols avypots, Kal é« TOY Yetwepwav Kal Tad- 
NA , lal n 
ckiwy TOT@VY eK TOV Evelh@v Kal EvOLELVOD. 
"AvatAnpovabat S& oupBaiver Ta KoikOpata 
mpos TO TaAw é€aipely TOV pev ayabav TwevKaV 
EVLAUT@, TOV O€ peTpL@Tépory év Svoly erect, TOV 
be Q@ n b] / e de > / ] 
€ movyOnpwv év Tplolv. 9 O€ avaTTANPwaIS OV 
tov EvXov Kal THs cuuhicews AANA THs TiTTHS 
> , b] \ \ vA > / an \ aA 
éotiv: émel TO Evrov advvaTov ouudivat Kal ev 
/ uA ° >? et b] / \ / 
yevéoOar mad, arr  épyacia dia TocovTou 
Ypovou yivetar THS TitTHsS’ avayKatoy 5é SHrov 
vd \ an 4 , / , ” 
6tt Kal TO Etro yiverOai Tiva Tpdcdvo.r, eizreEp 

1 Plin. 16. 60. 

2 ebwoeorépay H.; edxpwwwderrépay UMAId.; ? edxpiwveorépay 
Kal ebwdectépay W. of 3. 9. 2, 

3 Plin. dc. 




The people of Mount Ida distinguish different 
kinds of fir, calling one ‘that of Mount Ida’ (Corsican 
pine), another the ‘ fir of the seashore,’ (Aleppo pine); 
1and they say that the pitch obtained from the former 
is more abundant blacker sweeter and generally 
more fragrant? in the raw state, but that boiling 
down reduces the amount; for that it contains a 
larger proportion of watery matter, wherefore it 
is less substantial; but that derived from the ‘fir 
of the seashore’ is browner and thicker in the 
raw state, so that the amount is less reduced by 
boiling down; that the ‘fir of Mount Ida’ how- 
ever contains more resinous wood. And, speaking 
generally, they say that from an equal amount of 
resinous wood more pitch is obtained and in a more 
liquid state in wet weather than during a drought, 
and from a wintry and shady position than from one 
that is sunny and enjoys fair weather. Such is 
the account given by the peoples of Mount Ida and 
of Macedonia respectively. 

3 The holes for the pitch fill up, so that the pitch 
can be again removed,‘in good firs in a year, in those 
of more moderate quality in two years, in poor trees 
in three. The filling-up is composed of the pitch ; 
it is not caused by closing up of the wood; for the 
wood cannot close up and become one again, but the 
effect which takes the time mentioned is due to the 
tormation of the pitch.’ However it is clearly in- 
evitable that there should be some new growth of - 
the wood too, seeing that the resinous wood is 

4 kaipetv conj.Sch.; efatpew Ald.H. 

5 So W. explains @AAa... mrris. Or perhaps (as Sch.), 
‘however this is the interval which must elapse before the 
pitch can be worked again.’ 

P Q 2 


éEarpoupevns THS Sadds kab xatouévns ths wltt 
i oe ntl ” Siac sani: pind: | dhgede 8 
n Ly 
\ , 
Oi dé wept thv “Idnv daciv, btav AeTicwor 
émt dvo i) Tpels THXELS ATO THS yhs—évtadOa 
THS ETippons yiwouéevns évdadodoOa eviavT@ pd- 
Mota, ToUTO & Srav éxTereKynowow ev éEtép@ 
f > a \ \ 4 e , \ 
Tadw évdadova0at Kai TO TpiTov MTav’TwS, META 
dé tadra Sia Thy brroTomip éextimtey To dSévdpov 
UTd TOV TrevpaTov camév: ToTe 8 éEatpetv 
avTov THY Kapdiav, TOUTO yap pddioTa Sadades 
; yap fe Q 
a \ A e an \ \ / A 
eEaipety dé x TaV pitav Kal yap TavTas, WoTrEp 
elropev, €vdadous Tracey. 
Kixos S€ Sirov Ste tas péev ayabds, BoTep 
, a A a \ \ 4 \ 
EXXON, TVVEYaS TOUTO dpav Tas dé Yelpovas Sia 
mAelovos Ypovov' Kal Taplevopévwv pev TTrEw 
\ an a 
Ypovov avTéyely, éav b€ Tacav éEalpHow éXATTO: 
divatar S ws oixe Tpeis pddtoTa ToladTas 
éEaipécess UTropéverv. ovy dua 5é Kapropopotaw 
a \ n n 
ai Tedxat Kal Sadopopodor xapropopobar pév 
yap ev0vs véas, dadopopovor 5é tatepoy TOAAD 
/ / 
m™ peo BUTEpat yivomevat. 
IIT. Tov bé wittav catovor tovde Tov tpoTov" 

1 4.e, and so this kind of wood at least is replaced by fresh 
growth. 2 Plin. 16. 57. 

3 rijs éemippojs ywwouevns évdadodc00a conj. W.; Thy émippohy 
ywouevnv @vdadov Ald.; ris émippojs yiwouervns evdadov ylvecOat 
conj. Sch. 



removed ! and burnt when the discharge of pitch takes 
place. So much for this account. 

2 The people of Mount Ida however say that, when 
they bark the stem,—and they bark the side towards 
the sun to a height of two or three cubits from the 
ground,—the flow of pitch takes place in that part,® 
and in about a year the wood becomes full of pitch ; 
and that, when they have hewn this part out, pitch 
forms again in the next year, and in the third year 
in like manner; after which * that the tree, because 
it has been cut away underneath, is rotted by the 
winds and falls; and that then® they take out its 
heart, for that is especially full of pitch, and that 
they also extract pitch from ° the roots ; for that these 
too, as we said,’ are full of pitch in all firs. 

Now it is plainly to be expected that they should, 
as was said, repeatedly thus treat a good tree, but an 
inferior one at longer intervals, and that, if the tree 
is husbanded, the supply should hold out longer, 
while, if they remove all the pitch, it will not hold 
out so long; it appears as a matter of fact that the 
tree will stand about three such removals of its 
substance. ® However firs do not produce both fruit 
and pitch at once; they begin to bear fruit when 
they are quite yourg, but they only produce pitch 
much later, when they are older. 

Of the making of pitch in Macedonia and in Syria. 

III. This is the manner in which they make pitch 
by fire :—having prepared a level piece of ground, 

4 werd 5¢ tadTa conj. Sch.; ra 5 radra UM; 7a 5€ To1adra 

5 +ére conj. Sch. from G; rovs Ald, 

6 é« Ald.; nal conj. W. 

79. 2. 3. 8 of. C.P. 5. 16. 2. 




TOUT AVTES éxouoray els TO pécov aupponv wal 



TavTnv edadicwor, KATATX LT AVTES TOUS Koppovs 
ovyTiéace mapamdnotav ovvOcow THs TOV av- 
Opaxevovtar, may OUK éuBoO pov: avXrAa Tas 
oxitas opBas Tpos GAAHAAS, WaTE Nau Bavew brpos 
alel KaTa THOS yiver Pau dé pacw, Orav a 
cweats D KUKX® fev OyoonKOYTA Kal éxaTov 
THXEOY els typos 8é éEneovta TAeloTov n TeVTI)- 
KovTa 7) EKATOV apporépors, edvTep n Oas Tuyxavy 
mietpa. cuvéévtes otv avTiy o8tws Kal (kara 
oKeTracavTes UAn yhv éwtBarovtes KaTaKpUTTOU- 
ow OT@S pndapdas Stadkaduryn TO Tp, aTOANUTAL 
yap Y miTTa TOUTOU oupPBavros. bpanrovor be 
KATA THD Drrohevrromevny diodov- eira O€ Kal 
TavTa emeppatavres TH ody Kab eTLX@oaVTES 
THpodow dvaBaivovres Karta KN MAKOS, 7 AV OPOct 
TOV KAT VOY @Bovpevon, Kal émiBaddovow aiel 
THs yi Oras pnd avanapry. KATETKEVATTAL 
dé oxeTOS Th TITTY bua THS ovvbecews THS 
aTrOppons els oO vvov boov ameXovTa TevTe- 
Katoeka TX ELS" a o _ aTroppéovea Ths miTrns 
puypa yiveTar KaTa THY adi. Kalerae dé pa- 
Mora dvo jpuépas Kai vuKTas: TH yap baoTepaia 
po Hrlov | dvvavTos exxexavpery ryiveTaL wal 
évdédw@Kev 1) Tupd TODTO yap cupBaiver pyKéte 
peovons. TovToy bé€ TOY Ypovoy amTavTA TnpodaLY 

1 €Sapiowor: of. 9. 4. 4. 

2 cf. 5. 9, where however the ‘ pit’ is not described. 

3 yiverOa 5. Something seems to have dropped out at the 
beginning of this clause. ? ‘‘and they say that the pile at 
largest is 180”. . .: so Sch. supplying weyiorn after 7. The 
omitted words might also throw light on the preceding 



Ee a 


which they make like a threshing-floor with a slope 
for the pitch to run towards the middle, and having 
made it smooth,! they cleave the logs and place them 
in an arrangement like that used by charcoal-burners,” 
except that there is no pit; but the billets are set 
upright against one another, so that the pile goes on 
growing in height according to. the number used. 
And they say that the erection is complete,’ when the 
pile is 180 cubits in circumference, and fifty, or at 
most’ sixty, in height ; or again when it is a hundred 
cubits in cireumference and a hundred in height,' if 
the wood happens to be rich in pitch. Having then 
thus arranged the pile and having covered it in with 
timber they throw on earth and completely cover it, 
so that the fire may not by any means show through ; 
for, if this happens, the pitch is ruined. Then they 
kindle the pile where the passage is left, and then, 
having ° filled that part® up too with the timber and 
piled on earth, they mount a ladder and watch 
wherever they see the smoke pushing its way out, 
and keep on piling on the earth, so that the fire may 
not even shew itself. And a conduit is prepared for 
the pitch right though the pile, so that it may flow 
into a hole about fifteen cubits off, and the pitch as 
it flows out is now cold to the touch. The pile burns 
for nearly two days and nights; for on the second 
day before sunset it has burnt itself out and the pile 
has fallen in; for this occurs if the pitch is no longer 
flowing. All this time’ they keep watch and do not 

4 Guporépois: aupotépwoe conj. Sch. 

5 émibpdiayres conj. Scal. from G, stipant; emdtavres UM 
Ald.; emiodéavres H. 

6 radra Ald.; ravrny W. after Sch.’s conj. 

7 rodrov 5€ Tov xpdvov conj. Sch. from G, totwm tempus ; rbvte 
5& roy tpdrov UMAId.H, 

os 231 


dypuTvoovTes, ST WS pn Svadaprrn, Kal Ovovar 
5é Kal éoptdfovow evyopevor TmoNAaY Te Kal 
Kady yiverOar tiv mirtay ot pev 62) Tepl 
Makedoviav kaiovoe Tov TpOTrOY. TOUTOV. 

"Ev 6€ TH ’Acia gaol mepl Lupiav ouK éK- 
TENEKOVTAS THY 48a arn ér av’te TO Sévdp@ 
Tpoo Kate pépovras Opyavov TL mepuTreTrounevov 
Kal TovUT@® mTeplamtovtas, «iO Stay éxTHEwor 

7 4 p ie »” \ 7 / 
TaUTHV Tad é€T7 AAO Kal AAO pEeTadhEepe* 
dpos O€ €otiv avTois Tis Kal onpela Tov Tavera 
kal pardiota SfHrov Ste TO pnKéte pelv. TLTTO- 
Kavtodar 8é, OoTeEp Kab T™ pOoTEpov EX On, 
TAS TeppvOous: TevKnY yap ov pépovow ol 
TOTrOL. Ta pev ovy Tepl THY pynTivny Kal THY 

Iv. Ilept dé AMBavwTov Kal opupyns Kab Ban- 
odpov Kar el TL ToLovT ov érepov ore pep Kal an 
evTOpiS yiverat Kal avTowaTes elpnrau. Tota de 
TUS ” TOV dévdpav pious Kal el TL Tepl THY ryéve- 
ow %) TIV cuAroyIy | TOV addov LOLOV avrois 
dmapxet metpat ov el7rely, oo avTas dé Kal qept 
TOV ovo evo pov" _axedor yap Ta Ye Trelora 

Divera pev oby 0 APavos Kal 9 omUpva Kal 9 
Kacla Kal étL TO KLVALWLOV ev Th Tov ‘ApaBov 
Xeppovjow mepi te LaBa Kai ‘ASpapvra kal 

1 éxmedexavtas conj. W.; éxmAécovres U3 exmddovtres M; ek 
wdnrrovres Ald. 

* The sense given to mepimeroinuévov is unexampled, and the 
word may be corrupt, 



go to rest, in case the fire should come through; and 
they offer sacrifice and keep holiday, praying that 
the pitch may be abundant and good. Such is the 
manner in which the people of Macedonia make 
pitch by fire. 

_ They say that in Asia in the Syrian region they 
do not extract the pitch by cutting! out of the tree 
the wood containing it, but use fire to the tree itself, 
applying an instrument fashioned on _ purpose,” 
with which they set fire to it. And then, when 
they have melted out the pitch at once place, they 
shift the instrument to another. But they have a 
limit and indications when to stop, chiefly of course 
the fact that the pitch ceases to flow. They also, as 
was said before, use fire to get pitch out of the 
terebinth ; for the places where this tree grows do 
not produce the fir. Such are the facts about 
resin and pitch. 

Of frankincense and myrrh: various accounts. 

IV. As to frankincense myrrh balsam of Mecca 
and similar plants it has been said that the gum is 
produced both by incision and naturally. Now we 
must endeavour to say what® is the natural character 
of these trees and to mention any peculiarities as to 
the origin of the gum or its collection or anything ° 
else. So too concerning the other fragrant plants; 
most of these come from places in the south and east. 

Now frankincense myrrh cassia and also cin- 
namon are found in the Arabian peninsula’ about 

3 roiTw mepidmrovras seems to have been G’s reading (Scal.) ; 
TovTo weptadeipovtas MSS. #9..2. 2 

5 sola conj. W.; moAAv Ald. © 7 before ray add. Sch. 
7 Xeppovnow conj. Salm.; xepa vnow Ald. ef. Plin. 6. 28. 





KeriBawa Kal Mapanu. puerar Oe Ta TOD M- 
Bavorod kal THs oLUpyns dévdpa Ta pep év TO 
dper Ta 0” év Tals iSiaus ryewpryiars b1r6 THY ime- 
pelay, | ov 6 Kal TA [Lev Oeparreverau Ta 8 ov TO8 
Gpos eivat pac typnov Kab acd Kal voopevor, 
peiv S ef avTod kal motauovs eis TO méStov. 
elvat be TO fev TOD MBavorod dévdpov ov péya, 
Exel émipepes Th ati@, TAY ENATTOV TONY Kab 
TO XPOmare Troades o$édpa, Kkabamep TO Tiyyavov" 
herdpdozov 6é way, @omep THY dapyny. 

Thy o€ opipvay éharrov ere 7@ peyeder Kal 
Oapvodéorepov 8¢, TO be oTENENXOS exeuv aK pov 
Kal TUVETT Pap pevov él THS Yh: TAX UTEPOV dé 3) i 
KVNLOTAX ES” _ provov 6é exew elov Gpotoy TH 
dvOpaxry. Erepot dé of hadcKorTes reBewpnreévar 
Tepl ev Tob _Heyedous oxeddv cvppavodary: ov- 
déTepov yap elvar méeya TOV devdper, éXaTTov be TO 
THs owuprns Kal TaTeLVvoTEpoV" pvARov dé exerv 
TO TOU AiBaverod Savoedes Kat evo Aovoy S 
Elva’ TO O€ THS opwipyns axavOddes Kal ov Xezor, 
pudrov bé mpoceuepes exelv TH mTEREG, 7a 
ovdov é& adxpouv 6é éraxavbitov, daTEep TO TAS 

"Edacav dé OUTOL KaTa TOV TapumAoUY Ov é& 
‘poor é €TOLOvVTO KONTOU onrety éxBavtes ddwp 
év TO Oper Kal ovT@ Jewphaat Ta (dévopa Kal THY 
ouAOYND. civar © audotépwr évteTunpéva Kal 

1 Plin, 12. 55 and 56. 2 Plin. 12. 67. 
3 Zxew conj. Sch.; @xer P,Ald. 
. AtBavwrod Bapvocides ae AeidpAatov 3 elvar conj. Sch. ; ArBa- 
vou Tov Sapvoeides kal Aerdpuddoy & eiva: UM ; ArBavov Sapvoesdts 



Saba Hadramyta Kitibaina and Mamali. The trees of 
frankincense and myrrh grow partly in the mountains, 
partly on private estates at the foot of the mountains ; 
wherefore some are under cultivation, others not; 
the mountains, they say, are lofty, forest-covered 
and subject to snow, and rivers from them flow down 
to the plain. The frankincense-tree,! it is said, is not 
tall, about five cubits high, and it is much branched ; 
it has a leaf like that of the pear, but much smaller 
and very grassy in colour, like rue; the bark is 
altogether smooth like that of bay. 

The myrrh-tree? is said to be still smaller in 
stature and more bushy; it is said to have® a tough 
stem, which is contorted near the ground, and is 
stouter than a man’s leg; and to have a smooth 
bark like that of andrachne. Others who say that 
they have seen it agree pretty closely about the 
size ; neither of these trees, they say, is large, but 
that which bears myrrh is the smaller and of lower 
growth ; however they say that, while the frankin- 
cense-tree* has a leaf like that of bay and smooth 
bark, that which bears myrrh is spinous and not 
smooth, and has a leaf like that of the elm, except 
that it is curly and spinous® at the tip like that of 

6 These said that on the coasting voyage which 
they made from the bay of the Heroes they landed 
to look for water on the mountains and so saw these 
trees and the manner of collecting their gums. 
‘They reported that with both trees incisions had 
Kad AeldpAotov F eivar Py; AtBavouvr GAA& Tod wer Sapvoedés Kad 
Aerdpuddoy elva: Ald.H. ef. Plin. 12. 57. 

5 cf. 3.10.1; 3.11.3. 

6 ef. Arr. Anab, 3.5.4; 7, 20.1 and 2, 
? Plin, 12, 58-62, . 



a a \ 
akivn Soxeiv teTuhoOat Tovs dé AeTTOTEpAas ExeLY 
\ \ \ / 
Tas évtouds: TO O€ SdkKpvovy TO mev KaTATiT TEL 
n / / lal 
TO 5€ Kal mpos TO Sévdpw TpocéxecOar. évvayod 
a / 
pev vToBeBAno Oat Widlous €x howwikwy TeTreEY- 
/ > a) be \ ES A r0 , 0 \ 
pevas, eviayov o€ TO Edados movoy noadiclar Kat 
\ s \ \ \ | Pe, n / 
Kka0apov eivary Kal Tov pev éml tov Wid0ov 
AMBaverov eivat Kal Kabapov Kat Siadavh, Tov S 
A lod ? a / 
érl THs yas HTTov: Tov 8 esl Tots Sévdpois mpoc- 
/ > 7 / 7 A \ \ Leh d 
exomevov atroEvey ardnpo.s, dv 6 Kal brody éviows 
mpoceivat. TO O€ pos admav pepepicbat Tos 
\ / 
LaPaiow, TovTovs yap elvar Kupiovs, Sixatous dé 
\ \ > s 2 A \ 207 A e 
Ta Mpos aAAHAovs, Oe 6 Kal ovdéva THpeiv: OOev 
a \ A 
kal avtot Sawiras eis Ta TOA AaBovTes évbé- 
aOat tod MBavwtod Kal Ths ocuvpyns épynuias 
7 \ > a > ® prea. / 
ovens Kal amromyev. éreyov 8 ovTot Kal TOdE 
Kal épacav akovew, OTL cvvdyeTat TavTaxobev 1 
4 15,6 \ > \ \ \ ne / 
opupva Kat 0 ALBavwTOS Els TO LEpoOV TO TOU AtLOv: 
* > 4 \ A , > t \ 
tovdto © elvat pev tov YaPalwv dywrtatov Sé 
A \ / a / 
TOAD TOV Tept TOV ToToV, THpElv 5é Twas “Apa- 
Bas évorrXous' 6tav O€ Kopiowow, ExacTov cwpev- 
cavTa TOV avToD Kal THY opmUpVaY Opmolws KaTA- 
nN a \ n fal an 
AuTrety Tois él THS huraxhs, TUévar Sé eri Tod 
a \ a 
cwpod TivdKtov ypadnv éxov Tov Te TAROOUS THY 
\ an A a rn 
HéTpOV Kal THS TYLAs hs Sel mpaPhvar TO mérpov 
éxaotov: Otay 6€ of Eutropot TapayévwvTal, oKO- 
mety Tas ypadds, dotis & av avtois apéoxn 

1 rpabjvat conj. Sch. from G; mpac@jva U; mpoobetvar P, 
Ald. . 



been made both in the stems and in the branches, 
but that, while the stems looked as if they had 
been cut with an axe, in the branches the incisions 
were slighter; also that in some cases the gum 
was dropping, but that in others it remained sticking 
to the tree ; and that in some places mats woven of 
palm-leaves were put underneath, while in some the 
ground underneath was merely made level and 
clean; and that the frankincense on the mats was 
clear and transparent, that collected on the ground 
less so; and that that which remained sticking to 
the trees they scraped off with iron tools, wherefore 
sometimes pieces of bark remained in it. The 
whole range, they said, belongs to the portion of 
the Sabaeans ; for it is under their sway, and they 
are honest in their dealings with one another. 
Wherefore no one keeps watch ; so that these sailors 
greedily took, they said, and put on board their 
ships some of the frankincense and myrrh, since 
there was no one about, and sailed away. ‘They also 
reported another thing which they said they had 
been told, that the myrrh and frankincense are 
collected from all parts into the temple of the 
sun; and that this temple is the most sacred thing 
which the Sabaeans of that region possess, and it is 
guarded by certain Arabians in arms. And that 
when they have brought it, each man piles up his 
own contribution of frankincense and the myrrh 
in like manner, and leaves it with those on guard ; 
and on the pile he puts a tablet on which is stated 
the number of measures which it contains, and the 
price for which each measure should be sold}; and 
that, when the merchants come, they look at the 
tablets, and whichsoever pile pleases them, they 





peetpnoapévous tiWévat THY Tiny eis TOdTO TO 
xwptov évOev dv EXwvTat, Kal TOV iepéa Tapayevo- 
\ / / A nA A n 
Hevov TO TpiTov pépos AaPovra THS Tims TO Ged 
> fa) a \ n an 3 
n / , 
Tots Kuplots, Ews av EXwvTat Tapayevouevol. 
, \ an n 
"AdXor 5€ Ties TO pev TOV MBavwTod Sévdpov 
Y / / x a 
dmotov elval pact cyiv@ Kal Tov KapTov Tais 
axwiat PvAXOv O€ UTEépvOpov eivar Sé TOV ev eK 
TOV véwy ALBavwTOV NEVKOTEPOY Kai dodpoTEpor, 
tov & 逫 Tov TapynKuaKotev EavOotepov Kal 
, \ \ an n 
eVoomoTepov’ TO O€ THS ouUpYNsS SuoLtoy TH TEp- 
, , ~ \ 9 / , 
piv0w, TpaxuTepoy © Kal axavOwdécTtepov, HUA- 
an A \ UA 
Nov O€ pLKP@ TTpoyyvAoTepor, TH Oe yevoes Sia- 
lal a / 
pacwpLévols Gpmorov TO THs TeppivOov: civar O€ Kal 
/ / 
/ / an n , 
TivecOar 5é auhotepa év TS AUTO TOTM* THY dé 
n F3 , lal 
yv vrdpytkov Kai TAAK@Sn, Kat VdaTa myyaia 
omnavia. TavTa per ody UTEevarTia TO viderPat 
/ « 
Kal vecOat Kat ToTapovs éEtévar’ TO 5é Tapopotov 
s \ 4 a 4 7. \ 
elvat TO Sévdpov TH TeppivOwm Kal AdroL TiVés 
, € \ \ oo f - 
Néyouow, of S€ Kal Odws TéppuvOoy eivary Kopt- 
nan \ / \ b ] Fe id a | an ’ / 
cOhvat yap Eva pos Avtiyovoy uo Tov Apa- 
Bov tov tov AMBavwTov KaTayovTor, a ovdev 
/ nm n / \ 2 / a 
Suéhepe THY THS TEeppivOou: mAHV OvTOL ye merfov 

1 Plin. 12. 66 and 67. 2 Plin. 12. 53. 

3 rAaxwdyn: lit. ‘with a crust’; so W., but the word does 
not seem to occur elsewhere in this sense. 

cf. 9. 4.2. 



measure, and put down the price on the spot whence 
they have taken the wares, and then the priest 
comes and, having taken the third part of the price 
for the god, leaves the rest of it where it was, and 
this remains safe for the owners until they come and 
claim it. 

Others report that the tree which produces the 
frankincense is like mastich, and its fruit is like 
the fruit of that tree, but the leaf is reddish: also 
that the frankincense derived from young trees is 
whiter and less fragrant, while that derived from 
those which have passed their prime is yellower and 
more fragrant; also that the tree which produces 
myrrh is like the terebinth, but rougher and more 
thorny; that the leaf is somewhat rounder, and 
that, if one chews it, it resembles that of the 
terebinth in taste; also that of myrrh-trees too 
those that are past their prime give more fragrant 

1 Both trees, it is said, grow in the same region ; 
the soil is clayey? and caked,®? and spring waters 
are scarce. Now these reports are contradictory to 
4that which says that the country is subject to snow 
and rain and sends forth rivers. However others 
make the statement ® that the tree is like the tere- 
binth ; in fact some say that it is the same tree ; for 
that logs of it were brought to Antigonus by the 
Arabs who brought the frankincense down to the 
sea, and that these did not differ at all from logs of 
terebinth.° However these informants were guilty 

5 7.e. the statement quoted of the myrrh-tree, §7. The 
‘tree’ is here the A:Bavwrds, but these authorities did not 
distinguish it from the myrrb-tree. See below. 

8 rev conj. Sch.; tg UAId. 





eTEpov ayvonua Tpoonyvoovv' @ovTo yap éx Tob 
avroo dévdpou TOV Te Bavaro ylweo Oar Kal TI 
owupvav: duoTrep éxeivos 0 orvyos miPavarepos O 
Tapa TOV WaT reve dTov é& “Hpooy TOAEWS" 
érel kal TO Urép Yapoewy TepuKos Tod UBavo- 
Tov dévdpoy év iep@® Tim Sadvoerdées Eyer TO PUA- 
dov, ev Te bel ora0 uaobar TobTO" 0 MBaveoros S 
exet, Kal o éx ToD OTENEXOUS Kal 0 é« TOY aKpe- 
povor, opotas kal Th oper Kal TH oopH Oupie- 
pevos TO GAXM MuBavers. mépuxe 5€ TODTO “OVOY 
TO Sér8pov oddepds Tuyxdvew <Oepametas>. 

"Eveot dé Aeyouow @S TAEL@V pev 0 MBaveoros 
év TH ‘ApaBig yiverau, KkadrJov 5é év Tais eTTLKEL- 
evans ynToLs wv émapxovaty évtad0a yap Kab 
oXnMaTOT Lely emt TeV dévdpov otov dv Oédwor* 
Kal Taxa TODTO ye OvK aTriMavor' evdéxerar <yap> 
oTrotav av Bothovra Toveiy THY évTOMHD. cial 
6 TLVES Kal peyddor opodpa TaV xYovdpar, OoT 
elvat 7@ pev oyKe XerpoT An Oratous oral up dé 
TEov 2 TpiTov HE pos pas. _apyos 5é Kopiferat 
Tas 0 MBaveros, 6 Guovos dé TH Tpor ower provg. 
THs opvpyns b€ 1 yey OTAKTI y dé ThATT. 
Soxipacverar o 7 ev apueivav TH yevoet, cal 
amo TAvTNS THY OM“oxXpav hapBdvovar. . Tmepl 
pev ovv MBaverod Kat owupyys oxedov ToTavTa 
aKnKOapEV AY pL ye TOU VOY. 

1 Plin. 15, 57; ef. 16. 135. 

2 8 dye: conj. W.; ditera: P,Ald.; om. H. 

* Bepametas add. Sch. from G3; odSemais ruyxdveww UMAIA. ; 
ov mwas tuyxdvew Po. But there is no sign of a lacuna in the 
MSS., and oddeulas is probably corrupt, as W. suggests. ode 
bcp. is inconsistent with 9. 4. 2. 

4 wAelwv conj. W.; 7dtwv P,Ald. 



of a further more important piece of ignorance ; for 
they believed that the frankincense and the myrrh 
were produced by the same tree. Wherefore the 
account derived from those who sailed from the city 
of Heroes is more to be believed; tin fact the 
frankincense-tree which grows above Sardes in a 
certain sacred precinct has? a leaf like that of bay, if 
we may judge at all by this; and the frankincense 
derived both from its stem and its branches is like 
in appearance and in smell, when it is burnt as 
incense, to other frankincense. This is the only 
tree which can never be cultivated.® 

Some say that the frankincense-tree is more 
abundant‘ in Arabia, but finer in the adjacent islands ° 
over which the Arabians bear rule ;° for there it is 
said that they mould the gum on the trees to any 
shape that they please. And perhaps this is not 
incredible, since it is possible to make any kind of 
incision that they like. Some of the lumps? of gum 
are very large, so that one is large enough in bulk to 
fill the hand and in weight is more than a third of a 
pound. All frankincense is gathered in the rough 
and is like bark in appetrance. Myrrh ® is either 
‘fluid’ ® (myrrh-oil) or ‘ solid’ (agglutinated). That 
of better quality is tested by its taste, and of this 
they select that which is of uniform colour... Now 
of frankincense and myrrh these are about all the 
facts that have come to our notice at present. 

5 Plin. 12. 60. 

6 érdpxovow conj. Coraés; évumdpxovor P,Ald. 

7 rev xdvipwv conj. Sch.; 7G xdvdpp P,Ald. 

8 i.e. here the commodity so called. 

® cf. Odor. 29. 

10 §uédxpwv conj. Sch.; dudxpw UM ; éudxpouv Ald.; rhv érépay 
KkaTadapBavovet Po, 

VOL, I. R 


V. Tlept d€ xivauepov cal xacias tade dé- 
yovot' Oapvous péev audotepa TadT eivat ov 
peyarous GAN AiKovS ayvou, TOAUKAAOOUS bé 
Kal Evrwbeis. oray be exxopoow, OXOV TO KLVa- 
[L@ |LOV Suatpety ELS TEVTE pEepn’ TOUTOY. dé TO ) Tpa- 
TOV Tpos Tots Pracrois Bédriarov elval, 0 TEp- 
veTat om Bapratov Y pLKp@ petCov: _ Em omevov dé 
TO Sevtepor, 0 O kal TH TOMN Ear TOV" eiTa TO TpiTov 
Kal TéTApTOV éaxXatov dé TO Xelpio tov TO pos 
TH) pin: prouov yap eax LO TOV exeuv" XPNTLLOS 
88 obtos, ob 70 Evhov du 0 Kal TO axpopues Kpa- 
TLa TOV, Theta Tov yap nat Kal TOV rotor. ot 
pev OUT@ AéyoUC LD. 

"ArXot be Japvddes pep Kal eTL HarDOV ppu- 
yavades elvat pact dvo & avtod yévn, TO pev 
péay TO dé AevKov. Aéyeras bé TUS Kal pd0os 
vmép avTov pvec Pat fev yap paciy € év hapayéw, 
év TAUTALs Ce opers eivau ToAXovs ony wa Oavdor- 
pov éxovTas, Tpos ods Ppakdpevor Tas YEelpas Kal 
TOUS Todas KaTaBaivover Kal cuAEyouTW, el” 
éTav eLeveynoar OuehouTes Thia pEpn draxdn- 
pobvTar Tpos TOV Mov, Kal iv ay Aaxn 0 HALOS 
KaTanelTova ty" aTrLovTes o evOds 0 opav pact Kato- 
pévnv TavTHny’ ovTos pev oy 7 évTt pvOos. 

Tay oe Kkaciav gaol Tas pev paoous TAaXv- 
tépas éyewy, ivesders dé opodpa Kal ovK elvat 
Tepiprevoas Ypnotpwov Sé Kal TavUTHS TOV proLOD. 

1 Plin. 12. 85-94. 

2 A similar tale is told of frankincense by Herodotus (3. 
OS has an equally surprising tale about cinnamon 




Of cinnamon and cassia: various accounis. 

V. ! Of cinnamon and cassia the following account 
is given: both are shrubs, it is said,and not of large 
size, but of the same size as bushes of chaste-tree, 
with many branches and woody. When they cut 
down the whole cinnamon-tree, they divide it into 
five parts; of these the first is that which grows 
next the branches and this is the best: this is cut in 
lengths a span long or a little longer; next comes 
the second kind, which is cut in shorter lengths ; 
then come the third and the fourth, and last the 
least valuable wood, which grows next the root; for 
this has least bark, and it is the bark and not the 
wood which is serviceable ; wherefore the part which 
grows high up the tree is the best, since it has the 
most bark. Such is the account given by some. 

Others say that cinnamon is shrubby or rather like 
an under-shrub; and that there are two kinds, one 
black, the other white. ? And there is also a tale told 
about it; they say that it grows in deep glens, and 
that in these there are numerous snakes which have 
a deadly bite; against these they protect their 
hands and feet before they go down into the glens, 
and then, when they have brought up the cinnamon, 
they divide it in three parts and draw lots for it with 
the sun; and whatever portion falls to the lot of the 
sun they leave behind; and they say that, as soon as 
they leave the spot, they see this take fire. Now 
this is sheer fable. 

3 Cassia, they say, has stouter branches, which are 
very fibrous and difficult to strip of the bark*; and 
it is the bark of this tree also which is serviceable. 

3 Plin. 12. 95-97. 
4 repiproioa H.; repiprAcdoa: UMP,Ald. ef. de igne 72, 

R 2 


e 9 / \ Loh, / e 
dtav obv Téuvwot Tas padSdous, KaTaKOTTELW ws 
S ny na / a 
dudaKxTvAa TO phKos 1) pikp@ pelfo, radra & eis 

4 / > 4 
veddopov Bvpaav Katappantev eit ex TavTNS 
kat tov EtN@Y onTopévMv oKwANKLA yiverOat, 

, a a 
& To pev Evrov KatecGier, Tod prorod S ovy 
/ 4 a 
n / 
do wihs. kal Tepi wey Kacias Kal KiWapepmou 
a / 
VI. To dé BadAcapov yiverat pév év TO adAOVL 
A \ , . / 5 / 7 
TO Tept Yvpiav. Tapadeicouvs 8 eivai dace dvo 
/ \ 
fovous, TOV pev boov eixoot TACO Pav Tov 8 erepov 
n \ / 
TOAA® €AdTTova. TO Oé Sévdpov péyeOos pev 
HALKoY poa peyddn ToAVKAAdoY be odddpa: 
4 \ » oe / \ 4 
PvAXrov S€ Exe Gpmotov THYaY@, TAHV ExdevKoP, 
> 7s \ s \ \ , n 
aeipuAnrov dé elvat’ Kapmov Sé Tapopolov TH 
TeppivOe Kal peyéGer Kal oxnpate Kal ypopate: 
7A / \ a \ a / 
evades opddpa Kal TOUTO Kal padXov Tod daxpvov. 
To 6é ddxpuvov amo évTophns cvrAdéEeyew, évTéu- 
. \ v a ¢ \ Ne 4 / 
ve O€ dvv&t aLdnpois U0 TO doTpoP, bTaY “uadLo- 

Ta Trin @ol, Kal TA oOTEAEYN Kal TA AVwW. THY 
\ \ e \ / a > S 
dé cvAXoyny Orov TO Oépos TrotetcMat: OvK civaL 
dé mov TO péov, AAN év Huépa Tov avdpa cvARE- 

\ 3 
ye Soov Koyxnv' THY O oopyny diahépoveav Kal 
/ v4 > \ n \ > a , 
TOXAHV, OOTE ATO puLKpOD TrorALY édixvetoat TO- 
n a + 
Tov. GX ov hotav évtad0a axpatov adra TO 
oUVnyMéevovy KEKpapévov' TrOAAnY yap SéxecOat 

1 yeddopov conj. Sch.; veddepoy P,Ald. ? Plin. 12 111-123. 
3 ebGdes . . . rodvTO P,Ald.; edd5y. . . rodroy W. after Sch.’s 
conj. But the clause begins without a conjunction, and some 




When then they cut off the branches, they chop 
them up into lengths of about two fingers’ breadth 
or rather more, and these they sew up in raw! 
hide ; and then from the leather and the decaying 
wood little worms are engendered, which devour the 
wood but do not touch the bark, because it is bitter 
and has a pungent odour. This is all the in- 
formation forthcoming about cinnamon and cassia. 

Of balsam of Mecca. 

VI. ? Balsam of Mecca grows in the valley of 
Syria. They say that there are only two parks in 
which it grows, one of about four acres, the other 
much smaller. The tree is as tall as a good-sized 
pomegranate and is much branched; it has a leaf 
like that of rue, but it is pale; and it is evergreen ; 
the fruit is like that of the terebinth, in size shape 
and colour, and this too is very fragrant,? indeed 
more so than the gum. 

*The gum, they say, is collected by making 
incisions, which is done with bent pieces of iron at 
the time of the Dog-star, when there is scorching 
heat ; and the incisions are made both in the trunks 
and in the upper parts of the tree. The collecting 
goes on throughout the summer; but the quantity 
which flows is not large ; in a day a single man can 
collect a shell-full®; the fragrance is exceeding 
great and rich, so that that which comes from a small 
amount is perceived for a wide distance. However 
it does not reach usina pure state ; what is collected 
is mixed with other things; for it mixes freely with 

words about the flower may have dropped out, to which this 
clause refers ; cf. however Odor. 32. 
* Diose. 1, 19, 5 Plin. 12. 117. 



a \ a 2 
Kpacw: Kal To év tH ‘EAAdOL ToAdAdKIS eEivat 
, + \ / \ \ i / 
Kexpapévov' evoopa d€ ofodpa Kai Ta paPdia: 
4 n , 
kabaipev yap Kal TOvde Evexa Kai Tov d:apdpov: 
a \ , \ \ 4 / \ 
TorcloOar <yap> Tiwia. Kal THY épyaciay THY 
\ fal / 
Tept Ta Sévdpa oyedov ev TavTH aitia eivas Kal 
/ n . , 
Thv Bpoynv: BpéyecOar yap cuvexa@s. cuvattiav 
be 8 nw 3 n \ 4 / \ bé 8 
é Soxety elvar Tod wn peydra yiveoOas Ta Sévdpa 
\ \ al e / / \ \ \ / 
kal THY TOY paBdioy Toujv. Sua yap TO TOANG- 
> / gle 4 > / \ > > a 
Kis émrixetperOar paBdous adiévat Kat ovK els Ev 
\ ¢ 
+ be Oe > / i) a / 
Ayptov 6é ovdév eivat Baroapov ovdapod: yi- 
a / / 
veoOar 5é éx mév TOD peifovos mapadeicou ayyei- 
dua O@dexa Goov Hpryoaia, éx 5é Tod érépov SdvoO 
/ a ‘al be \ \ ” 8 \ 
> / \ 2.) of \ / i] / \ 
apyvpiov TO 8 adAXo KaTa NOyor THs pisews: Kal 
fal / \ 
TovTO pev Stadépov te haivetar Kata THY evoo- 
€ a 
VII. ‘O &€ Kaddapos yivetar Kal 0 cyxotvos UTEp- 
/ a 
BddXovte tov AtBavov petaed tod te AtBdvov 
a a / 
, yh Eee. s n> , c 
TOUT@, Kal ovy ws TLVés hace TOD AvTiALBavou' oO 
yap ’AvtiriBavos paKpav améyes tod AtBavou 
Kai petaéd tovTay éotiv dv avAOVA KaNodGL TeE- 
/ \ \ , e/ ASF se / nh de 3 
Siov ToAv Kal Kadov. Srrov Sé 6 Kaddapos Kal Oo 
axoivos pvetas rAimyn peyaddn TUYyydVEL, TpOS 
na lal 7 
TavTny dé év TO Eder TO aveEnpappéve TepvKace’ 

1 tov I conj.; trod MSS. G’s rendering shews that the 
explanation of the ‘ different reason’ (i.e. to strengthen the 
tree) has dropped out of our texts. 2 yap add. Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. vi. 2-vu. 1x 

other things; and what is known in Hellas is 
generally mixed with something else. The boughs 
are also very fragrant. In fact it is on account of 
these boughs, they say, that the tree is pruned (as 
well as for a different reason'), since? the boughs 
cut off can be sold for a good price. In fact the 
culture of the trees has the same motive® as the 
irrigation (for they are constantly irrigated). And 
the cutting of the boughs seems likewise to be 
partly the reason why the trees do not grow tall; 
for, since they are often cut about, they send out 
branches instead of putting out all their energy in 
one direction. 

Balsam is said not to grow wild anywhere. From 
the larger park are obtained twelve vessels con- 
taining each about three pints, from the other only 
two such vessels; the pure gum sells for twice its 
weight in silver, the mixed sort at a price propor- 
tionate to its purity. Balsam then appears to be of 
exceptional fragrance. 

Of other aromatic plants—all oriental, except the iris. 

VII. 4 Sweet-flag and ginger-grass grow beyond 
the Libanus between that range and another small 
range, in the depression thus formed ; and not, as 
some say, between Libanus and Anti-Libanus. For 
Anti-Libanus is a long way from Libanus, and 
between them is a wide fair plain called ‘The 
Valley.’ But, where the sweet-flag and ginger- 
grass grow, there is a large lake,> and they grow 
near it in the dried up marshes, covering an extent 

3 The ‘motive’ is the production of boughs. év tairh 
aitla I conj.; tavtny aitlay UMP,Ald.; év radrn airig conj. W. 

4 Plin. 12. 104 and 105. 5 cf. CP, 6. 18. 2. 




ToTOv dé éyovot mAélov i) 7 LAKOVTA OTAOLMD. 
ov dfovor b€ xXdwpol adr EnpavOévres, 7h 
mpocower Se ovdev _Stapépover TOV dddov" €io- 
Barrovts & eis tov Tomov evOds oop TpoOC- 
Banrnreu* od pay TOppwTEepo ye 7 am oTrvON) yiverat, 
calamep tives pact, Tals T poo Pepopevars vaval 
Tpos THY Xopar: Kal yap. 0 TOTrOs OUTOS amo 
Pararrns aTrexer TAelous 7 éxaTov TEVTHKOVTA 
aradious: GX’ év TH "ApaBia thy amomvonv 
elvai pace THY amo THs YO pas eto pov. 

"Ey pev ovv Zupia TA TWEPLTTA TH OTMH axedov 
TavT éotiv: yap xarBavn- Baptrepov Kal par- 
Rov papparddes: émel Kat arn ryiverau rept 
Lupiav ex TOD TAVAKOUS Kahoupevou. Ta O€ ddAXa 
mavTa Ta eVoopa ols mpos TA dpopara YPOVTAL, 
TQ [ev e€ "Tvddv Komiterar KaKelev € emt Oddarray 
KaTaméumerat, Ta & é& ‘ApaBias, otov Tpos TO 
elvat TO e@paKov KapT ov" TO 8 érepov Tapapic-- 
youow els Ta omovoaorata Tov pvpov. TO 6€ 
Kapodpwopmov Kal duopov oi pev éx« Mnéeias, ot & 
é& “Ivdav cal tadta Kal thy vdpdSov Kal Ta adda 

Ols pev ou €is TA apopaTa ypavTaL oyedov 
Tabe otis Kaclia Kivdmuwmov Kapod wa pov vapdos 
vaipov Barcapoyv domanrabos otipak ipis vdptn 

1 od« 8Covor conj. Guilandinus, cf. O.P. 6. 14. 8; od doxotar 

2 cf. C.P. 6.18.1. tay tAAwy: sc. kadduwv cal cxolver. 

3 rpoopepomevats vavol mpds conj. Scal.; mpood. elva: rpds P, 

4 of. 9. 9. 2n. ‘The plant,’ z.e. one of the plants so called. 
5 Plin. 12. 135; ef. 13. 18, 



of more than thirty furlongs. They have no 
fragrance! when they are green, but only when 
they are dried, and in appearance they do not 
differ 2 from ordinary reeds and rushes; but, as 
you approach the spot, immediately a sweet smell 
strikes you. However it is not true, as some say, 
that the fragrance is wafted to ships approaching ® 
the country; for indeed this district is more than 
150 furlongs from the sea. However it is said 
that in Arabia the breezes wafted from the land 
are fragrant. 

Such then are the plants in Syria which have 
remarkable fragrance. For that of khalbane is more 
oppressive and somewhat medicinal; ‘for this perfume 
also is produced in Syria from the plant called all- 
heal. As to all the other fragrant plants used for 
aromatic odours, they come partly from India 
whence they are sent over sea, and partly from 
Arabia, for instance, komakon®—as well as cinnamon 
and cassia. The fruit called komakon is said to be 
distinct ® from this; the komakon of which we 
are speaking is a perfume which they mix with the 
choicest unguents. Cardamom and Nepaul cardamom 
some say come from Media; others say that these 
come from India, as well as spikenard and most, if 
not all, of the other species. 

Now this is a general list of the plants used for 
perfumes :—cassia cinnamon cardamom  spikenard 
nairon balsam of Mecca aspalathos storax iris narte 

6 eivos has no government, and W. considers the passage 
corrupt. Comparison of Plin. /.c. suggests that the original 
text may have been something like this: 7d kéuaxov naprdv 
bv: Tov 5€ xuvAdv k.T.A., 7.€. ‘komakon is of different character 

from these, being a fruit, whose juice—.’ Plin. valls «, a kind 
of cinnamon, 



KadNaMOS GudpaKov AwTOs avvNTOS. Tov’TwY be TA 
pev pifac ta Sé drorol Ta Sé KrABVES Ta be Evra 
Ta d€ omépuata Ta Oé Saxpva Ta Sé aVOn. Kal 
Ta Mev TOAAAXOD yiveTat, TA Oé Tep_TTOTATA Kal 
evodmotata mavra éx tHs “Acias Kal é« Tov 
areewav TOTMV. €k yap avThs Evpemns ovdév 
eat &&@ Ths ipsoos. 

Aitn 8 apiorn év “Idduptois, od« ev TH pos 
OdrattTav Yopa, aA» év TH avaKkexwpnkvia Ket- 
pévn S€ wadXov mpos apxTov. Toto Sé TOT@Y 
Siadépovow év ols aucivov: épyacia bé Tepi av- 
THY ovdELia TANV TOD TrepiKaOnpavTa avaknpavat. 

Ta yap év tH Opaxn dvopeva pribia, cabarrep 
TO TE TH VaPS@ TpocEeueph THY dopnvy Exov Kal 
éTep ATTA, pixpadv Twa Kal acbevh THY evwdtav 
eyel. Kal TEepl Mev TOV EvOT MOV ert TOTOUTOV 

VIII. Ilept 88 tov ora@v bca pn TpoTepor éi- 
pytat, Neyo © obov el tives hapwax@ders 7) Kat 
ddras @yovor Suvapes, Terpatéov opoiws eltrety 
dpa Se Kal rept pilav, kal yap TOY OTaV TivES Ex 
TovTwY Kal ywpis avTal Kal’ avTas ToAXAS Kal 
mavtolas éxyovat duvapets, ON@s O€ Tepl TavT@V 
happaxwddar, olov Kaprovd xuALopod HUARD pt- 
Cav moas: Kadodar yap Kai Toav éia Tov pap- 
pakwbdav ot prfoTomot. 

1 of. C.P. 6. 14. 83 6.18.12; Plin. 21. 40. 
2 See Index App. (25). 



kostos all-heal saffron-crocus myrrh kypeiron ginger- 
grass sweet-flag sweet marjoram Jo/os dill. Of these 
it is the roots, bark, branches, wood, seeds, gum or 
flowers which in different cases yield the perfume. 
Some of them grow in many places, but the most 
excellent and most fragrant all come from Asia and 
sunny regions. From Europe itself comes none of 
them except the iris. 

1This is best in Illyria, not in the part near the 
sea, but in that which is further inland and lies 
more to the north. In different districts it varies 
in quality ; no special attention is needed, except to 
scrape the roots clean and dry them. 

As for the roots which grow in Thrace, such 
as one? which has a smell like spikenard and 
certain others, their fragrance is but slight and 
feeble. Let this suffice for an account of sweet- 
smelling plants. 

Of the medicinal juices of plants and the collection of them: 
general account. 

VIII. Now we must endeavour to speak in like 
manner of those juices which have not been 
mentioned already, I mean, such as are medicinal 
or have other properties; and at the same time 
we must speak of roots; for some of the juices are 
derived from roots, and apart from that roots have 
in themselves divers properties of all kinds; and 
in general we must discuss medicinal things of all 
kinds, as fruit, extracted juice,* leaves, roots, ‘ herbs’ ; 
for the herb-diggers call some medicinal things by 
this name. 

3 xvAtouod P,Ald.H ; cavdod conj. W. The list is of the 

aspects in which the herbalist would regard the plant, not of 
the parts of the plant. 



a A / 
Tav 8€ prt@v mretous pév eiow ai Suvdpes Kal 
\ , a \ / ec 
mpos reiw: Entodvta 5é pardiota ai dappya- 
, a 
Kwders Os YpnoipmeTatat, Stadépoveat TH TE MH 
\ \ a na a 
Tpos TaUTA Kal TO pun ev Tois avTois exe THY 
4 a al 
Sivamw. os © odv éml wav ai wrelorar pen ev 
avtais €yovot Kal Tois Kaptots Kal Tois dmois, 
evar O€ Kai év Tols PvAXOLS* TAS 5é duvAN@SELS 
Py / \ \ \ / a ef 
TEP ElpNTAL MLKP@® TpOTEpoy, ot prloTopmot. 
7 a 4 
‘O pev ody Omriamos yiverat TOY omifopévav os 
érl TO TOAD TOD Oépous, THY pev Evia Tapévou TOV 
‘ / id \- / / / 
dé mpoehmrvOor0s. % O€ peoropia yiverat TiveY 
Kal v7ro Tmuporomiay Kal pox pp Tporepov, ov pony 
GaXN } ye TAciwv TOD peTom@pou Mer “Aperodpor, 
édtav guddoppojcacw, dowv 5é Kal 0 KapTros 
n / 
XpHotwos, STav apepOdor Tov KapTov. Eats Sé 6 
\ \ a a 
A a / 
Nou Kal THs Opidakivns Kal oyedov TOV TELA TOY, 
\ an n n n 
) ato TOV pildv, } TplTov aTd Ths Keharhs, Bomep 
n a? 
n lal > \ 
idvov avTHS. TOV wey odV Kal avTOMATOS O OTFOS 

1 From this point to 9. 19. 4, yiverOu, the text is repeated 
in U, with considerable variations, as a tenth book. Ald. 
also repeats the first few lines of this passage (down to end 
of §1) as a fragment of a tenth book. The two Medicean 
MSS also repeat 9. 8. 1, trav Se pilav, down to 9. 10, 3, 
BéAtioto: Se Kal ois, as part of a tenth book. The ‘tenth 
book ’ readings in each case are distinguished by a *. 

2 pilav: pita signifies a medicinal plant in general (cf. 
piCdrouor) as well as ‘root’; the double sense makes transla- 
tion of this section awkward ; I print it ‘root’ where it has 
the wider sense. 



1'The properties of ‘ roots’ 2? are numerous and they 
_have numerous uses; but those which have medicinal 
virtues are especially sought after, as being the most 
useful ; and they differ in not all being applied to 
the same ® purposes and in not all having their virtue 
in the same parts of them.*. To speak generally, 
most ‘roots’ have it in themselves®; or else it is 
found in the fruits or the juices of the plant; and in 
some cases in the leaves as well, and it is to the 
virtues of the leaves in most cases that the herb- 
diggers refer, when they speak, as has just been 
said,® of ‘ herbs.’ 

The collection of the juice from plants from which 
it is collected is mostly done in summer, in some 
cases at the beginning of that season, in others when 
it is well advanced. The digging of roots is done in 
some cases at the time of wheat-harvest or a little 
earlier, but the greater part of it in autumn after the 
rising of Arcturus when the plants have shed their 
leaves, and, in the case of those whose fruit is 
serviceable, when they have lost their fruit. The 
collection of juice is made either from the stalks,’ as 
with tithymallos (spurge) wild lettuce and the majority 
of plants, or from the roots, or thirdly from the head, 
as in the case of the poppy ; for this is the only plant 
which is so treated § and this is its peculiarity. In 
some plants-the juice collects of its own accord in 

3 raira conj. Scal. from G; ratra Ald. 
4 After dSivauw U*Ald.* add éamep etpnta: pixp® mpdtepoy ; 

omitted here by Sch.: see below. 5 Sc. in the roots. 
6 Scmep... mpdrepoy inserted here by Sch.: see above; 

omep elpntrar Ald. 

7 gavaav Vin, Vo.Cod.Cas.: so also G; naprév Ald. HM*. 

8 udvns orm Kal conj. W.; wdvns nat Ald.H; pdvoy ottw 
kat M*, 



cuviaTatat Sakpue@dns Tis, BoTEP Kal THs Tpaya- 
/ 0 - \ Oe / > - “ be 
Kavons: tavTny yap oveée Témve éoTi* TaD 
/ > \ a > 2 a ® eT \ aR 
TrELoToY ao THS évTo“Hs. wv évious pev EevOdS 
a \ n 
eis ayyela cuvayovew, @oTrep Kal TOV TOU TLOV- 
a \ 
peddrXovu 7) pNnKe@viov, Kadovar yap apdhortépas, Kal 
e n od / / n \ \ / 
bets / A \ a ‘a PS , 
Tov épio AauBdvovew @oTep Kal THS Opidaxivys. 
> \ / 
*Eviev & ov8 omicpos adr olov yudAtopos 
5] 4 4 U4 x / \ i) , 
éoTiv, WoTTEp boa KOarTes 7} TpiivayTes Kai Ddwp 
a \ / 
emuyéavtes amndovor kal AapBavover THy vTo0- 
an e \ 
aotacw: Enpos 5é SfAXov Ste Kal EXa4TT@V O YUAOS 
a a \ 
TovTov. aT dé TOV wev AArov pil@v TO YUALC- 
n n n 7 \ 
wa acbevéctepov Tod Kaptrod, Tov Kewvelov Oé 
ioxupotepov, Kal THY aTadrNaynVY paw Tote? Kal 
OdtTw pixpov tmavu Katatrotiov Sobév: évepyo- 
be \ > \ ” / > \ \ 
TEpov O€ Kal els Tas AXNaS XpElas. toyupor 5é 
Kal TO THS Oawias. ta bé adda Tavta acbevé- 
> a 
n \ e / 
Tis 5é prSotopias ovK Eote ToravTn Siapopa 
\ > a WA 
TAHV €v Tais wpats oloy Oépous 7) weTOT@poL, Kal 
fal / xX a n fal 
TO Taobe 7) Tdode THY pifav: olov Tod éAXeBopou 
\ / \ \ al 
TaS KATW TAS NeTTTAS* THY yap dvw THY Taxelav 
\ / a 
Thv Keparwdn dacly ayxpeiov eivar Kal Siddvat 

1 ef. Diose. 2. 136 ; Plin. 20. 58. 
? cf. Diose. 3. 7. 
3 fdw conj. Sch.; pao U; patios M*Ald. 



the form of a sort of gum, as with tragacanth ; for 
incision of this plant cannot be made; but in most it 
is obtained by incision. In some cases the juice is 
collected straight into vessels, for instance that of 
tithymallos (spurge) or mekonion (for the plant has both 
names) and in general the juice of specially juicy 
plants is so collected. But that of those which do 
not yield abundant juice is taken with a piece of wool, 
as also that of wild lettuce.! 

2In some cases there can be no collection of juice, 
but there is a sort of extraction of it, for instance in 
the case of plants which are cut down or bruised ; 
they then pour water over them and strain off the 
fluid, keeping the sediment ; but it is plain that in 
these cases the juice obtained is dry and less copious. 
In most ‘roots’ the juice thus extracted is less 
powerful than that of the fruit, but in hemlock it is 
stronger and it causes an easier? and speedier * death 
even when administered in a quite small pill; and it 
is also more effective for other uses, °That of thapsza 
is also powerful, while all the rest areless so. Such 
then is a general account of the various ways of 
obtaining the juices of plants. 

Of the cutting of roots for medicinal purposes, and of certain 
superstitions connected therewith. 

As to cutting of the roots there is no such 
diversity of practice, except as to the season, which 
may be summer or autumn, and as to the particular 
roots selected. ® Thus in hellebore the slender lower 
roots are taken, for they say that the thick upper 
part’ which forms a sort of head is useless, and that 

4 @d77w conj. Sch.; éAdrtrw UM; Oarrov UF M* Ald. 
5 of. Plin, 13. 125. 6 Plin. 25. 53. ? «.e. rhizome. 





Tais Kvaw btav Bovr\wvtar Kabaipev. Kal éd 
2 Rew / 4 / 4, 
étépwv 5€ Tivwv ToravTas réyovor Stahopas. 
lal / 
"Ett 5€ doa of happaxoTadXar Kal oi prloTopor 
\ \ / fa) 
Ta pev lows oixeiws TA Oé Kal émiTpaywdodv TEs 
Aéyouot. KEedXeVOVTL Yap Tas pey KAT dVvEpov 
a , A 
loTapévous Téuvewv, WaoTrep ETépas TE TLVaS Kal 
\ / , \ \ n 
Tv Oaryiav, adeufduevov Rita: TO yap Toya 
> a 7X bs > 7 + ed \ \ na 
avowetv éav €& évaytias. Kat’ dvepov dé cal Tod 
/ \ \ / > \ \ / 
Kuvoo Batov TOV KapTov cuAéyeELY, Ef Sé pr) Kiv- 
duvoy eivar Tov OfOarpov. Tas bé viKTwP Tas 
be Ale e / y de \ \ ar b] 4 
é€ pel” repay, évias 5é ply Tov HrALov émuBar- 
New, olov Kab TO KaXovpevov KAUpEVOP. 
\ an 
Kai tatta pév xal ta TrapatAnoia TovTOLS 
Rey ol > > 7 / / > a 
TaX Gv OUK adXAoTpios Sokevey Aéyerv’ emricwvels 
/ e / b] / 7 4 
yap Tier ai duvapes: éEartev yap pacw wc- 
: a \ / > \ c / 
wep Top Kal KaTaKkaie* émel Kal o €AdEéBoOpos 
Taxv KxapnBapely trove?, Kal ov Stivavtat Todvy 
/ / 
xpovov opuTrewv, d 5 Kal mpoecBiovar cKopoda 
\ BA > / > \ \ A 
v4 , 
@omep éTibeta Kal Toppwber, olov THY TraLwviar, 
e \ : / a , VA 
ot O€ yAuvKvcidny Kadodol, vVUKTwMP KEedAEvOVTOW 
> v4 7\ \ c / 5 a n e \ 
OpuTTEW: ay yap nuépas Kal OfOF Tis WTO Spvo- 
KONaTTOV TOV pey KApTOY aTrohéywv KiVduvEveLy 
na ? val \ \ cs / > / 
Tois OpOarpols, THv dé pilav Téuvov éxrimrery 
THY €Opar. 

1 &ri 8& boa conj. Sch. from G 3 @r 8 &s U*; eri Se ds Ald. 
H ; éors 8 &s M*. 



it is only given to dogs when it is desired to purge 
them. And in certain other plants also such 
differences are mentioned. 

Further we may ! add statements made by druggists 
and herb-diggers, which in some cases may be to 
the point, but in others contain exaggeration. Thus 
they enjoin that in cutting some roots one should 
stand to windward,—for instance, in cutting thapsia 
among others, and that one should first anoint 
oneself with oil,? for that one’s body will swell up 
if one stands the other way. Also that the fruit 
of the wild rose must be gathered standing to wind- 
ward, since otherwise there is danger to the eyes. 
Also that some roots should be gathered at night, 
others by day, and some before the sun strikes 
on them, for instance those of the plant called 

These and similar remarks may well seem to be 
not off the point, for the properties of these plants 
are hurtful ; they take hold, it is said, like fire and 
burn; ‘for hellebore too soon makes the head heavy, 
and men cannot go on digging it up for long; where- 
fore they first eat garlic and take a draught of neat 
wine therewith. On the other hand the following 
ideas may be considered far-fetched and irrelevant ; 
5for instance they say that the peony, which some 
eall glykyside, should be dug up at night, for, if a man 
does it in the day-time and is observed by a wood- 
pecker while he is gathering the fruit, he risks the 
loss of his eyesight; and, if he is cutting the root at 
the time, he gets prolapsus ani. 

2 Plin. 13. 124; Diose. 4. 153. 
8 of. 9, 18. 6. 4 Plin, 25. 50. 
5 Plin. 27. 85; 25. 29. 

VOL. IT. 8 




PurdttecOar S€ Kal THY KevTavpioa TéuvovTA 
TpLopYNY, OTws av aTpwTos aTéAOn. Kal Gddas 
/ Mak \ a 3 , / > \ 
dé Tuas aitias. TO 0° érevyopevoy Témveiy ovdev 
lows atoTrov' GAN él TL Kal AXO TpocTiPeacw, 

a eA \ / q~-9 / 4 
olov Otay TO TavaKes TO AoKkdnTrietoy KaXovpEVoOV" 
’ / \ an A , \ 
avTeuBarrgev yap TH YR TayKapriav <Kai> 
a ef \ \ , / 
perTTovTav: Otay Oé€ THY Eto, Tpinvov pedT- 
/ \ 

Tovtas avrTeuBarrew picOovr Téuvew O€ audnKer 
Eider meprypdavta eis Tpis* Kal OTL dv TpaTov 
a / ” wa bd WA RAG / 
TunOn peTéwpov Eye €i0’ oTw TO ETEpoy TéuvELY. 

Kai adra 6é toradta TrEiw. Teprypadew é 
\ \ 5 , > \ / / be 
Kal Tov pavdpayopav ets tpis Eider, Téuvew oe 
\ e / / a ] 4 4 
mpos éomépav Brérrovta. Tov & €EtEpov KUKAw 
a a \ 
meplopxetoOar Kal eye WS TAELoTA Trepl ad- 
podiciwy. TodTo & Gmoioy Eoike TH TeEpt TOV 
4 , \ \ / ud 
Kupivov Aeyouev@m KaTAa THY BrAacdnutav OTav 
omeipwot. mepiypadpew dé Kal tov é€dAdEBopov 
Tov pédava Kal Téuvery toTapevoy Tpos Ew Kal 
/ > \ \ / \ > 
KaTevxomevov' aeTov O€ gvddttecPar Kal éx 
n \ 5 b] n , \ 9S a 
SeEras Kal é& dpiotepas: Kivdvvoy yap elvat Tots 

\ / oo / 

1 Plin. 25. 69 adds that this plant was therefore also called 
Tplopxis. ef. Diose. 4, 162. 
2 nal... airtas U*M*; 2? nad 4AAa 5€ ToLadTa W. 
® Plin. 25. 30 and 31. 



It is also said that, while cutting feverwort! one 
must beware of the buzzard-hawk, if one wishes to 
come off unhurt; and other reasons for caution ? 
are also given. That one should be bidden to pray 
while cutting is not perhaps unreasonable, but the 
additions made to this injunction are absurd ; for 
instance as to cutting the kind of all-heal which is 
called that of Asklepios ; for then it is said that one 
should put in the ground in its place an offering 
made of all kinds of fruits anda cake ; and that, when 
one is cutting gladwyn,* one should put in its place 
to pay for it cakes of meal from spring-sown wheat,° 
and that one should cut it with a two-edged sword, 
first making a circle round it three times,® and that 
the piece first cut must be held up in the air while 
the rest is being cut. 

And many similar notions are mentioned. Thus 
it is said that one should draw three circles 
round mandrake with a sword, and cut it with 
one’s face towards the west; and at the cutting 
of the second piece one should dance round the 
plant and say as many things as possible about the 
mysteries of love. (This seems to be like the 
direction given about cummin,’ that one should utter 
curses at the time of sowing.) One should also, it is 
said, draw a circle round the black hellebore and 
cut it standing towards the east and saying prayers, 
and one should look out for an eagle both on the 
right and on the left; for that there is danger to 
those that cut, if your eagle should come near, that 

4 cf. Plin. 21.42, who read ipw. ef. Diosc, 4, 22, where éupis 
is called a kind of 7pis ; so also Plin. 21. 142. 

5 rpyunvov conj. Salm.; tprunvovs M*Ald.H. 

8 rpls conj. Sch.; tpe?ts U*M*P,Ald. So also in next section. 

? of. 7. 3. 3. 

s 2 



> .: ‘ 

Ovnokev €viavT@. TavTa pev ovv émibérors 
> n 

EoLKEV, WOTTEP elpyTat. TpoTrot © ovK eiol TeV 

prfotopey THY ods El TOMeED. 

IX. "Eore 6é, @oTEp EEX ON, TOV yey mavra 
XPT wa Kal pita Kal 0 KApTros Kal oO o708, 
OomeEp adddov Te Kal TOU mavanous® Tov oe y} 
piSa Kal o O77 0s, olov THs TKappovias Kal TOU 
KuKrapivou Kab THS Oarpias Kal ETeponv, kadamep 
Kal TOU pavdparyopou" Tov yap jeavdparyopou TO 
purrov XPNT LOY elvai pace T pos Ta EXKN MET 
arpitou, THv O€ pifav Tpos épuolme)has Eva deiody 
Te Kal ) OF eu devdeioay Kal Tpos TA modaypiKa Kal 
™pos Umvov Kal Tpos pirrpa: didoace o év olv@ 

i) OF" TEmVOUTT dé TpoxtaKous aomep papavidos 
pai évelpavTes vmép yAevKous expéuacayv én 

‘O 88 ere Bopos emt TavTa TH Te pity Kal TO 
KapT@ XPNTLMLOS, elmrep ov év "Avtixdpa, xabdmep 
daci, TO Kapr@ Ka0aipovow &yer b€ <TOv> 
onoapody ToUTOD. 

— Wheto be Kal TOU TAVAKOUS Ta XpyoLwa Kat ov 
TAVTA TPOS TA aura GAN’ Oo pev KapTos 7 pos. Tas 
éFauBrooes Kal Tas ducoupias, 6 6€ 670s 7 
xarBavn Kahovpevn Tpos TE Tas eEapBrooes 
Kal ™ pos TQ omdo para Kal Tous TOLOVTOUS 
movous, éTt O€ Tpos TA WTA Kal TAS hwvackKias’ 

1 gdvmep eyyds emvyévnra conj. W.; éav dé 6 eyyis wh Groréuvn 
6 aétds aroOvjaxe: éviavrg UMAId. Similar confusion with 
variations in U*M*PP,: restoration a makeshift. ef. Plin. 
25. 50. 2°953. 1, 

3 Diose. 4. 75; Plin. 26. 104 and 121. 

4 cf. 9. 12. 1, 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. vin, 8-1x,. 2 

they may die ! within the year. These notions then 
seem to be irrelevant, as has been said. There are 
however no methods of root-cutting besides those 
which we have mentioned. 

Of the medicinal uses of divers parts of plants. 

IX. As was said,? of some plants the root, fruit and 
juice are all serviceable, as of all-heal among others ; 
of some the root and the juice, as of scammony ® 
cyclamen thapsia and others, such as mandrake ; for 
the leaf of this, they say, used with meal, is useful 
for wounds, and the root for erysipelas, when scraped 
and steeped in vinegar, and also for gout, for sleep- 
lessness, and for love potions. It is administered in 
wine or vinegar; they cut little balls of it, as of# 
radishes, and making a string of them hang them up 
in the smoke over must. 

5Of hellebore both root and fruit are useful for 
the same purposes,°—if it is true, as is said, that 
the people of Anticyra use the fruit as a purge; 
this fruit contains the well-known’ drug called 

Various parts of all-heal are also useful, and not all 
for the same purposes ; the fruit is used in cases of 
miscarriage and for disorders of the bladder, while 
the juice,® which is called khalbane, is used in cases 
of miscarriage and also for sprains and_ such-like 
troubles; also for the ears, and to strengthen the 

5 Diosc. 4. 108, 109 and 162. 

§ ravra conj. Sch. from G; tadta U*M* Ald. 

? I have inserted tov, ef. 9. 14.4; Plin. 22. 133 ; 25. 52 and 
64; Diose. /.c. The drug was actually called onoauoedés or 
onoauoedys. For the sense of rodror cf. 3. 7. 3; 3. 8. 3 and reff. 

8 This seems to be a mistake. cf. 9. 7. 2; Diose. 3. 83; 
Plin, 12, 126, 



H be pia Tpos TE TOUS TOKOUS al ra yuvarceta 
Kal pos vmoluytov pucas: xpnoiun dé Kal pos 
TO iptvov pipov Sua THY evodiav: io XUpoTepov bé 
TO om Eppa THS pins. yiveras dé mepi Yuvpiav 
Kal TéuveTat TreEpt TUPAaynTov. 

Tob dé KuKhapivov ” wey pita mMpos TE TAS 
exTrUI TELS TOY preypovay Kal mpoaberov yuvargi 
Kat mpos Ta EXKy ev pereTee o 6é omros T pos Tas 
amo Keharts cabdpoess € év perere eyyedpevos, Kal 
mpos TO meOvoKe, eav év olv@ diaBpéxov 6166 
TS Trively. dryaOnv dé THY pitav kab axutdxvor 
Teplam TOV | Kal els pirtpa: Grav Sé opvgwat, KaTa- 
Kalovow eit oivep devoartes TPOXLTKOUS TOLOVG LY, 
WOE TAS. Tpuyos 7 pumropeba.. 

Kai tod otxvov be TOU aypiou THY péev pifav 
<m pos> ardovs Kal opas Booknpatov TO O€ 
onépua xvrcoOev rovet TO é€XaTHpLOV. aUAXE- 
yerat O€ TOD POworapov TOTE yap Ber LoTov. 

Tis dé Xapaispvos Ta pev purra m™pos Ta 
pryypara Kal Tpos TA Tpavpara év erat TpuBo- 
peva Kal Tpos TA vEewopmeva Eden rov 8é Kapmov 
cabatpew yon" arya ov be Kal opbaryois: ™ pos 
dé Ta dpyeua Tpog dryer TO pudrov Tpipavra év 
EXaiw. yer dé pvAXa pev oldmep Spis, TO Se 
avaoTnwa THS GANS Ocov omiBaptaioy: evoorpov 
dé kal HOv. 

To péev otv pn pds Tav’Td TavTa Ta pépy 
XpHotua Tuyyavew ovK tows atoTov:.To bé THs 

1 éxmuhoes conj. Coraés from Plin. 26. 120, eruptiones ; 
éxavevoers M* Ald. 

2 Diosc. 2. 164; Plin. 25. 133; 26. 149. 

3 cf. Plin. 23. 63, 



voice. The root is used in childbirth, for diseases 
of women, and for flatulence in beasts of burden. 
It is also useful in making the iris-perfume because 
of its fragrance; but the seed is stronger than the 
root. It grows in Syria and is cut at the time of 

Of cyclamen the root is used for suppurating ! 
boils ; also as a pessary for women and, mixed with 
honey, for dressing wounds; the juice for purgings 
of the head,? for which purpose it is mixed with 
honey and poured in; it also conduces to drunken- 
ness, if one is given a draught of wine in which it 
has been steeped. They say also that the root is a 
good charm for inducing rapid delivery and as a love 
potion; ?when they have dug it up, they burn it, 
and then, having steeped the ashes in wine, make 
little balls like those made of wine-lees which we 
use as soap. 

4 Of‘ wild cucumber ’ (squirting cucumber) the root 
is used for® white leprosy and for mange in sheep, 
while the extracted juice makes the drug called 
‘the driver.’® It is collected in autumn, for then it 
is best. 

Of germander the leaves pounded up in olive-oil 
are used for fractures and wounds and for spreading 
sores ; the fruit purges bile, and is good also for the 
eyes ; for ulcers’ in the eye they pound up the leaf 
in olive-oil before applying it. It has leaves like 
the oak, but its entire growth is only about a palm 
high ; and it is sweet both to smell and taste. 

Now that all parts are not serviceable for the 
same purpose is perhaps not strange; it is more 
4 Diosc. 4. 150; Plin. 20.3. _ ® mpds add. St. 

8 of. 9. 14. 1 and 2, 7 of. 7.6.2; Diosc.3..98. 



> nm e7 \ \ v \ ‘ / / 
adThs pitns TO pev av@a TO b€ KdtTw KaSaipew 
Oavpaciotepov, olov Kal THs Oarias Kal Tis 
> / e 7.) SV a \ na , 
iaxaoos, of & amiov Kadovat, Kai THs ABavwTi- 
dos' OTt yap av Kai KaTw Kal avw TavTa SvvaTat 

, / \ / > \ ” 

[xaPatpey |, cabamep To éXaTHpLov, OVOev ATOTOY. 

"Eyer 5€ 9 Oalia Pidrdrov pév Guoiov TO 
papabe@ mrAnv TWAaTUTEpOY KavArOV bé vapOnKedy 
pilav dé Neve. 

‘H & ioyas 4 arios PUANOV pev exer TN- 
yavodes Bpayd Kxavrovs 8 émuyelous tpeis 4) 
, c/ \ Y ar) , \ 
Téttapas pifav 8é olavtep 0 aaddderos mAHV 
Aetruplodyn: ire? S€ dpewwa ywpia Kal Koyda- 
Koon. auArAréeyeTat Sé TOD pos. TOUTO ev 

ovv idtov TOV eipnuévov. | 

X. ‘O 6€ €ArXEBopos 6 TE wédXas Kal O AeEUKdS 
@orep omwvupor paivovtar rept S& THs dyrews 
Siadwvodow oi pév yap opoiovs eivar, TANY TO 
xpepwate povov Siapépav THY pifav Tod pév 
Nevany TOD dé péAawvav: oi Sé Tod pev pédXavOS 
TO dvrAdrov Sadvades Tod 5é AevKod Tpacades, 
Tas 5& pifas opolas mAnY TOV yYpouadtov. of & 
ovy opotovs Aéyovtes Tordvde ghacly eivar tiv 
poppijy: Kavrov pev avbepixodyn Bpaydiv ofddpa: 

4 \ 7 , / an 
pvrArov 5 TrAaTVTYLTTOV, TAapopoLov opodpa TO 

nr , a S ” I] \ \ tales | fol c/s 
Tov vapOnKos, phKos 0 éxov: evOu & é« THs pikns 

1 Gri yap conj.W.; dca yap UU*M*; ra wily M ; 7d yap Ald, 
2 Diose. 4. 153; Plin. 13, 124. § Diose, 4, 175, 



surprising that part of the same ‘root’ should purge 
upwards and another part downwards, as is the case 
with thapsia and iskhas—which some call apios (spurge) 
—and with banotis ; for! it is not strange that on the 
other hand the same parts should purge both upwards 
and downwards, as is the case with ‘ the driver.’ 

2 Thapsia has a leaf like fennel, but broader, a 
stalk like that of ferula, and a white root. 

3 Iskhas (or apios) has a leaf like rue and short, 
three or four prostrate stems, and a root like that of 
asphodel, except that it is composed of scales; 4 it 
loves mountain districts with a gravelly soil. It is 
collected in spring. Now this account applies 
only to the above-mentioned plants. 

Of hellebores, the white and the black: their uses and 

X. ®° The white and the black hellebore appear to 
have nothing in common except the name. But 
accounts differ as to the appearance of the plants; 
some say that the two are alike and differ only in 
colour, the root of the one being white, of the other 
black; some however say that the leaf of the ‘black’ is 
like that of bay, that of the white like that of the leek, 
but that the roots are alike except for their respective 
colours. Now those who say that the two plants are 
alike describe the appearance ® as follows :—the stem 
is like that of asphodel and very short; the leaf has 
broad divisions, and is extremely like that of ferula, 
but is long; it is closely attached to the root and 

4 cf. Diose, 3. 134, 

5 Plin. 25. 47-61. See Index. ef. 9. 11. 5n. 

6 i.e. of the two plants regarded as one; but the text of 
the following description seems to be hopelessly confused. 





HpTHnMéevov Kal emiyevopvArov? moduvppifov 8 ed 
a a \ , 
pdra Tals AeTTAIs Kai YpNnoLMoLS. 
. a \ \ \ L \ \ 
Avaipeiy 6€ Tov pév pédAava Kat immous Kal 
a . = 7A \ >O\ , Us \ 
Bods kal bs, dv 0 Kal ovdév véwecOar TOUT@V: TOV 
\ \ / \ / \ B] g 
dé Nevxov véwetOar Ta TpoBaTa Kal é€K TovTOU 
la) a \ / = 
mp@tov acvvopOivar tiv Svvauw Kabatpopévor 
éxeivwv: wpatos € wetore@pov, Tod 8 Hpos awpos: 
GNX Tpos THY TuAAalav ot ex THs OltHs TVARE- 
a \ A , 
youvat TAElaTOS yap éevTavla hveTat Kal apLoTos: 
a \ , a ” \ \ / 
povayod bé gvetar THs Oitns wept tiv ILupay. 
\ ‘ 
Mioryerar Sé pos THY TéaW, STS EvEMes 7, TO 
a b] / / a > 9 \ / 
THs €dXeBopivyns oméppa: TodTO 8 éatl Todpuor. 
e / a 
Dveras 5€ o pév pédXas Tavtayod: Kal yap év 
a / > 
Th Bowtia cai év EvBoia nai tap’ addols Tod- 
a ¢ nae a 
Rois: adptotos 5é 0 €k TOV ENiK@vos, cal drws TO 
c \ \ a 
dpos evpdppaxov. oO O€ AevKds Orduyaxod: Bér- 
tioTor Sé Kal ols yp@vTar pddiota TéTTApeEs 6 
val ¢ ¢ 
Oitaios 6 Tlovtixos 0 ’EXedtns 0 Madiorns. daci 
Sé tov "Edeatny év tots auTerdor dvecOar Kal 
moveiy TOV olvoy OUTw SiovpHTLKOY BaTE Nayapovs 
elval Tavu TOUS TivovTas. 
4 a 
"Aptotos 6€ TavT@y Kal TOUT@Y Kal TOV dANwv 
a € 
0 Oitatos. o &€ Llapvacios nal o AitwXxKds, 
/ \ \ 3 6 \ \ AL oF n 
yivetat yap kat évtav0a Kat modXol Kal wvodvTat 
\ an > 2O/ >’ v4 \ \ 
Kal Tw@dovow ovK eldoTes, [ovX STE] oKANPOl Kal 

1 Which were held apparently at Thermopylae regularly 
in autumn and sometimes in spring: the meeting would give 
opportunities for sale. &AA& implies a spring meeting. 


———- = ~ 



creeps on the ground ; the plant has numerous roots, 
to wit, the slender roots which are serviceable. 

Also they say that the black is fatal to horses oxen 
and pigs, wherefore none of these animals eat it ; 
while the white is eaten by sheep, and from this 
circumstance the virtue of the plant was _ first 
observed, since it purges them; it is at its prime 
in autumn, and past its prime when spring comes. 
However the people of Mount Oeta gather it for the 
meetings! of the Amphictyons; for it grows there 
in greatest abundance and best, though at only one 
place in the district of Oeta, namely about Pyra. 

(The seed of rupture-wort is mixed with the 
potion given to promote easy vomiting; this plant 
is a small herb). 

The black kind of hellebore grows everywhere ; 
it is found in Boeotia, in Euboea and in many other 
places; but best is that from Mount Helicon, which 
mountain is in general rich in medicinal herbs. The 
white occurs in few places ; the best and that which 
is most used comes from one of four places, Oeta,? 
Pontus, Elea, and Malea.2 They say that that of 
Elea grows in the vineyards and makes the wine so 
diuretic that those who drink it become quite 

But best of all these and better than that found 
anywhere else is that of Mount Oeta, while that of 
Parnassus and that of Aetolia (for the plant is 
common in these parts too and men buy and sell it, 
not knowing‘ the difference) are tough and ex- 

2 § before Oiraios add. Sch. 

3 Madrérns conj. Hahnemann, ef. Strabo 9. 3. 3; Macoar:- 
rns Ald. Plin. /.c. gives Parnassus as the fourth locality: 
cf. § 4. 
ane words ovx re may have arisen from ovk ciddres, 



dyav wepioKedeis. TadTa pev odv Smota Tails 
poppais dvta tats Ouvdpect Svahépovta. 
an \ \ / / ” 

Kandodoar 5€ tov pédavad tives Extopwov Merapu- 
TOOLOV, WS ExElvVOU TpPAToV TEe“ovTOS Kal avev- 
povtos. KaGaipovor bé€ Kal oiKias avT@ Kal 
mpoBata suveradovtés Tia éT@diy Kal eis aKa 
d€ wrelw YpavTat. 

XI. Tlovna bé éote kal Ta ravaKny Kal oi TLOU- 
parro. Kal érep atta. TdvaKes yap Kadodar 
Tp@Tov pev TO év Yupia, Tepl ov piKP@ Tpotepov 
elpntat. dda Sé Ta Tpia, TO pev Xetpwverov 

, \ Te / \ ~ jes 4 / 
kanovpevoy TO 0 “Ackrnrievov To 8 “Hpaxrecov. 
” \ \ \ , 4 \ iA 
Eyer 56€ TO pev Xecpwverov pvddrov pev Gpotov 
Aatabw peiCov 5é Kal dacv’tepov, avOos Sé ypu- 
aoedés, pitay dé pixpdv- iret O€ pddiota Ta 

, a , 
Yopia Ta Tiovas ypavTar Sé mpos TE TOds eyeLs 
Kal Ta hardyyia Kal Tovs ofmas Kal Ta adra 
EpweTa OiddvTes év oiv@ Kal adeihovtes pet 
a oT an 
€Xaiou' Tov o éyews TO Ohya Kal KaTATAATTOV- 
tes Kal év o€ivn tuety Sidovtes* ayabny 5é hace 
Kal éXKa@v év olv@ Kal édaiw Kal dupatav év 
/ a 
To & ’AckArntieov thy pifav phos péev ws 
\ a 
omilapunv AevKnv O€ Kal Tayelav opddpa, Kai 
provoy Taydy Kal AduKwdn* Kavrov SE Exet yova- 

, / 4 \ ae? € , 
T@On TavTayober, PurAXroV O€ olovTEep 7 Oarvia 
TrANY TaxXvTEepov: ayabov é cival Pact éEpTeTav 

1 From this phrase @crowor came to be used as a synonym 
for ‘black hellebore.’ ¢f. Plin. 25.47; Diose. 4. 149; Hesych. 
and Galen, Lex. Hipp. s.v. 

49. 9. 2. 3 Plin. 25. 32; 26. 139. 

i mixpay conj. H. from Plin. 25, 32. radix parva; warpay U* 



ceeding harsh. These plants then, while resembling 
the best form in appearance, differ in their virtues. 

Some call the black the ‘hellebore of Melampus,’! 
saying that he first cut and discovered it. Men also 
purify horses and sheep with it, at the same time 
chanting an incantation; and they put it to several 
other uses. 

Of the various kinds of all-heal. 

XI. There are also several kinds of all-heal 
ttthymallos (spurge) and other herbs. ‘To begin with, 
one plant called all-heal is the one found in Syria, of 
which we have recently spoken.2 ? Then come the 
three other kinds, known as that of Chaeronea, that 
of Asclepios, and that of Heracles. That of Chae- 
ronea has a leaf like monk’s rhubarb, but larger and 
rougher, a golden flower, and a small? root; and it 
specially loves rich ground; they use it for the bites 
of snakes, spiders, vipers® and other reptiles, ad- 
ministering it in wine or anointing the place with it 
mixed with olive-oil. In treating a snake-bite they 
use a plaster of it, and also give a draught of it 
mixed with vinegar °; and they also say that it is good 
for sores’ when mixed with wine and olive-oil, and 
for tumours when mixed with honey. 

8 The kind called after Asklepios has a white and 
very stout root about a span long and a thick bark 
which is crusted with salt®; its stem is jointed all 
the way up, its leaf like that of thapsta, but 
thicker ; it is said that it is good to scrape and drink 

ojras conj. Scal., ef. Arist. Mir, Ausc. 164; ofras Ald, 
kal év délvy conj. Sch., ef. 9. 13.35; év dtlvn nai PAld, 
For the genitive cf. §§ 2,3; Xen. Mem. 3. 8.3. 

Plin. 25. 30; Diose. 3. 49. 

aAvKddyn: ? ‘has a briny taste.’ 





, Ae \ \ 4 e \ 
te Evovta tivev, Kal omdnvos Stay aiwa epi 
b] \ 3 rd \ / / > 
avtov év pedtxpat@, Kal Kkeharaias tpiBovta év 
BA n 
eduiw adeihew Kal Ado TL €av TOVH Tis adavés, 
\ \ ] / > 7 / / \ 
Kal yaoTtpos ddvvns év oivm Evovta. SvvacOar dé 
/ / n 
Kal Tas MaKpas appwoTias exKivelv. eTELTAa TOV 
n a n \ / : 
EAXKOV TOV pev vypav Enpov éemiTattovta Tpo- 
/ > 5 An n \ n b 
KkataxrutovTa év olvm Ocpue, Tov dé Enpav év 
% ‘al e 
olvm dedoat Kal KaTAaTAAaTTELW. 
€ / \ Yj 
To & “Hpdkrevov pvrAXov pév exer péya Kal 
\ \ / n ec? \ e 
Tratd Kal TploTiOapov Tavtayh, pilav Sé ws 
\ / / A+: / a 
daxTUAov TO Tayos Sixpay 7) TpiKpaV, TH yevoet 
‘ A ] 3 a lal 
pev UToTiKpov TH O oopn KaOdrep ALBavaTodD 
a \ nA a 
Ka0apod: ayabny dé Tis iepas vooov puyvupévny 
e / 
/ a n an 
vns KaTa yaoTépa év olv@ yAuUKEL, Kal EXKOV TOV 
\ ¢e an \ an de a > f @ 
pev vypav Enpav Tav dé Enpav év pédiTt.  avTar 
> 4 
pev ody TavTas éyovar Siadhopas Te Kat Suvdmers. 
"AdnXa 66 TavdKn TO pév AeTTOhUAAOY TO be 
” id \ / > a € > , / / 
ov ai O€ Ouvapers audoiv ai ad’tat, mpocOeTov TE 
\ \ / p Mage | / \ \ 
yuvaél Kat KaTaTAacpa peT addiTov Kal mpos 
\ \ / 
Ta é€X\KN Ta AAA Kal TPOS TA vEm“omeva. 
7, \ \ e / \ e 7, 
Yvvevupor 5é Kal ol oTpvxyvor Kal of T’OUpar- 

1 xepadatas conj. Sch.; nepadjs Ald. 

2 rev EAKav Conj. Sch.; trav 5 EAxwdav (sic) U*; Trav EAKwdar 
Ald. H. ef. § 3. 

3 Plin. 25. 32; Diosc. 3. 48. 

4 Sixpay % rplxpay conj. Sch.; Sixpay 7 tplkayv UM; dixparh 
mixpav U*; Sixpavi }) tTpixpavy Ald. . 



it against bites of reptiles, to take it -in a posset of 
honey for disorders of the spleen, when the blood 
collects about it, and against headache! to pound it 
up in olive-oil and anoint the head ; that it is of use 
also in other obscure troubles, and against stomach- 
ache, if scraped and taken in wine. It is said also 
to be able to prevent long periods of sickness. Again 
for running sores? one may sprinkle it on in hot 
wine, first washing the place, while for dry sores one 
may soak it in wine and apply a plaster. 

3The kind named after Herakles has a large 
broad leaf, three spans each way, a root as thick as a 
man’s finger, forking in two or three +; in taste it is 
somewhat bitter, in smell like pure ffankincense 5 ; 
Sit is good to drink it against epilepsy, mixed with 
the rennet of a seal in the proportion of one to four, 
or in sweet wine against pain’ in the stomach ; it 
may be used dry § for running sores, and mixed with 
honey for dry ones. Such are the special features 
about these plants and their respective virtues. 

°There are also other kinds of all-heal, of which 
one has a fine leaf, the other not; the properties of 
both kinds are the same; namely they are used as a 
pessary for women, and a plaster may be made of 
them mixed with meal for spreading sores as well as 
for ordinary sores. 

Of the various plants called strykhnos. 

As to strykhnos again and tithymallos (spurge) there 
is in either case more than one form of the plant 

5 A.Bavwrod kabapod conj. Sch.; A:Savwrdv kalapsy UM ; AL- 
Bavwtot U*; AtBavwrod nabapay Ald.H xadapod perhaps due 
to ka@drep. 6 cf. Fr. 175; Diosc. 2. 75. 

7 dSdvns conj. W.; ddivac UMU*Ald. 

8 Enpay conj. Sch.; énpa U*Ald.; Enpal M. ® Plin. 35. 33. 



A \ 4 e \ e / ¢ \ 
AOL. TOV yap oTp’XVaV oO péev UTVedns Oo é 
pavikos. Kal o pev dmrvedns épvOpav éywv tHv 
/ ef - 
pilav wotrep aiua Enparvopévnv, opuyttopévny 8é 
/ \ \ > , / 4 
NEvKHVY, KaL KapTOV é€puOpoTEepov KpoKov, pUAXOV 
5é TWupddrAr.@ Gmotov 7) pnr\<a TH yAvKeia Kal 
A B \ 93 \ 4 pi 2 < Y , / 
> \ a € 
avTo dacv Kal Tuyuny péya. TovTov THs pitns 
\ % / / \ Lf > ” 
Tov drovov KOTTOVTES Mav Kal BpéyorTes ev olv@ 
b] , if n \ an / , 
axpato Sidoact Tretvy Kal trove? Kabevdery. ve- 
Tat o€ év xapddpars Kal Tois wyypacty. 
¢ \ , e \ 7 a > \ e 
O dé pavixds, ot 5é Opvopov KaXodow avTor oi 
5é wepitTov, NevanVY Exe THY pilav Kal paxpav 
¢ / \ / / ’ > A >\ \ 
as THYEWS Kal KoiAnV. Sidotar 8 adTis, éav pev 
iA / \ lal e A / 9S 
@ote Talley Kal doxely EavT@ KaANCTOY Eival, 
5 \ @ mn 2\ be lal / 0 \ 
paxun oTabu@ €ay o€ padrdAov paweolalt Kai 
/ \ / 4 / x\ ? 
gavtacias twas haiverOar, dvo Spaypai éav 6 
iA \ “4 n 
@oTe pn TaverOat patvopevov TpEis, Kal cUp- 
Tapautyvuvat dacly omov Kevtavpiov: éay Oé 
A b) a / 4 \ \ \ / 
ied > , \ r \ \ \ A 
bmotov evCaouw mwrAnv peclov, TOV dé KaVAOY OaTrEp 
] / \ Ae, / /y&- \ \ 
opyvias, Kepariv b€ BaoTep ynOvov peifw dé Kal 
Sacutépav ore 5é Kal TAaTAVOU KapTO. 

1 cf. 7. 15. 4, where a third orpixvos is mentioned, which is 
duévupos, not cuvévupos, i.e. which has nothing in common 
with these two orptxvo: except the name. cf. also 9. 15. 5. 

2 xpéxov conj. Dalec. from Diose. 4. 72, xapriv ... k«poxt- 
Covra; kédxxov MSS. 

3 ruyphy péya U; ruOuhy wéeyas U* Ald. H.; W. adopts Bod.’s 
conjecture om@auhy néya. 

4 Plin. 21. 177-179; Diosce. 4. 73. 

5 @ptopoy Ald.H.; @pvdpov U*; Bpudpov U; Bpvopovy MmBas. ; 



denoted by the name. 1 Of the plants called strykhnos 
one induces sleep, the other (thorn-apple) causes 
madness. The first-mentioned has a root which be- 
comes red like blood as it dries, but when first dug 
up it is white; its fruit is a deeper orange than 
saffron,” its leaf like that of tithymallos or the sweet 
apple; and it is itself rough, and about a foot high.’ 
The ‘ bark’ of the root of this they bruise severely, 
and soaking it in neat wine give it as a draught, and 
it induces sleep. It grows in water-courses and on 

*'The kind which produces madness (which some 
call ¢hryoron® and some vperitton®) has a_ white 
hollow root about a cubit long. Of this three 
twentieths of an ounce in weight is given, if the 
patient is to become merely One and to think 
himself a fine fellow; twice this dose’ if he is to go 
mad outright and have delusions 8; thrice the dose, 
if he is to be permanently insane ; (and then they 
say that the juice of centaury is mixed with it); 
four ® times the dose is given, if the man is to be 
killed. The leaf is like that of rocket, but larger, 
the stem about a fathom long; the ‘head’! is like 
that of a long onion, but larger and rougher. And 
it also resembles the fruit of the plane-tree. 

briorem G. Plin. l.c. seems to have read épv@pdv; Diose, J.c. 
8 repitToy Ald.H., te. ‘violent’; pisswum G; Plin, l.c. peris- 
son ; Diose. l.c. mépatov. 
, Spaxpa) conj. Sch.; dpaxuas Ald. 
kar... paiver@at om. UM: ungrammatical, and possibly 
a gloss ; ; but ef. Diose, and Plin. .c. 
TétTapes COnj. Sch.; tétTapas Ald ; réocapas U*. 
10 7.4, 10 it was said that yévov has no ‘head,’ ¢.e. bulb; 
here the ‘head’ seems to be theinflorescence. ef. Diosc. and 
Plin, Jc. 

VOL. Il. T 





Tov 6é TO upaddov 0 ev Tapansos KaXov- 
fevos KOKKLVOV pvrrov ever TEpLpepes, K@UNOV oe 
Kal TO ddov peyeBos @S omapils Tov 6€ KapTov 
ANeveov. apatar O€ Stay apt. wepxdky otadvry, 
Kal EnpavOels a) KapTos didotar trivery TpidOels 
Ooov TpiTov [Epos o€uBagov. 

‘O & dppny KaNOUMEVOS TO [ev puAXov éNaL@- 
Ses ever, TO Sé SAOv péyeOos TnYvalov. TodTOV 
omifovow apa TpuynT@ Kal Oepamevoartes oUTWS 
as Set Xpovrae: xadatper dé KadTw wadAovr. 

‘O 6e puptitns Kaovpevos TLOU wardos NevKos" 
TO ev pvdrov exet xadarrep 0 pUppwos, mq 
axavd Odes am dakpov: KN) WaT a, S adinaw emt 
THY YyHV as omlapwaia, TavTa o ovx apa Peper 
Tov KapTov adda Tap £708, Ta pev viv Ta O eis 
vewra, TepuKora amo THS auras pins. iret dé 
opewvas xopia. 0 6é Kapmros avrod Kanrebrar 
Ka pvov. apdoe & dtav abptyvovtat ai pal Kal 
Enpaivovtes Kal aroxaBaipovres: avTov TOV Kap- 
Tov TAUVaVTES €V bdate Kab may Enpavavres 
didoacr met TUMLLYVOV TES dv0 HEpn THS perXatvyns 
LnK@VOS, TO Oé cuvauporepov oor 0&0 Badgov- 
Kabaipes oé preypa Kato éav S€ TO KdpvOY avTo 
didac01, Tpiivaytes év olvym yAuKEl Siddacw 7H év 
onoau@ meppvypéve KaTaTpayetv. TAUTA [ev 
ovv Tois Te PvAXOLS Kal TOls dTrOts Kai Tots Kap- 

‘A j | 
Tots Xpnotpa. 

1 Plin. 26. 68. 
2 kédxxiwvov conj. W.; «éxxos MSS. ef. Plin. l.c. ramis ru- 
bentibus. 3 Diosc. 4. 164; Plin. 26. 62-65. 

4 ottws ws Sei xp. conj. Sch.; ofrws as 5h xp. U*; obtws xp. 


Of the various kinds of tithymallos. 

1Of the various plants called téhymallos (spurge) 
that which is called sea-spurge has a round scarlet? 
leaf ; the stem (and the size of the plant generally) 
is about a span long, and the fruit is white. It is 
gathered when the grape is just turning, and the 
dried fruit is given in a draught, the dose being the 
twenty-fourth part-of a pint. 

3‘That which is called the ‘male’ has a leaf like 
the olive, and the height of the whole plant is a 
eubit. Of this they collect the juice at the time 
of vintage, and, after preparing it, use it as oc- 
casion demands‘; and it purges chiefly downwards. 

>The kind of tethymallos called ‘myrtle-like’ is 
white; it has a leaf like the myrtle, but spinous 
at the tip; it puts out earthward twigs about a 
span long, and these bear the fruit® not all at 
the same time but in alternate years, so that from 
the same root grow fruits partly this and partly 
next year. It loves hill-country. The fruit of it is 
ealled a ‘nut.’ They gather it when the barley is 
ripening and dry and clean it; (itis the actual fruit ’ 
which they clean) ; they wash it in water and, after 
drying it again, give it in a draught, mixing with it 
two parts of ‘black’ poppy’; and the whole dose 
amounts to about an eighth of a pint. It purges 
phlegm downwards. If they administer the ‘nut’ 
itself, they first pound it up in sweet wine, or give it 

in parched sesame to bite up. These plants then 
have leaves juices or fruits which are serviceable. 
5 Diosc. 4. 164; Plin. 26. 66. 8 of. C.P. 4.6, 9. 

7 W. adds 8 after adrdv. The treatment of the leaves has 
perhaps dropped out. ef. Plin. /.c. (’s version is even shorter. 
8 uéAaiva must here mean ‘ dark,’ t.e. red. See Index. 

T 2 




Tav dé ABavoridwr, ovo yap elo, y pev 
dKxapTos % O€ KapTrLuos, u} Mev KaL TO KAPTO Kal 
TO Purr Xenoipwn a be {Ovov TH pity. KaNELT AL 
be 6 O KapTros KaX pv. éyer dé — TO [ev purRov 
€0LKOS cedivy Edel petCov & € WoAv, KavAOoV be 
péyeBos TIXEOS 7) ji i peiboo, pilav b& peyadnv Kai 
maxelay heveny bfovcap OoTEp ALBavwrod, Kap- 
qov oé€ evicov Tpax vv TpopnKn’ pverat bé pd- 
Mora Otrov av avyunpa Xepia n Kal TETPOON” 
xensinn O€ 1) MeV pifa 7 pos Te Ta eden Kal pos 
Ta yuvarKeia TLVvOMEVN év olv@ avaTnp@ pehavi- 
0 oe KapTos Tpos Te Tas oT payyoupias ral 7 pos 
Ta WTA Kal dpyepa kat Tpos odGarpias Kal date 
yara yuvaréiv € eum ately, 

‘H 6é aKxapTos exer TO puAXov Gpovov Opida- 
pifav dé Bpaxetav. puerar dé OmouTrep épetcn 
THrELOTY. by vara be a fifa KaSaipery Kal ave 
Kal KAT" TO pev yap TPds THY BAdoTHY ava, TO 
dé mpos THY yhv Kato: Ko@dveL O€ Kal eis (waTLa 
TuUWenévn TOS ohTas. auAXEyeTAaL O€ TrEpl TrUpO- 

XII. Xapairéwy 6é 0 pév AevKos Oo Sé péXdas: 
ai O€ duvapers TOV pil@y Kal avTal Sé ai pitas 
Tots eldece didopot. Tob pev yap even Kal 
mayeta Kal yAuKELa Kal oo pny éxouca Bapetav: 
Vpynotwov S€ pact TpOs TE TOUS povs, OTav éEnO7 

1 Diose. 3. 74; Plin. 19. 187. 

2 cf. Plin. 24. 99 and 101. 

ef. 7: 6.23 OSG: 

4 Grovmep épeixn conj. Dalec. etc. from Diose. l.c.; érovmep 
elpnrat Ald.H.; émdre épelxn U*. 


—— = rr ey 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. x1. 10-x1. 1 

Of the two herbs called libanotis, 

1Of the plants called libanotis, (for there are two) 
one is barren, the other fruitful, the latter having 
both fruit and leaves that are serviceable, the former 
only a serviceable root. The fruit is called hakhry.? 
This plant has a leaf like marsh celery, but much 
larger, a stem a cubit long or more, a large stout 
white root, which smells like frankincense, and a 
white rough elongated fruit. It grows chiefly wherever 
there is parched and rocky soil; the root is serviceable 
for sores, and for diseases of women when given in a 
draught of dry black wine. The fruit is good for 
strangury, for the ears, for ulcers* on the eye, for 
ophthalmia and for producing milk in women. 

The barren kind has a leaf like that of the bitter 
lettuce, but rougher and paler; the root is short. It 
grows where there is abundance of heather.t. The 
root can purge both upwards and downwards, the 
upper part being used for the former, that nearer 
the ground for the latter purpose. Also, if it is put 
among clothes, it prevents moth. It is gathered at 
the time of wheat-harvest. 

Of the two kinds of chamaeleon, 

XII. Of chamaeleon there is the white kind and 
the dark; the properties of the roots are different, 
and the roots also differ® in appearance. In the one 
case the root is white stout and sweet, and it has a 
heavy smell; they say that when cooked it is 
serviceable against flux; it is chopped up like 

5 Diose, 3. 8; Plin. 22. 45 and 46, who explains the name 
(mutat cum terra colores). See Index. 

8 Siapépovoa conj. W.; Siapéper U; diapepovar 5¢ M; didpopov 



a / c \ > / bP] 
catatpnbecioa Kabdarep padhavis évepopérn é&h 
e / \ \ \ \ a 
id > / / / > A 
étav actadgiba tpopayn tive émiEsovta TavTHv 
cA >] 4 > 7 > A > a \ \ 
daov o€vBadov év olvm avoTnp®. avatpel Sé Kal 

4 \ nr 7 \ > > “4 > a 
KUva Kal obv: Kiva pEeV ev addiTols avapupabeioa 
\ > / \ e a \ \ € / 
peta édaiov kat boaTtos, oby Sé peta padaver 

a \ - 
pepurypévn TOV dpelwv. yuvackl dé SidoTai év 
, KA Yj a 
Tpuyl yAuKela 1) €v olv yruKel. Kal édav Bovrn- 
tat tis aaGevodvtos avOpwTov diatreipacbar ek 
/ 7 an 
Bi@otpos, Novelty KEdNEVOVTL TpeEls Huépas, KaV 
4 \ e 
mepteveyKn Biociuos. vera S€ opoiws mayta- 
a . faa - 3 \ , if 4 a 
xvod, Kal Eyer TO PUAAOY OMoLloy TKOAVML@ peor 
\ a A \ 
dé avTo O€ pos TH yn Twa Keharhny exer aKxavo- 
a / € \ \ a 
evo peyarny, ot O€ Kal akavoy KaXodow, 
¢ \ / A \ 4 , 
lal \ v \ BA \ / 
p@des yap Eyer wAnVY EXaTTOv Kal NeELOTEpo?, 
> \ 3 ef ’ \ ef / e \ 7 
avtos & 6Xros éotiv WoTeEep cKiddiov, 4 Sé pita 
maxela Kai pédaiva OLappayetoa Sé trdEavbos. 
“~ \ \ > ‘ 
xopia O& girel uypa Kal apya: Svvata Se 
hérrpav te éEeXavvew év d€er TprBopevos Kal Evo- 
\ > , \ > \ ¢ 4 > a 
Gels émraderpopevos Kal aGXpov woavTwS' avatpeEl 
5é kal tods Kbvas. 
»” J 
Myxwves 8 eioly aypiat mreiovs: 1 ev KEpa- 
a , / - \ A ¢ 

. of. 3.98 

2 cf. Pseudo-Diosc, 4. 175 and Index. 

3 &xavoedy conj. Sch.; Kxovoe:d_ U*; xwvoeid} mP; dolar 
éxavo PAld. 

4 $¢ after thy om. Sch.; ? twa Kreparhy W. 




radishes? and the pieces strung on a rush; it is also 
good against the broad maw-worm; the patient first 
eats a bunch of raisins and then drinks about an 
eighth of a pint of this scraped up in a draught of 
dry wine. It is fatal to dogs and pigs; to kill a dog 
it is well mixed up in a meal paste with oil and water, 
to kill a pig it is mixed with ‘mountain cabbage’ 
(spurge).2 It is given to a woman in sweet wine- 
lees or sweet wine. And if one wishes to discover 
whether a man that is sick will recover, they say 
that he should be washed with this for three days, 
and, if he survives the experience, he will recover. 
It grows everywhere alike and has a leaf like the 
golden thistle, but larger; the plant itself has a 
large thistle-like* head 4 close to the -ground ; some 
actually® call it the thistle. 

6 The dark kind resembles the other in leat, which 
is like that of the golden thistle but smaller and 
smoother ; the plant itself is in general appearance 
like a sunshade; the root is stout and black, and 
when broken is yellowish. It likes cold uncultivated 
soil: it has the property of expelling leprosy; for 
this it is given pounded up in vinegar, or else 
scrapings of it are made into a plaster ; and it is also 
used for the white leprosy. This plant is also fatal 
to dogs.’ 

Of the various plants called ‘poppy.’ 

8 There are several kinds of wild poppy: the one 
called the horned poppy is black: the leaf of this is 

5 3 nal axavoy I conj. ; 8 &kavOavy U*mPar., so also Diosc. 
l.c.; & &kavov PAI.G. 

6 Diose. 3. 9; Plin. de. 

7 xbvas : Kuvoppateras, dog-ticks, conj. Reinesius from Plin. 
Ticmnos canUmM. 

8 Diose. 4. 64; Plin. 20, 205 and 206. 



Ep propou THS peraivns aTTOV dé péXap, TOD dé 
KavAOD TO irpos @s THxXUAILOD, piSa dé = maxeia Ka 
érimonXatos, 0 O€ KapTrOs Kap ddos OoTep Kepa- 
dé kabatpew KOUmiaV, TO O€ pudrov ape pea 7 po- 
Barous apatpetv. vera dé mapa OddatTap, ob 
av 7 TET pwn xe@pia. 

‘Erépa b€ payor povas Kahoupern Tapopoia 
KUX opie TO ay ple, de 0 Kal er Oier au év Tots 
dpoupaious 6é puerat, MadoTa év Tals Kpais 
avOos & éxer épvO pov K@OvaV o donv ovuxa Tod 
Saxtvrov. ourréyEeTAaL O€ TPO TOD Jepio pod TOV 
Kida, eehenngntes dé parrov. Kabaiper Oé 

Erépa dé perjrcoov ‘Hpaxnreta Kaneirat TO mer 
prov exouca olov oTpov0os, @ Ta OOdvLa Dev- 
Katvoudt, piSav dé Newry erremrodauon, TOV dé 
Ka.pTrov NEVKOD. TAUTNS 7” pifa Kadaiper avo: 
Xpovrar d€ TLVES. mpos TOUS ETUHT TOUS év pede 
KpaT@. TavTa mev odv WaTrEp Oopwvupia Til 

XIII. Tov be pesav Kal év Tots _ Xupois ai 
diahopat Kal év tabs oopais: ai bev yap. eiot 
SpLpecar ai d€ mixpal at oe yrunetat, Kab at pev 
eVoopot at dé Bapetar. yAvKEla pev } TE VU“paia 
Kanovpevn hvetar & év Tails Aipvats Kal ev Tots 
Edwdecwv, olov év Te TH Opyopevia cai Mapalan 

1 Soemep kepdtiov conj. W.; damep xepas UM ; S0mep tay Kepa- 
they U* Ald, 

2 Diose. l.c.; Plin. 19. 167-169. 

3 Diose. 4. 66; Plin. 20. 207,’ef. 19. 21. 



like that of the black mullein, but it is not so black ; 
the stem grows about a cubit high, the root is stout 
and shallow, the fruit is twisted like a little horn}: 
it is gathered at the time of wheat harvest. It has 
the property of purging the belly, and the leaf is 
used for removing ulcers on sheep’s eyes. It grows 
by the sea, wherever there is rocky ground. 

2 Another kind of poppy is that called rhozas, 
which is like wild chicory, wherefore it is even 
eaten: it grows in cultivated fields and especially 
among barley. It has a red flower, and a head as 
large as a man’s finger-nail. It is gathered before 
the barley-harvest, when it is still somewhat green. 
It purges downwards. 

8 Another kind of poppy is called Herakleca : it has 
a leaf like soap-wort, with which * they bleach linen: 
the root is slender and does not run deep, and the 
fruit is white. The root of this plant purges upwards : 
and some use it in a posset of mead for epileptics. 

’ These kinds then are distinct plants, though they 
come under one name. 

Of roots possessing remarkable taste or smell. 

XIII. The differences between roots are shown in 
their tastes ° and in their smells: some are pungent, 
some bitter, some sweet : some again have a pleasant, 
others a disagreeable smell. The plant called 
yellow water-lily“ is sweet: it grows in lakes and 
marshy places, as in the district of Orchomenus, at 

4This appears to refer to orpovOds, not to ‘HpakAela, as 
Plin. takes it. cf. 6. 4. 3 and Index, orpové:oyr (2). 

5 de. pois and ‘Hpaxdela are popularly called ‘ poppies.’ 
éuwvupla tiv Conj. W.; dudvupa tia Ald.; dudvupa tim U*. ef. 

. 15. 4. 
; 6 xvpuois conj. Sch.; xuAots Ald, Plin, 25. 75. 




kat mept Kpntny: xarodor 8 avrny oi Bovwrol 
padcovdiv Kal TOV Kear ov eo Biovew. éyer 58 TO 
pudrov peya éml tov bdaros: civat 6€ hac 
laxarpov, éav Tpipas Tis éml THY TANYHY émr10 7 
vpnaiun S€ Kai Tpos SucevTepiay ivoméevn. 
Drvecia 5é nai 4 SKvOixn: Kat éviot 6é Kadod- 
aw ev0vds Yrucelav aur ny yiverae dé epi THY 
Madre vpnoiun dé ™ pos Te Ta doOpara Kal 
™ pos THY Biya Enpav Kab Shas TOUS mepl TOV 
@paka movous® ere dé mpos Ta Eden év pérere 
dvvarat be Kal THY Sipay maveww, éav Tus ev TO 

OTOMATL éyn* 60 o- TANT Té Kab TH inmaxh 

Sidyew gaci tods SKVOas *yépas nat &bexa Kat 

["H 8e aptaTohoxia TH ooppraer pev eo 0s TH 
bé yevoes TK pa opddpa TH Xpoug bé pérawva. 
pverau dé €v Tois Gpecwv 1) Bedriory purrov be 
exer Tporepepes TH arcivy ™ ayy aTporyyuno- 
Tepov' xpnoiun Oe ™ pos TONG, Kal apiarn T pos 
Keparhs ayady de Kal ™ pos Ta adra Ed«M, Kal 
pos Ta épmerd Kal Tpos UTvoV Kal ™pos vorépav. 
Ta pféev GUY Tpocdyew KEerEvOVEL év BdaTL ava- 
Sevoavta Kal KatamAatTTovTa, Ta dé adXa eis 
pers évEvoavta Kal édatovy mpds Sé Ta TOV 
éptretav év olv@ ofivn mivew kal érl TO Ofypa 
erumAaTTe’ eis Urrvov 5é év olvm pédave avaTnPe 
kvicar éav 8 ai pAtpat mpoTécwot, TO VOaTt 
amox\veuv. | 

1 Diose 3. 5; Plin. 25. 82. 

® yAuxelav : yAvadppifay conj. Dalec., whence ‘liquorice.’ ef. 
Plin. 11, 284. 

® cf. Plin. l.c., who took iraakh to be a plant, 



Marathon and in parts of Crete: the Boeotians, who 
eat the fruit, call it madonais. It has a large leaf 
which lies on the water: and it is said that it acts as 
a styptic if it is pounded up and put on the wound: 
it is also serviceable in the form of a draught for 

1<Scythian root’ (liquorice) is also sweet; some 
indeed call it simply ‘sweet-root.’? It is found 
about Lake Maeotis: it is useful against asthma or a 
dry cough and in general for troubles in the chest : 
also, administered in honey, for wounds: also it has 
the property of quenching thirst, if one holds it in 
the mouth: wherefore they say that the Scythians, 
with the help of this and mares’ milk cheese? can go 
eleven or twelve days without drinking. 

*(Birthwort is fragrant to the smell but in taste is 
very bitter: in colour it is black. The best grows 
on the mountains: it has a leaf like alsine, but 
rounder: it is useful for many purposes, and is best 
for sores on the head ® and other sores, also for bites 
of reptiles, for inducing sleep and for disorders of 
the womb.® It is directed that it should be applied 
as a plaster, steeped in water, and for the other 
purposes should be given shredded into honey and 
olive-oil: for snake-bites it should be taken in sour 
wine and also used as a plaster on the bite : to induce 
sleep it should be scraped up? and administered in 
black dry wine ; in cases of prolapsus uteri a lotion of 
it mixed with water should be applied. |] 

4 Diose. 3. 4; Plin. 25. 95. This section is repeated 9. 20. 4. 
with considerable variations: that seems to be its proper 
On dena conj. W.; Kepadhy Ald. cf. § 20, xepadrd@dacra. 

8 jorépay con}. W., ef. below, éay 5é ai uArpa x.7.A. and the 
duplicate passage § 20; érepa MSS. 

? «viva: conj. W.; xvicas U* Ald. 8 



Adtau péev ody yduKeiar. adrav Oé TeKpal, ai 
dé Bapeiar TH yevoe. yivovrar Oé TiwWes TaV 
yYAvKELoY ai pev ExoTaTikal, KaOaTreEp 4 Opoia TO 
oxorvpu@ rept Téyear, tv cal Ldvdevos 0 avéprav- 
ToTroLos hayov épyalouevos év TH iepo e&éorTn. 
at 6€ Oavarndopot, xabarep 4 wept Ta péradra 
év Tots Epyous Tols é€v Opaxn: Kovdn Sé Kal Hocia 
Tavu Th yevoe Kal Tov Odvatov brvedn twa 
jTowovoa Kal éhappov. exovar b€ Kal Tols Ype- 
pace Suapopas oU TO NEVK@ Kal pérave Kal EavO@ 
povov, aXXrX evar Kai oivoypates, ai & épvOpai, 
Kadamep % Tod épevOedavod. 

‘H 5€ rob mevtadvrXrov 7) TevTatreTovs, KaXOvOL 
yap audotépws, dputtouévn épv0pa Enparvopéevn 
dé pérawa yiverat Kal tetpdywvos: exer O€ TO 
vrAXov Warrep oivapov puxpov dé Kal THY ypoLay 
dpovov: Kab avEdverat Kai POiver dua TH apTéro: 
mdavra o€ TévTe TA HUANG, Ov 0 Kal 4 Tpoenyopia: 
Kavndous O€ eri yhv thou AeTTOUS Kal KYHpAS EXEL. 

To dé épevOedavoy PvdAXOV Guotov KITT TWAIV 
aTpoyyvrotepov' dvetar & él ys womep aypo- 
atts, piree S€ Taricxia ywpia. ovpyntixy dé, dv 
0 Kal Yp@vTaL Tpos TA THs dodVvos aXynuaTa Kal 
Tpos Tas layidoas. 

"Eviat 66 tdtopophot tives, OoTEp 7} Te ToD 
oKopTiou Kadoupévou Kal 7) TOU ToAVToOoiOV. 7 

1 These words shew that §3 is out of place. 

2 cf. CO. P. 6. 4. 5. 

3 4 conj. Sch.; af U*Ald. 

4 éy tots Epyois trois W. from U*, ? a gloss on péradda. 
ra per. Ta ev @. Ald. H. 

5 Plin, 25. 139. 




1These then are sweet : other roots are bitter, and 
some unpleasant to the taste. Of those that are 
sweet ? there are some that cause mental derange- 
ment, as the plant like the golden thistle which 
grows near Tegea: of this Pandeios the sculptor ate, . 
and went mad while he was working in the temple. 
Others have fatal effects, as that? which grows near 
the mines in the fields of * Thrace: this however is 
inoffensive and quite sweet to the taste, and the death 
which it causes is easy and like falling asleep. There 
are also differences in colour, not merely as to being 
black or white or yellow, but some are quite wine- 
coloured and some are red, as the root of madder. 

5 The root of pentaphyllon or pentapetes (cinquefoil) ° 
(for the plant bears both names) is red when it is dug 
up, but as it dries it becomes black and square: its 
leaf is like a vine-leaf, and it is small and like it in 
colour: it grows and fades along with the vine. It 
only has five leaves in all, whence its name: it sends 
out long slender stems on the ground, and it has 

8 Madder has a leaf like ivy, but it is rounder: it 
grows along the ground like dog’s-tooth grass and 
loves shady spots. It has diuretic properties, where- 
fore it is used for pains in the loins or hip-disease. 

Some roots are of peculiar shape, as that of the 
plant called ‘scorpion-plant’ (leopard’s bane)? and 
that of polypedy. For the former is like a scorpion 

6 reytametovs conj. Sch.; wevramérov UAld.; mrevremérou M 
U*. cf. Diosc. 4, 42. 

7 Kal nvqwas éxer U*; rar xv. &. muxvas Ald.; Kal xvicas %yxer 
muxvas UM. ef. roddnvnuos, Diosc. 3. 94. Text probably de- 
fective, as nothing is said of the plant’s medicinal use. 

8 Diose. 3. 143; Plin. 19. 47. 

9 of. 9. 18. 2. 



. / / , \ 

Mev yap omoia oxopti@ Kal xpnotun 5é mpos THV 

\ > a \ \ BA > » e be a 


/ a wee / ce 

ToAvTodlou daceia Kal Exovca KoTVANSOVaS, Wo- 

e rn 4 / / \ 

Tep ai TOU ToAUTTOOOS TAEKTdVal. Kalaiper SE 


Kato: Kav Tepidyyntat Tis ov hacw éupver bat 

/ ” \ 7 zd a / a 

monvTrouv. exer O€ HVAAOV Suolov TH WTEplos TH 
peyarn Kal dverar év Tals jwéTpais. 

XIV. lacey Sé trav pilav ai pev Treo 
xpovov ai oe éddtTw Stapévovow. 6 pev yap 
b] f \ / 4 / e \ 
e\N€Bopos Kal tTpidkovta &Tyn xpyowmos, 9 Sé 
> , / x ow / \ € A 
apistoroxia wévte H EF, yaparéwy Sé o pédas 
TeTTapdkovta, Kevtavpis be Séea 1 Seadexa’ 

, nO) ue. F \ f , x 4 
mieipa O€ 7) pita Kal muKvy mevKédavoy Sé TéVvTE 
xn wo > A be > / > / >\ > a % 
h &&, apmérou b€ aypias éviauTov, éav ev oKLG H 
Kal atwAnKTOS, && S€ wH, Campa Kal coppwdns: 
addrrar S€ aArAdous Exovoat’ ypovouvs. Tavtav SE 
dws TOV PappdKav TrEioTOV Stapévet YpovoV TO 
éXaTnplov, Kal TO TaXaLOTATOY AploTOV. ‘taTpdos 
S obv tis éXeyev ovK aralov ovdé WevaTns ws ein 
Tap avT@ kat Siaxociwy érav Oavpactoy dé TH 
apeTh, Sodvar O€ avT@ Tiva S@pov. aitia dé THs 
KpPOVLOTHTOS 1) VypoTys* Sia yap TAaUTHY Kal OTaV 

/ , > / ¢ / \ 70? A 
Kowwor tiWéace eis Téppav vypov, Kai ovd as 

/ / > » PD , , , 
yiverar Enpov, aN aypt TeVTHKOVTA éTaV aPReEv- 
vuol TpoTayopevov Tos AVXVOUS. act dé “ovo 

1 cf. the mediaeval doctrine of ‘ signatures.’ 

2 Diosc. 4. 186. 

3 ss ob conj. Sch.; tis ds Ald.; ris UM; tis és U*. 
4 Plin. 27. 143. 5 of. 9:8. 7. 6 cf 9, 20. 3. 
7 &rAnntos: ? by worms. ef. &«omos. 


—————e———— ee — 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xin. 6-x1v. 2 

and is also useful! against the sting of that creature 
and for certain other purposes. * The root of polypody 
is rough and has suckers like the tentacles of the 
polyp. It purges downwards: and, if one wears it 
as an amulet, they say that one® does not get a 
polypus. It has a leaf like the great fern, and it 
grows on rocks. | 

Of the time for which roots can be kept without losing their 

XIV. #Some roots keep a longer, some a shorter 
time. Hellebore retains its usefulness for as much 
as thirty years, birthwort five or six, the black 
chamaeleon for forty, feverwort > (whose root is thick 
and compact) for ten or twelve. Sulphur-wort keeps 
five or six years, the root of the ‘ wild vine ’ ® (bryony) 
. for a year, if it be kept in the shade and not 
damaged :’ otherwise it rots and becomes spongy.® 
Others keep for various periods. But, to speak 
generally, of all plants used as drugs the ‘driver’ ® 
keeps longest, and, the older it is, the better it is. 
At least a certain physician, who was no boaster nor 
liar, said that he had some which was 200 years old 
and of marvellous virtue, and that it was a present 
to him from some one. The cause of its keeping so 
long is its moisture: 1° for to secure this, as‘soon as 
they have cut it, they put it among ashes without 
drying it, and not even so does it become dry, but 
up to fifty years it will put the lamp! out if it is 
brought near it. And they say that alone of all 

8 goupwdns conj. Sch.; coyxdhns Ald. H. 

® A manufactured drug. cf. 9.9. 4. 

10 Diose. 4. 150; Plin. 20. 5. 

1 Avxvovs conj Sch.: so Vin.Cod.Cas.GPlin, /.¢.3 abxuods 
U*Ald.; xpévovs UM. 



}) pardtota vTrépiwwov avo Tov TOV dapyaKov: 
avTn mev ody tdLdTHS TLS SUVapEwS. 

Tay o€ pilav doar wev yAvKUTYTA Tiva ExovEL 
EvpBaivee Opimndéotovs yiverOar ypovifopévas, 
doar dé Sptpeiatr, TOOTO péev pur) TaTXELY Apaupod- 

> an 
cla & avtTav tas duvdpers pavovpévwv Kal 

/ fal Ds oF i, ” \ > \ 
Kevoupevov. TtaVv oO &Ew Onpiwy arXro pev ovder 
c £7, / ¢€ x / n 
amtetat pi€ns dpimetas, 7 d€ shovdvAn Tacav: 
ToUTO ev ovv ioLov THS TOV Gwov hicews. 

a / / 

Iladcav dé yeipw yiverOar pifav, éav éaon Tis 
TedeiwOjvar Kal adpuvOfvat Tov KapTov' wcav- 
Tws 6€ Kal TOV KapTroV, €av OTions THY pi€av" ws 
> \ \ \ \ e / > > 7 
éml TO ToAU O€ at happaxw@dbets ovK omiCorvTat, 
ov 0 av Ta oméppata dappaxwdyn, adtas 87 
] , an / / lal a 
omifovtar' xphnobar Sé Tiwwés hact padXrov Tals 

€ al 
pi€aus, OTe toxyupotepos 0 KapTros WoO’ bTrEvEyKeEtV 
\ lal , \ > ae ee a > 
TO o@pa. daivetar dé ov Kal OdoU TOUTO aX7- 
> n 
Oés: émet kai ot ev “Avtixipa tod onoapwdous 
[éAreBopov] didcacw, [bts 0 Kapios Gmotcs on- 

cape |. 

, \ a = , 

XV.. Dappaxewders O€ Soxodow eivar romot 
pdritota Tov pev &&m THs “EXAddos of wept THY 
Tuppyviav cal thv Aativny, év 4 Kai THY Kipreny 

> , \ » val , ¢c / , 
elvat Néyouolw Kal ETL MAAXNOV ye, ws“ Opnpos 

1 Plin. 27. 143. 

2 7.e. not engendered in the root. 

® A beetle? cf. Arist. H.A. 5. 8. 

4 This section is omitted in U*. Plin. 27, 144. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xiv. 2-xv. i 

drugs, or to a greater degree than any, it effects a 
thorough purge upwards: this then is a virtue 
peculiar to it. 

Those roots which contain any sweetness become 
worm-eaten in course of time, but those that are 
pungent are not so affected, though their virtues 
diminish as they become flabby and waste away. 
1No creature coming from without? touches a 
pungent root, but the sphondyle? attacks them all; 
this then is a peculiarity of this creature. 

4Any root, they say, deteriorates if one lets the fruit 
grow to maturity and ripen: and so in like manner 
does the fruit, if you drain the root of its juice: and 
in general roots with medicinal properties do not have 
the juice of their roots taken, and only those whose 
seeds are medicinal are thus treated. But some say 
that they use the roots for choice, because the fruit 
is too powerful for the human body to be able to bear 
it. However this does not appear to be true as a 
universal rule, seeing that the people of Anticyra 
administer > doses of the drug® sesamodes made 
from hellebore, which is so called because its fruit is 
like sesame, 

Of the localities which specially produce medicinal herbs. 

XV. The places outside Hellas which specially 
produce medicinal herbs seem to be the parts of 
Tyrrhenia and Latium (where they say that Circe 
dwelt), and still more parts of Egypt, as Homer says: 

5 7.e. and it is in this case the frwt which is used. The 
drug in question, as well as the plant, was called oncamocidés 

or onoapoedhs. cf. 9.9.2n.; Diosc. 4. 149. 
6 Or (if éAAeBdpouv is sound) ‘ of the sesame-like hellebore,’ 

ze. he ‘black.’ étt...onoduw I have bracketed, as a 
gloss on ongauédous: €AAcBdpov is probably also a gloss. 

VOL. Ii, U 


pynot, Ta Tepl Aiyutrtov éxeiOev yap THv ‘EXévnv 
dyat ha Beiv “éc—Xa td of Lorvdapuva Tm Opev 
Oavos TapaKorres Aiyumrin: 700 Trelo Ta pvet 
Fei Sopos dpovpa ddppaxa, Toa jev eoOha 
TETUYMEVa TONG dé huypa.” av on Kal TO 
vntrevOes éxetvo dnow eivar Kal adyoXov, boTE 
AnNOnv Trovety Kal amdQevavy TOV KaKoV. Kal 
oxedor avTaL ev eoiKacLY WoTrEp UTO TOV TOLN- 
TOV umodedeiy Oat. kal yap Aiaytros év tais 
ENEYELALS WS TodupappLaxov ever THV Tuppyviar: 
rs Tuppnvov yevedy, pappaxorovoy éOvos.” 

Oc dé toms mares TOS paivovrar METEKELY 
TOV hapudKov, ANA {TO HaNov Kal HTTOV oLa- 
pépew" Kal yep ol Tpos a apKxtov Kal peonpBptav 
Kal ot Tpos dvaTonas éxougr Oavpacras Suvdpers. 
év Ai@iotria yap 7 TOUS dia TOUS xplover pita Tis 
eoTL davarndépos. év b€ YKvOas airy Te Kal 
erepau TAELOUS, al pev Tmapaxphpa aTANAATTOVE aL 
TOUS T poo everyKapevous, ai o év ovous at pev 
ératToow ai & ev TAcloow, Got évious KaTa- 
pOivew. év "Tvdois dé Kal érepa yer Teto, 
TEpLTTOTATA 5€, el7rep anni Aeyouvary, i} TE duva- 
perm TO alpa Svaxeiy Kat olov Umopevyew, kal 
maduy  ouvayouvca Kal T pos eau Tay eT LOT OMEDN, 
a& on pacw evpholar mpos Ta TOV Opidioy TaV 
Oavarnpopeov Snywata. 

Tepi de TH Opdany elvat bev Kal érépas ovK 
fad iaxuporatny de @S elmely THY loxatpov, 

vy On Aéyovow ot pev KevTnOeions THs prEBOs 

1 Od. 4. 221 foll. 
2 &v 5h conj. Sch.; wi 5) U*; év ofs 8) PAld. 




for thence he says! that Helen brought “things of 
virtue which Polydamna, the Egyptian wife of Thon, 
gave her; there the grain-bearing earth produces 
most drugs, many that are good, and many baneful.” 
Among these? he says was nepenthes, the famous drug 
which cures sorrow and passion, so that it causes for- 
getfulness and indifference to ills. So these lands 
seem to have been pointed out, as it were, by the 
poets. For Aeschylus too in his elegies speaks of 
Tyrrhenia as rich in drugs, for he tells of the “ Tyrr- 
henian stock, a nation that makes drugs.” 

It seems that almost all places take their share in 
producing drugs, but that they differ in the extent 
to which they do so; for the regions of the North, 
South, and East have herbs of marvellous virtue. 
Thus in Ethiopia there is a certain deadly root ® with 
which they smear their arrows. And in Scythia there 
is this and there are also others, some of which kill 
at once those who eat them, some after an interval, 
shorter or longer, so that in the latter case men have 
a lingering death. In India there are many other 
kinds,* but the most extraordinary,°® if they tell the 
truth, are these: there is one which has the power 
to make the blood disperse and as it were to put it 
to flight,® and another which collects it and draws it 
to itself; these they say were discovered as remedies 
for the bites of deadly serpents. 

In Thrace it is said there are fairly numerous 
other kinds, but that about the most powerful is 
‘blood-stancher,’? which stops and prevents the flow 

3 Somali arrow-poison, Index App. (27). 

4 yévn conj. Dalec.; uépy Ald. 

5 repittétata conj. W.; mepitrotarn Ald. 

6 2 add moeiv after bropevyerv. 7 Plin. 25. 83. 

u 2 


oi O€ Kal: a podpotépas Sat unbetans i loxew Kal 
Kove THD xvow. [TadrTa pev ody, aomep €i7r0- 
HED, eouKe dnXobv TO KoLvO?.| TaV pev ovv ew 
TOT@DV Ot pappaxwdvertaror ovToL. 

Tov &é rept THY ‘Edd dda TOT @Y pappanwde- 
CTATOV TO Te T7Acov TO ev Ocetraria Kal TO 
Tere0 prov TO &V EvBoig Kal 0 Llapvacos, ert b€ 
Kal 1) "Apkadia Kal 7) Aaxavier): Kal yap avuTaL 
pappaxwdes appotepar du’ 0 Kal of ye “ApKddes 
elo0acw avtl Tov pappaKoTroTety yadaxToToTEty 
meph TO €ap, OTaV ob orrol pddvora TOV TOLOUTOV 
purAdov aKpacoce: TOTE yap pappaKnwderrarov 
TO yada° mivovat d€ Boetov" Soxel yap TONU- 
vow@tatov Kal TauhaywoTatov eivat TavTwV oO 

Dieta dé map adtois 6 Te éhdEBopos apo- 
Tepos Kal 6 AevKdS Kal Oo pédXas: ETL O€ SadKoV 
Sapvoerdés KpoKdev, Kal iy éxetvou péev padavov 
dypiay Kanovet Tov 8 iaTp@Vv TLVES Kepaiv, Kal 
iy of pev adOaiapr é exeivor dé paraxny ayptav, Kal 
n apiaronox ta Kal TO oéoene Kab TO immoaéhwvov 
Kal TO TevKEdavov Kat 9H paxeva Kal 0 OT PUXVOS 
apporepos 6 te howixody éYwv TOV KapTroV Kal oO 

Dieta: 5€ Kal 0 aixvos o aypios, €E ov TO 
€XNaTPLOV owtiderar: Kal O TOU MarNos, ef ov TO 
immopdes” diptatov S€ TOUTO Trept Teyéav KAKELVO 
pardiata orovdabetar’ pvetar & éxet él mréor 

1 T omit raita. . . xowdy as apparently out of place and a 
duplicate of the last sentence of § 8. 
2 Plin. 25. 945 of. 4. 5. 2. 3 Plin. 25, 110. 



of blood, some say if the vein is merely pricked, 
others even if it is deeply cut into.! These then 
of the places outside Hellas are those that are most 
productive of drugs. | 

2 Of places in Hellas those most productive of drugs 
are Pelion in Thessaly, Telethrion in Euboea, Parnas- 
sus, and also Arcadia and Laconia, for both these 
states produce medicinal herbs ; wherefore the Arca- 
dians are accustomed, instead of drinking medicine, 
to drink milk in spring when the juices of such plants 
are at their best, for then the milk has most medi- 
cinal virtue. It is cows’ milk that they drink, since 
it appears that the cow eats more than any other 
animal and is more impartial as to what she eats. 

3 Both kinds of hellebore, the white and the black, 
grow in their country, and also carrot,* a saffron- 
coloured plant like bay; and a plant which the 
Arcadians call ‘wild cabbage’® (spurge) but some 
physicians kerais; also a plant called by some marsh 
mallow,® also birthwort hartwort alexanders sulphur- 
wort Herakleia, and both kinds of strykhnos,’ that 
which has a scarlet and that which has a black fruit. 

There also grow there the ‘wild cucumber’ 
(squirting cucumber), of which the drug ‘driver’ 
is compounded, and the téthymallos (spurge) of which 
hippophaés® is made; this is best about Tegea, and 
that kind is much sought after; it grows there in 

4 §adxov. This name recurs §8 and 9. 20.2. Text must 
be defective here: the epithets are unintelligible, and 
perhaps belong to another plant whose name has dropped 
out. See Index. 

5 ¢f. 9. 12. 1. and Index. 

6 GA@alay conj. Sch., cf. 9.18.1; ar6éay Ald. ef. Plin. 20, 222. 

7 of. 9. 11. 5. 8 of. 9.9 4; 9.14.1. 

9 inmopdes is elsewhere the name of a plant: ef. Diose. 4, 159. 
ef ob may be corrupt, or the text defective. 



amrelotov b€ Kat KadddNoTOV Peta Tepl THY 

‘H de Tavaxela ryiverau Kara TO TeTpatov Tept 
Vadida Kal TreloTn Kal apiotn. TO Oé padv 
mepl Pevedy wal ey TH Kuardijvp. pact & elvat 
Kal duotov ® 0 “Opnpos eipyxe, THY pev piSav 
éyov otpoyyohny T poo eupep?) Kpopve TO de Pur- 
Aov Opotov Kiddy xphoGar dé auT@ pos Te Ta 
arefipappara Kab Tas paryetas: OU punVv OpuTTEW 
y elvat Nader ov, @S “Opnpos pyou. 

To dé K@VELOY dpi Tov Tept Lobca Kai €v Tots 
puxporarous TOTOLS. yiverat b€ Kat év 77 Aako- 
Vik TA ToANa TOUT@D" Kal yap avrTn Torupap- 
paKos. év Axata be ) TE TpayaxavOa TOXM) 
Kal ovdeyv YELp@v ws ovovraL THS Kpnrucijs andra 
Kab TH Ores Kan wv: Kal SadKov repli tH Ia- 
Tpaikny Siapé por" TovTo O€ Deppavrexoy pucet, 
piSav dé EXEL pédavay. pverar dé Ta TONGA 
TOUT@Y Kal év TO Hapvacg | Kal mepl To Tené- 

“XVI, To dé di«Tapvov Wuov THS Kpyrns, Oav- 
pactov O€ TH Suvaper Kal T pos Trelo XpngLpwov 
pddora dé T pos TOUS TOKOUS TOY YUVALKOY. éoTl 
dé TO pev pudrov 7 a.p0,LOLOV TH Prnxot, éyer Oé€ 
TL Kal KaTa TOV xuhov empepes Ta O€ Krovi 
ANerTOTEpA. Xpavras dé Tots purrois, ov Tots 
KNwol ovdé TO KapTo: ypnowpmov Sé pos TOANA 
pev Kal adda, padtota Oé, WoTeEp édéxXOn, Tpds 

1 Plin, 25. 30-33. 2 xara conj. St.; «at Ald. H. 

3 Plin. 25. 151. 

4 Sodoa: cf. 9.16.8; Aodoa (a town in Arcadia) conj. Sch. 
(usually Aovdoo:), the other places mentioned being all in 



ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xv. 6-xv1. 1 

considerable abundance, but in greatest abundance 
and best about Kleitoria. | 

1 All-heal grows in great abundance and best in? 
the rocky ground about Psophis, moly about Pheneos 
and on Mount Kyllene. They say that this plant is 
like the moly mentioned by Homer, that it has a 
round root like an onion and a leaf like squill, and 
that it is used against spells and magic arts, but that 
it is not, as Homer says, difficult to dig up. 

3 Hemlock is best about Susa‘* and in the coldest 
spots. Most of these plants occur also in Laconia, for 
this too is a land rich in medicinal herbs. In Achaia. 
tragacanth® is abundant and is as good as that of 
Crete, it is believed, and even fairer in appearance. 
Daukon® again is excellent in the country about 
Patrai’ ; this is by nature healing, and it has a black 
root. Most of these grow also on Mount Parnassus 
and about Telethrion. So these plants are com- 
mon to several lands. 

Of the medicinal herbs peculiar to Crete. 

XVI. *But dittany is peculiar to Crete. This plant 
is marvellous in virtue and is useful for many purposes, 
but especially for women in child-birth, Its leaf is 
like pennyroyal, to which it also bears some resem- 
blance in taste; but the twigs are slenderer. They 
use the leaves, not the twigs nor the fruit: and the 
leaf is useful for many other purposes, but above all, 

Hellas. But Plin, 25. 154 has Susa: it can hardly be the 
Persian town. 

5 Plin. 13. 115. 

6 Repeated 9. 20, 2; ef. 9. 15. 5 and Index. 

7 Tatpaikhy conj. Sch., cf. 9.20.2; marpixhy Ald.; omapria- 
khv U*; omaprixhy MP; Patrensi agro G. 

8 Plin. 25. 92. 




Tas duo ToKias TOV YUvaKOY" 7) yap evtoKeiv pace 
Totelv 1) mavew ye TOUS TOvOUS omoRoyoupereas 
didorat dé mivew év Boart. omaviov bé éoru Kal 
y4e dXLryos O TOTOS 0 pépav, Kal ToDTOY at ayes 
EKVELOVTOL dia 70 _pirmseiv. annbes é pacw 
eivar Kai TO Tepl TOY Reddy, 6 ore payovoars é éTav 
Tofevd aot exBaNret, TO yey obv SixTapvov 
ToLOvTOY TE Kal ToLAUTAS EXEL Tas duvdpess. 

To 6é Yrevdodixrapvov TO pev hUAAO Gpovov 
Tois KA@vios O éXaTTOV TH Suvamet O€ TroAv 
Nevmrdpevov. BonOet pév yap kal TaUTd, xelpov dé 
TOA Kat do Gevéa repo. éoTL be ev0us év TO 
TTOMATL pavepa Tob Sux Tapvou ) Svvapus: Sia- 
Deppaiver yap amo ppod opodpa. reac be 
Tas deopidas év vadpOnke 7) Kandpuep ™ pos TO pA) 
aTrOTTVEty* do Devéarepov yap anomrvetc av. ré- 
youoe dé TWES os 1) pev pvaots pia 1) Tod SuK- 
Tapvou Kal ” TOU wpevdodixrapvon, d:a 8é TO 
ev evryelorépors pvecOar ToTroLs xEtpov yiver Bau, 
cabamep Kat ahha TONG TrElw TOUT@Y Kara 
TAS Ouvdpers. TO yap Sixtapvov iret yopav 

"Kore dé Kal Erepov SikTapvor o HoTEp Omevupor, 
oUTE TIV Oyu ovrE Thy Suva é éXov THY auTny* 
pudrov yap exe Gpocov croup Spi TOvS b€ KAO- 
vas petSous: ere dé THY Xpetay | Kat THY OvvapLD 
ovK év TOS AUTOLS. TOUTO pev ov, @oTrEp eréxOn, 
Oavpactoyv dua Kal idiov THs vycov. gaci oé 

1 éxBddAet conj.Sch.; éxBddArAew Ald. 

2 Plin. 25. 93. 

3 yapOn  conj Sch.; vapOnnldn i) U ; vapOnrtd: 7) M; vapOnee 
xa) Ald. 




as was said, against difficult labour in women; for it 
is said that either it makes labour quite easy or at 
least it confessedly makes the pains to cease: it is 
given as a draught in water. It is a scarce plant: 
for the region which bears it is not extensive, and 
the goats graze it down because they are fond of it. 
The story of the arrows is also said to be true,—that, 
if goats eat it when they have been shot, it rids 
them? of the arrow. Such then is dittany and 
such its properties. 

2¢ False dittany ’ is like it in leaf, but has smaller 
twigs, and in virtue is far inferior. For it is of 
service in the same ways, but is feebler and not 
nearly so powerful. The virtue of dittany is perceived 
directly it is taken into the mouth: for a small piece 
of it has a very warming effect. The bunches of it are 
put in the hollow stem of ferula? ora reed, so that it 
may not exhale its virtue: for, if it does so, it is less 
effective. Some say that dittany and ‘ false dittany’ 
are essentially the same plant, but that the latter is 
an inferior form produced by growing in places with 
richer soil; just as many other things* become 
inferior in their properties for the same cause. For 
dittany loves rough ground. 

*There is also another plant called ‘ dittany,’ 
though it has nothing in common with these except 
the name. This has neither the same appearance 
nor the same virtue; for its leaf is like bergamot- 
mint and its twigs are larger, and further its use and 
virtue are differently shewn. The true plant is, as 
was said, marvellous, and is also peculiar to the 
island of Crete. Indeed some say that the plants 

4 mAelw tovrwy Ald., probably a duplicate of &AAa moXra ; 
not represented in G ; aAdAosodTa: conj. W, 5 Plin.25. 94. 




tives OWS TOV hUAAWY Kal TOY dpodduver Kal 
e a a e \ a As 3 / , a 
aTAGS TOV vIrép yhs TA ev Kpnrn Stadépery, TOV 
NY mW n / ERE al n 
5€ A\XN@V TOV ye TELT TY TA Ev TO Ilapvac®. 
\ 8 b] / / \ Yee / \ 93> 
To 6 axovitov yiverar pev Kai é€v Kpntn kai év 
Zaxtv0w, trea Tov Sé Kal dpictov év “Hpaxreta 
fel , a 
Th év Ilovt@. Eyer 5é PvAAOY pev KLYOpLades, 
pifav S€ opoiavy TO oxHpaTe Kal TO Xp@maTL 
iS \ be Py 4 \ @ / > / 
Kapios, THY dé Sivauv THY Oavatndopov év TadTn’ 
\ \ 4 \ \ \ > / a 
To 6€ PUAXOV Kal TOY KapTrOoV ovOeV dace TroLety’ 
. , nw 
Kaptros 6€ éott TOas ovX UAnpaTos. Bpayela dé 
% Toa Kal ovdev EYOVTA TEPLTTOV, AANA Trapopoia 
a \ \ / > , / 
TO cit TO 6 oTrépua ov oTaxunpov. dveTtar dé 
a > a? / / 
TavTaxod Kal ovK év Tais Axkovats povoy, a’ ov 
exer THY Tpoonyopiav> avTn dé ote KON TLS TOV 
Ma an na be 4 \ , 
pravdvvev: diret Sé pddiota Tovs TeTpwders 
/ > / \ bd / ee 
TOTrouvs’ ov vémeTar O€ oVTE TPOBaToY ovT adXO 
lal / 
fdov ovdév. aovvtiPerPar S€ TpoTroy Twa Tpos TO 
> / \ > \ 3 x» A \ \ 
épyaberOar kal ov taytos eivar: 80 5 Kal Tovs 
latpovs ovK émictapévous cuvtTiOévat ontrTiK® TE 
a \ \ A ” / b] 
xpnobat Kai mpos adda atta: Twopevov § 
lal > 
ovdepiav aic@now Toety ovt ev olvm ovr év 
pedtKpato: avvTiPecOar Sé doTE KaTA ypovousS 
lal / 
TAKTOUS avatpely, olov.diunvov Tpiunvov éEdunvov 
éviavTov, Tovs dé Kai Svo etn yYeiptata 5é atran- 

1 dpodduvywy: this word seems to occur only here in T. 
Diose, 4. 76 and 77; Plin. 27. 9 and 10. 

3 Kaptd: conj. W.; kapfat U; rapa Ald, cf. Diose. /.c. 

4 of. 9: 821. 

5 Plin. 6.4, portws Acone veneno aconito dirus, Butin 27.10. 
he apparently did not recognise ’Axévais as a proper name, 




of Crete are superior in leaves boughs! and in 
general all the parts above ground to those of other 
places ; while those of Parnassus are superior to most 
of those found elsewhere. 

Of wolf’s-bane and its habitat, and of meadow-saffron. 

2 Wolf’s-bane grows in Crete and in Zakynthos, 
but is most abundant and best at Herakleia in 
Pontus. It has a leaf like chicory, a root like in 
shape and colour to a prawn,’ and in this root resides 
its deadly property, whereas they say that the leaf 
and the fruit produce no effects. The fruit is that of 
a herb,‘ not that of a shrub or tree. It is a low- 
growing herb and shows no special feature, but is 
like corn, except that the seed is not in an ear. It 
grows everywhere and not only at Akonai,® from 
whence it gets its name (this is a village of the 
Mariandynoi)®: and it specially likes rocky ground. 
Neither sheep nor any other animals eat it.’ In 
order to be effective it is said that it must be com- 
pounded in a certain manner, and that not everyone 
ean do this: and so that physicians, not knowing 
how to compound it, use it as a septic and for other 
purposes: and® that, if drunk mixed in wine or a 
honey-posset, it produces no sensation: but that it 
can be so compounded as to prove fatal at a certain 
moment which may be in two three or six months, 
or in a year, or even in two years: and that the 

and translates it in nudis cautibus, misled perhaps by tovs 
meTpwders Térovs below. 
~§ Mapiavduvéy conj. Meurs.; mepravddvwy U* Ald. H. 
7 U* adds here Bon@eiar 5& tots éveyxauévois eioi and omits 
§§ 5,6... eldévar, continuing moaddiaus yap pao) ra avdpdmoda, 
8 §¢ add. Sch, 



\ / 

Adtrew Tos év TrEtoTO Ypdve KaTadCivorTos 
TOU c@paTos, paota dé Tos Tapayphya. RvTI- 
\ \ / > e a / > 4 
Kov 6€ Pappaxov ovy evphalar, KaOadTrEp aKxovomev 
RE a 4 > \ \ > / > / 
éTépwv Te pvecPat. AAA TOUS éyywplous avace- 
fev Twas pédtTe Kal olvm Kal ToLovToLs Tiot, 
omraviws 6€ Kal TovTOUS Kal épywoas. 

"AXA Tod édnucpov TO dPdppakov evpjabat: 
4 / e/ Ss a 3 / > / 
étepov yap Tt pitvov eivas 0 ébypepov atradXaTTEL* 

a \ 4 4 64 Th oo , x lo 
TovTo dé dvAXOV Gpotov Exe TO EAXREBOPH 1) TO 

/ \ a / 3A 7 > A \ \ 

Aetpiw Kal TodTo mavras eidévar: Ov 0 Kal Ta 
aviparoéa hac moAdakis Tapopytcbévta ypi- 
cla, KaTrevTa iaTpevey aVTA TPOS TODTO OpuOVTaA, 

\ \ Oe a a @ \ > \ 
kal yap ovdé Taxeiav TovetoPai THY aTradrayny 
ovde €Kadhpayv adra Sucxeph Kal xpoviov: Ee pH 
dpa d:a TO evOepdmevtop eivat Kal axatacKevac- 
tov ws Oe? gaol yobv Kai mapayphywa arad- 

f \ e/ , \ \ \ > 
AaTrecOat Kal Uotepov ypdvw Ttods S€ Kal ets 
> ‘ v \ \ é , > fad / > 
éviauTov aye, Kal Tas Socers aBonOyTovs eivat. 

1 7.e. no herb having that effect. 

2 érépwy conj. Sch.; érepdy tt pvecOar UAId.H.; erepdy 
gudpevov conj. W. G seems to have had a fuller text. 

3 GAAG tous éyx. UM; GAAa tives Tots eveynapévos BonPera 
etpnvta tous yap éyx. Ald. H., which the indicative efpnyvra 
shews to be a gloss. 

4 rod épnuépov U; ra ed” jucpov M3; nal 7d ephuepov Ald. 
The passage about épfueporv, which interrupts the account of 
axdvitov, is confused, and the text probably defective ; trans- 
lation a makeshift. The sense of «i wh... ds Se? being 
perhaps irrecoverable, the connexion of what follows is 
obscured. W. gives up the passage. 





longer the time the more painful the death, since 
the body then wastes away, while, if it acts at once, 
death is quite painless. And it is said that no anti- 
dote ! which can counteract it has been discovered, 
like the natural antidotes to other? poisonous herbs 
of which we are told: though the country-folk * can 
sometimes save a man with honey and wine and 
such like things, only however occasionally and with 

(On the other hand they say that for meadow- 
saffron 4 the antidote has been found : for that there is 
another root which counteracts that herb:° and that 
it® has a leaf like hellebore’ or the madonna lily :* 
and that this® is generally known. Wherefore they 
say that slaves often take meadow-saffron when 
greatly provoked, and then themselves have recourse !° 
to the antidote and effect a cure,—seeing that the 
poison does not cause a speedy and easy death, but 1 
one that is lingering and slow,—unless indeed, 
merely because the cure is so easy,” the antidote 
has not been properly prepared.'® At least they 
say that though death may ensue at once, sometimes 
it only occurs after a considerable interval, which in 
some cases extends to a year, and that in these latter 
cases the dose given has incurable effects: and that 

5% éphucpov PH.; 6 epnuepatoy U; 6 eo’ tmepaiov M3; 6 odk 
épnucpov Ald, 

6 rotro 5¢ Ald.; révd_ 5¢ cat Us ravde Sé rat M. 

-7 7, the ‘black’: see Index. 
8 reiplp con. Guilandinus from Diose. 4, 84 (xply@); aipip 
Ald. H. ® roiro Ald.; Toto Bey 

10 After édpuavta UM add xa) robs oixéras én) Trodro dppay and 
omit Kal yap... Vavarnpdpar. 1 GAAad Ald.; ob8e U*. 

12 ei@epamevtov Ald.; d&bepdmevrov U*P. 

13 In which case apparently the slave outwits himself as 
well as his master by ‘ dying on him.’ 




A \ nr a 
tavta 5é éEaxpiBwOfvar paddLoTa Tapa Ttois Tup- 
a al € a 
pnvots Tos ev Hpaxreia. TodTo pév <odv> ovdév 
»” > / lA > / BA \ 
aTOTTOV, €b TpoTTOY péy TLVa aBonOnTov adrAXas é 
c/ lal > 
BonOnopov, dorep Kal Etrepa TaV Oavatnhopwr. 
To d€ adxovitov dypnoTov, daoTeEp eipntat, Tois 
OEE 4 “a yOe a @ be > a > \ 
Oavatov thv Enuiav: tHv 5& TOV xpovery Siadopav 
> a \ \ / bd / x 
axonrovleiy KaTa Tas TUANOYAS: icoypovoUs yap 
tous Oavdtovs yiverOat Tots amd THs TUAXNOY AS 
\V povols. 
3 e A 
Opacvas S 0 Mavrtiveds etpyxet te ToLodTor, 
¢ a 
@oTep EdXeyev, MaTE padiav Troveiy Kal Arrovoy THY 
amoAvaw Tols oTols Ypwmevos KwvEiov Te Kal 
/ \ \ e > rn e , 
opoopa Kat puxpov doov eis Spaypuns oArKHY. 
> / \ / \ 4 4 
aBonOntrov b&¢ mavtn Kal dvvdpevov Svapévew 
e a , \ xQ\ > vA 3 f 
oTOcOVvOUY xpovov Kal ovdéy adXNOLOUMEVOV. éAdp- 
\ \ , > a > , > 9.3 
Bave d€ To Kwvecov ovy SOev ETUyYaVEY AAW éx 
/ \ v 4 iL \ \ 
Lovowyv Kat el Tis aAXOS TOTOS AuXpds Kal Ta- 
NicKios' waavTws O€ Kal TaAXAa. cuveTiOer Sé 
Kal érepa dappaka toda Kal éx ToAA@Y. SeLvds 
\ , ee: | / e \ > a \ > ® 
5é xai “AreEias 0 pabnths abtod Kal oby rTov 
évTexvos éxelvou' Kal yap THs adANS laTpLKAS 

1 ody add. W. 
2 &xoAovdeivy kata conj. W.; dkoverw eivar card Ald. H.; d&xovetv 
elva: kal M. 



~~ ee ee 


these facts have been most carefully ascertained 
among the Tyrrhenians of Herakleia. Now! it is not 
surprising that in some circumstances the effects of 
the poison should be incurable, and yet in others that 
a cure should be possible, this being also the case 
with other deadly poisons.) 

To return—wolf’s bane, as has been said, is useless 
to those who do not understand it; in fact it is 
said that it is not lawful even to have it in one’s 
possession, under pain of death; also that the 
length of time which it takes to produce its effects 
depends on? the time when it is gathered; for that 
the time which it takes to kill is equal to that which 
has elapsed since it was gathered. 

Of two famous druggists and of the virtues of hemlock. 

Thrasyas of Mantineia had discovered, as he said, 
a poison which produces an easy and painless end ; 
he used the juices of hemlock poppy and other such 
herbs, so compounded as to make a dose of con- 
veniently small size, weighing only somewhat less 
than a quarter of an ounce. For the effects of this 
compound there is absolutely no cure, and it will 
keep any length of time without losing its virtue 
at all. He used to gather his hemlock, not just 
anywhere, but at Susa*® or some other cold and 
shady spot; and so too with the other ingredients ; 
he also used to compound many other poisons, using 
many ingredients. His pupil Alexias was also clever 
and no less skilful than his master, being also versed 
in the science of medicine generally. 

3 Soicwv MSS.; Aovowy conj. Sch. cf.9.15.8n. The men- 
tion of Mantineia makes it likely that a place in Arcadia is 



9 Tatra pev odv eiphobar Soxet TOAX@ padrov 
nr x , ao \ / \ n / 
vov 1) mpotepov. Ott dé Siahépes TO yYpHoOat 
e / \ b la) b] \ \ a 
TOS ExXaTT@ Phavepoyvy €xK TOANBY ETrEel Kal Ketor 
nA , , > ee fe) 
> ia) 4 e + a >] +309 XN a 
€ypovtTo, KaSdtep ot addotr viv & ovd’ av eis 
4 > \ / \ > / \ 
Tpiiretev, AANA TEepiTTicavTEs Kal aherovTEs TO 
fal \ 
Kédugos, TOTO yap TO THY Svayépelav TrapéxoV 
\ nA / a 
ef \ / \ > / >? 
ev / ef al \ , 
idwp Tivovow, WaTE TaxXElav Kal éNadpar yive- 
oOat THv aTradrayny. 
e la) 

XVII. ‘Azravtov 5€ tov hpappaxwr ai dvvapers 
aoGevéatepat Tots cuverOicpévois Tois b€ Kal av- 
a \ @¢ * 4 \ / > , 
evepyets TO OXov. Eviot yap €AXEBopoy éeaGicvtes 

\ id b] / , ev > \ 4 
TOALY WATE aVaNioKkelw Oé€apas OAaS ovdeY TAG- 
yovow: Omep éroies Kal Opacvas Sewvotatos wv 
e 207 \ \ ev an \ ay e 
@s edoKe TEpt Tas pitas. Trolodar 5é TODA ws 

fa) Si , a 
€orxe Kal TOV voyewy tives: du’ 6 Kal Tpds Tov 
happakoT@rnv tov Oavwalouevov ws Katnabte 
/ e 
pifav piav 7 dvo mapayevopevos 0 Towuny Kal 
> , ii4 \ 4 > / ’ / 
avarooas 6AXnv thy Sésunv erroincey addKimov* 
b] if 7 @ we. F , e / a val 
éNéyeto & OTe Kal” ExadoTHVv Hmépav TOovTO ToLeEl 
Kal avTos Kal ETEpot. 
/ \ 4 fal , a 
2 Kuwydvveter yap via Tov pappdKkoy TH aovvyn- 
Oecia happaka yiveoOar, taxa 5é adnbéotepov 
Q pe Y 9 TAN pP 

1 Buvoxarépyaotoy: of. C.P. 1 14, 4. 
2 Siarrhoayres conj. Hoffmann from G ; d:artjoavres Ald. H.; 
dinOnoavres U*¥mP. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvr. 9—xvit. 2 

Now these things seem to have been ascertained 
far better in recent than in former times. And 
many things go to shew that the method of using 
the various drugs makes a difference; thus the 
people of Ceos formerly did not use hemlock in 
the way described, but just shredded it up for 
use, as did other people; but now not one of them 
would think of shredding it, but they first strip off 
the outside and take off the husk, since this is what 
causes the difficulty, as it is not easily assimilated ! ; 
then they bruise it in the mortar, and, after putting 
it through a fine sieve,? sprinkle it on water and 
so drink it; and then death is made swift and 

How use diminishes the efficacy of drugs, and how they have 
not the same effect on all constitutions. 

XVII. *The virtues of all drugs become weaker 
to those who are accustomed to them, and in some 
cases become entirely ineffective. Thus some eat 
enough hellebore to consume whole bundles and 
yet suffer no hurt ; this is what Thrasyas did, who, 
as it appeared, was very cunning in the use of herbs. 
And it appears that shepherds sometimes do the 
like ; wherefore the shepherd who came before the 
vendor of drugs (at whom men marvelled because 
he ate one or two roots) and himself consumed the 
whole bundle, destroyed the vendor’s reputation : 
it was said that both this man and others did this 
every day. 

For it seems that some poisons become poisonous 
because they are unfamiliar, or perhaps it is a more ac- 
curate way of putting it to say that familiarity makes 

8 Plin. 27. 144, 

VOL. II. x 



cimelvy @S TH ouvnbeia ov ddppaxa: tpocde~a- 
f ‘ rf Y Y set \ he , p te D 
pévns yap Ths dvaews Kal KaTaKpatovans ovKETL 
ddppaxa, kabarep kal Opacvas éreyev: éxetvos 
yap ébn TO avTo Tots wev ddpyaxov eivas Tots S 
an X U 
ov ddppaxon, dtatpav Tas hvceis ExadoTwV* WETO 
yap deiv Kal jv dewvds Stayvovat. toret Oé Te 
a ¢ \ A 4 \ \ » ” 
dfjrov Ste pos TH Hvac Kal TO Eos. Evdnuos 
youv 0 dappaxoT@Ans evdokimav ohodpa Kata 
Thy Texvnv auVvOéuevos pndéevy teicecPar Tpo 
nHrtov dvvavTos KaTépaye péTpLov Tavu Kal ov 
/ PND > / 4 \ a ” 
Katéoxev ovd éxpadtncev. o 6€ Xios Evdnuos 
/ / > > / / v7 
miveov €dd€Bopov ovK éxaOaipeto. Kai Tote &py 
Mety év pud Hepa vO Kal EiKooL TOTES eV TH 
ayopa Kalnpevos él TOV oKEvoy Kal ovK e€ava- 
n \ n / / / > > \ 
oThvat Tpo Tov SeiAnv yevéoOar tote 8 & wv 
\ 7 \ A 4 >7/ \ > 
Kat Novoacba Kal Setrveiy M@oTrep ci@0er Kal ovK 
> / \ 2 / / / 
éFeuéoau' wAnV ovtos ye BonOeray Twa Tapa- 
oKevacdpevos KaTécxe KiconplLy yap émiTaTTOV 
t BIE Lee \ a ” \ \ € / f 
em’ d£05 Opimv trreivy py peta THY EBSOuNY Tocw,, 
Kal Tad votepov ev olv@ TOV AaUTOV TpOTTOY" THY 
dé THs Kiconpioos ovTws toyupay eivar Stvamuy 
b / / 
wot édav tis es TiOov Féovta <olvov> éuBdarn 
/ a 
mavew Thy Céow ov Tapaxphua povovy adda Kal 
oe / / n x4 » weed 
dAws KataEnpaivovedy Te OnAov OTe Kal avadexo- 
\ n an al 
peéevnv TO TvEeDMA Kal ToUTO dtieicay. ovTOS meV 
a / al 
ovv TO ye TWANGos TavTn TH BonOeia Katécyev. 
\ \ n 
"Oru 58 Kat TO 00s iaxupov pavepov éx TOAKOY" 

1 This story is quoted by Apollonius, Hist. Mirab. 50. 


poisons non-poisonous; for, when the constitution 
has accepted them and prevails over them, they cease 
to be poisons, as Thrasyas also remarked; for he 
said that the same thing was a poison to one and not 
to another ; thus he distinguished between different 
constitutions, as he thought was right; and he was 
clever at observing the differences. Also, besides 
the constitution, it is plain that use has something 
to do with it. At least Eudemus, the vendor of drugs, 
who had a high reputation in his business, after 
making a wager that he would experience no effect 
before sunset, drank a quite moderate dose, and it 
proved too strong for his power of resistance : ! while 
the Chian Eudemus took a draught of hellebore and 
was not purged. And on one occasion he said that 
in a single day he took two and twenty draughts in 
the market-place as he sat at his stall, and did not 
leave the place till it was evening, and then he went 
home and had a bath and dined, and was not sick. 
However this man was able to hold out because he 
had provided himself with an antidote; for he said 
that after the seventh dose he took a draught of tart 
vinegar with pumice-stone dust in it, and later on 
took a draught of the same in wine in like manger ; 
and that the virtue of the pumice-stone dust is 
so great that, if one puts it into a boiling pot of 
wine,” it causes it to cease to boil, not merely for 
the moment, but altogether, clearly because it has a 
drying effect and it catches the vapour and _ passes it 
off. It was then by this antidote that Eudemus was 
able to contain himself in spite of the large quantity 
of hellebore which he took. 

However many things go to show that use makes 

2 otvov add. Sch., of. Plin. 36. 42; 14, 138. 

x 2 


> \ : \ ee , \ \ > n / ¥ 
evel Kat TO arpivOvov Ta wev evTavla TpoBaTta ov 
/ 4 | an / 

pact tives véwerOa, Ta & év.t@ Llovt@ véwerau 

/ , 
Kal yiveTas TLOTEpa Kal KAAri@ Kai, @s bx TIVES 
Aéyoucwv, OVK EXOVTA YONHD. ara yap TadTa 

v , 

bev Etépas av Tivos ein Oewpias. 

XVIII. Ai 6€ pifat nat Ta bAnpaTa, KaSatrep 
yy \" 4 / > \ Sin oF. 
elpynTat, ToAAAS Exyouvar Svvdpers OV pos TA Ep- 

, / > \ \ \ \ 4 
Yuya copuaTa povoy adda Kal TPOS Ta arpvya. 
Néyouvot yap axavOdy Twa eivat i) THYyVUaL TO 
e > / 4 \ \ \ fel 
bdwp éuBardropévyn: myyvivar d€ Kai THY THs 
aOaias pifav, éav tis Ttpitvas euBadryn Kal OF 
bTraiOprov: exer 5é 4) adOaia PvAXrov pev Gporov 
A , \ a \ 5 Y \ So 
TH parayn TAHV pellov Kal OacuTEpoV, Tovs Ee 
\ / ba \ A \ > 
Kavrovs parakovs, avOos Sé prjrLvov, Kaptrov 
od a / e7 \ >] , \ n 
dmotov TH paraxn, piSav Sé ivddn AevKnY TH 
7 n e a 
yevoes O€ WoTTEp THS wadayNs 0 KaVAOS* KpoOvTar 
n \ nr 
dé avTH mpos TE TA pHyywata Kal Tas Bhyas év 
¥ n 2 Leng \ + ame 4 > / 
olv@ yAuKEl Kal emi TA EXKy EV Edai@. 
/ a 
‘Erépav 8€é tiva cuvewropuévny Tois Kpéact ovr- 
amgew eis TaVTO Kal olov mnyvivar: tas dé Kal 
e LA e / \ NM \ 
TavTa meV ev Tots arrvyots. 
To 6€ Onrvdovor, of S€ cxopTiov Kadovor Sia 
A \ e/ 4 /, 4 fal / > , 
TO THY pilav omoiay eye TO TKOPTILM, éTLEVO- 

1 ef. Plin. 27. 45. 
2 SAhwara: here a general term for shrubs and under-shrubs. 
cf. 9. 20. 6. 

3 Diose. 3. 146; Plin. 20. 84. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvi. 4—xvuit. 2 

much difference; ! thus some say that the sheep of 
some places do not eat wormwood; yet those of 
Pontus not only eat it but become fatter and fairer 
and, as some say, have no bile. But these things 
may be said to belong to a different enquiry. 

Of plants that possess properties affecting lifeless objects, 

XVIII. Herbs and shrubs,? as has been said, have 
many virtues which are shown in their effects not 
only on living bodies but on lifeless ones. Thus 
they say that there is a kind of akantha (gum arabic) 
which thickens water, when it is put in it; and that 
so also does the root of marsh-mallow if one shreds 
it and puts it in and stands the water in the open 
air. Marsh-mallow has a leaf like mallow, but larger 
and rougher; the stems are soft, the flower yellow, 
the fruit like that of mallow, the root fibrous and 
white, with a taste like that of the stem of mallow. 
They use it for fractures and for coughs in sweet wine, 
and for sores in olive-oil. 

4They say that there is another kind which, if 
cooked with meat, combines with it and as it were 
sets it hard ; and there are others that attract things 
to them, like the magnet or amber. So much for 
effects produced on lifeless things. 

Of plants whose properties affect animals other than man. 

5 Wolf's bane, which some call ‘ scorpion-plant be- 
cause it has a root like a scorpion, kills that animal 

4 Referred to by Apollon. Hist. AMfirab.41. ef. Diosc. 3. 147 ; 
Plin. 27. 42; 25. 67. 

5 Referred to by Ael. H.A. 9.27; Apollon. Hist. Mirab, 41. 
ef. Plin. 25, 122 (ef. 27. 6); Diosc. 4. 76. This is evidently a 
different plant to the cxoprios mentioned 9, 13.6. See Index. 

¢ 3°29 



Mevov atroKTeiver TOV cKopTriov éav Oé Tis éd- 
AéBopov RevKov KaTaT aon, mah aviorac Bat 
pacuv: dm Ove 88 kab Bods Kal mpoBara Kat 
vrotvyia Kab aT as may TeTpaTrouy éay eis TA 
aidoia TOR 4 pita i) Ta pvrArga avOnuepov" 
Xpyorwov b8 T pos oKopriov TANYHVY TLV OLEVOY. 
exer be TO pev PvAXOV Gpovov KuKapive THY bé 
pitay, w@aoTrep €X€EYVOn, cKopTri@. pvetar ¢ @ OoTEp 
a) aypwoartes Kal yovara éxeu pire’ dé | Xepia 
Koon. ei O€ adnOn Ta mepl TOV oKopTiov | 760 
kal Tad Xa, ovK anidava ta TolatTa. Kal Ta 
puv0@dn Sé ovK adoyws ovyKeitat. év bé Tots 
HmeTépors TOLATL xepts TOV TpOS bryelav | Kal 
voo ov Kal Oavarov Kal Tpos aha Suvduers é Exew 
pacly ov povoy TOV TomLaTLKaY adda Kal TOV 
THS Wuxs. . . 

XTX. IIpds 63" THY uxyy TOV pev aTPYXVOY 
@oTe Tmapaxwvety Kat e&totdvat, Kabatrep éhexOn 
TpoTepov, y) 6€ TOU ovoOnpa pita Sofeiaa é év oivep 
TpqgoTepov Kal (Napwrepov Tovet TO HO0s. exer 
dé 0 pev ovoO npas TO wev PUAXOV 6 Opovov apuvyoarh 
[Lux poTEpov 6é, To O€ avOos épuO pov @OTTEp pddov: 
avTos 6é péyas Odpuvos: pita dé épulpa Kab 
peyarn, oer bé avavbeians @omep oivou pirel 
be opewa Yo pia. paivera 5é ov TodTO droTov: 
olov yap tpoohopa tis yiverar Sivamw eyovtos 

1 ¢xoprig conj. W.; ckopriov Ald. 

2-18. 3, Aéyw 5& cwmuatixdy... 18, 11 (the account of the 
physical effects) is here omitted. 

w9. 18, S 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvin. 2-x1x. 1 

if it is shredded over him ; while if one then sprinkles 
him with white hellebore, they say that he comes to 
life again. It is also fatal to oxen sheep beasts ot 
burden and in general to any fourfooted animal, and 
kills them the same day if the root or leaf is put on 
the genitals; and it is also useful as a draught against 
a scorpion’s sting. It has a leaf like cyclamen, and 
a root, as was said, like a scorpion.! It grows like 
dog’s-tooth grass, and is jointed, and it loves shady 
places. Now if what has been told already about 
the scorpion be true, then other similar tales are not 
incredible. (Indeed fabulous tales are not composed 
without some reason).? And in relation to our own 
persons, apart from their effects in regard to health 
disease and death, it is said that herbs have also 
other properties affecting not only the bodily but 
also the mental powers. ... . 

Of plants possessing properties which affect the mental powers. 

XIX. As to those which affect the mind, strykhnos, 
as was said before,’ is said to upset the mental 
powers and make one mad; ‘while the root of 
onotheras (oleander) administered in wine makes the 
temper gentler and more cheerful. This plant has 
a leaf like the almond, but smaller,®> and the flower 
is red like a rose. The plantitself (which loves hilly 
country) forms a large bush; the root is red and 
large, and, if this is dried, it gives off a fragrance 
like wine. And this does not seem surprising, since 
there is a sort of ‘ bouquet’ given off by a thing which 
has the peculiar quality of wine. 

4 Diose. 4. 117; Plin. 26. 111. 
5 uipdtepov conj. W.; mxpdrepov UM ; rAaritrepoy Ald. (so 
also Diose, l.c.). G seems to have read paxpérepov. 




"ArXAA Tade einOéotepa Kal amiPaverepa Ta 
Te TOY TepladTT@Y Kal Odws TOV areELhapydKov 
a a / \ 
Neyouevwry TOls TE TOuacL Kal Tals olKiaIs. Kal 
as 8) dace TO TpiTddov Kal’ “Hatodov kai 
cal a a na / 

Movoaiov eis wav mpayya omovdaioy ypnotpmov 
\ / \ 
eivat, Ot 0 Kal dpvTTovow avTO VUKTwP oKNYIY 
a / \ 
mntdpuevol. Kal Ta Tept Ths evKeretas Sé Kal 
evdokias opoiws 7) Kal wadXov: evkrevav yap hact 
moleiy TO avTippwwov KaXovpevov: TovTO O Spoor 

fol € 
éott Th amapivyn pita Sé ovx bmeotw: o 6é 

/ a 
KapTos womep poayouv pivas exer. Tov 8 amo 
/ > / > a > a \ \ 
TovTou aderhopuevoy evdokeiv. evdokeiv bé. Kai 
éav Tis TOU éXELOYpvcoU TH avOEL oTEpavaTat 
pvp paivev é€x xpvoiov amupov. éxe Sé Oo 
/ \ \ + / 4 
éXetoxpuaos TO pev avOos ypucoedés, PUdAXOV 
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 
Sé Nevxov Kal Tov KavAov Sé AeTTOV Kal TKANPOV 
e/v¢y papa. / \ / n \ > fal 
pitav 5é érimoXatov Kat AeTTHVY. Yp@vTat dé avTO 
mpos Ta OakeTa €v Olv@ Kal TPOS TA TUPiKavoTA 
KataxavoavtTes Kal pléavtTes pméreTL. Ta peev 
a \ / 
obv towadta, Kalarep Kal mpotepov édéxOn, 
/ \ fa) 

cuvvavée Bovropévav éott Tas éavTav Téxvas. 
Ai &8é rév pilav Kal TOY KapTey Kal TOV OTaV 
dices émel jwoddas Exovet Kal twavtolas Suva- 

\ a a 

pets, Coat TavTO SvvavTat Kal TOY avTaY aitia, 

1 amiOaveérepa conj. Scal. after G: so also Cod.Cas. Vin. Vo.; 
wiBaverepa U*; midavdrepa Ald. 

2 rpimédkcov UMU*Ald.; G from Plin. 21. 44 has poliwm. It 
may be observed that tpiméacov can hardly have occurred in a 
hexameter. Hesych., however, gives tpiomdéAtoy as the name 


i i ee 


O7 plants said to have magical properties. 

On the other hand what is said of amulets and 
charms in general for the body or the house is some- 
what foolish and incredible.1 Thus they say that 
tripolion? according to Hesiod and Musaeus is useful 
for every good purpose, wherefore they dig it up 
by night, camping on the spot. So too what is said 
of good or fair fame as affected by plants is quite as 
foolish or more so: for they say that the plant called 
snapdragon* produces fair fame. This plant is like 
bedstraw but it has no root: and the fruit has what 
resembles a calf’s nostrils. The man who anoints 
himself with this they say wins fair fame. * And they 
say that the same result follows, if he crowns himself 
with the flower of gold-flower, sprinkling it with 
unguent from a vessel of unfired gold. The flower of 
gold-flower is like gold, the leaf is white. The stem 
also is white ® and hard, the root is slender and does 
not run deep. © Men use it in wine against the bites 
of serpents, and to make a plaster for burns after 
burning it and mixing the ashes with honey. Such 
tales then, as was said before, proceed from men who 
desire to glorify their own crafts. 

A problem as to cause and effect. 

Now since the natural qualities of roots fruits and 
juices have many virtues of all sorts, some having 
the same virtue and causing the same result, while 

ofa plant. Plin. /.c. seems to combine Diosc.’s account of 
méAtov (3. 110) with bis account of rpimdAroy (4. 132). 

3 7d aytippivov conj. St. from Diosc. 4. 130; Plin. 25. 129; 
7d avtippi(ov Ald. H.; rdv avr. UM; 7d dyripiCov U*. 

4 Diose. 4. 57; Plin. 21. 66. Cited also by Athen. 15. 27. 

5 rAevxdy conj. Sch.; Aerrby UMU*AId.G, 

6 Diose. l.c.; Plin. 21. 168 and 169, 



\ “A v4 Ce , 5 , ” 
Kal TadwW boat TA evayTia, SiaTropyceley av TIS 
Kowov iaws aTopnua kal é étép@y atropwr, 

a a / \ 
TOTEpov boa TOV AUTOY aiTla KATA play TLVa 

7 / b x \ > Ri! P > BS 
Sivapiv éotiv, ) Kal ad’ étépwv évdexeTat TavTO 

vA al n \ > 4 > ; / @ m > bé 
yivecOat. TovTO peéev ody TavTH HTopHaOw: «i dé 

\ 4 \ / x \ 4 
TiWev Kal ddXr\ov Tas dices 7 Tas SvVdpets 
éyouev eitreiv, TavTAa pyTéov. 
é / 
XX. To 6% mwéweps xaptos pév éote Sittov 5é 
a \ / 7 
avTod TO yévos' TO pev yap TTPOYyVAOV wWo7TrEp 
” / 4 \ / ‘ € 
dpoBos, Kékudpos éxyov kal odpxa Kabarep ai 
is ¢e / @ F \ be / 4 
Sadvides, vmépuOpov' To 6é€ mpounKes pédav 

a / \ Yo oe Ds \ 
TovTo Oatépou’ Oeppavtixa bé adudo: bv 6 Kal 

\ \ , lal nm / 1 © / 
mpos TO K@vetovy Bonet Tadta TE Kal 0 MBavwrTos. 

/ lal 

‘O &€ Kvidios Koxkos otpoyyvXov épvOpov TH 

A a a / 
ypord petCov 5é Tov TreTréptos La xUpoTEpov Sé TOAD 

a / Be ae A / / 

Th Oepporntt, d¢ 0 Kat drav bidwor KataToTor, 
diddact ya 0s KolALas AUoW, ev a j 
160 yap pos S , €&V apT@ 7 

, / / \ bY \ 

Ocpyavtixov O€ Kali ) ToD TevKedavov <pifa,> 
d2 0 kal dretupd Te rovovow €& avThs idpwtiKov 
@otep Kal €€ Gd\Xov. SidoTar O€ 4) TOD TevKE- 

1 4’ conj. Sch.; ép’ U*P; Ald. omits the preposition. 
2 Cited by Athen. 2. 73; ef. Diose. 2. 159, 
8 Plin. 27. 70, ; 



ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xix. 4-xx. 2 

others have opposite virtues, one might raise a 
question which is perhaps equally perplexing in 
regard to other matters, to wit, whether those that 
produce the same effect do so in virtue of some 
single virtue which is common to them all, or whether 
the same result may not come about also from! 
different causes.—Let us be content to put the 
question thus : but now we must proceed to speak of 
the natural qualities or virtues of any other plants 
that we can mention, 

Of certain plants, not yet° mentioned, which possess special 

XX. ? Pepper is a fruit, and there are two kinds: 
one is round like bitter vetch, having a case and flesh 
like the berries of bay, and it is reddish: the other 
is elongated and black and has seeds like those of 
poppy: and this kind is much stronger than the 
other. Both however are heating: wherefore these, 
as well as frankincense, are used as antidotes for 
poisoning by hemlock. 

8’ The ‘Cnidian berry’ is round, red in colour, 
larger than that of pepper, and far stronger in its 
heating power ; wherefore, when it is given as a pill 4 
(for it is given to open the bowels) they knead it up 
in a piece of bread or dough: otherwise it burns the 

5 The root ® of sulphur-wort is also heating, where- 
fore they make of it an ointment to produce a sweat, 
as with other things so used. This root® is also 

4 xatdnoroy conj. Sch.; cara wérov Ald, ef. xaramrériov 9. 8. 3. 
5 of. 9.14.1; Plin. 25, 117. 
8 i{¢a add, W, 



Savou pita Kal TpOS: TOUS omhvas® 70 5é om éppa 
ov XPNT Lov ovde 0 Omrds avThs: yiverar dé év 

Aaixoy 8€ rept Tlarpaixny THS Axaias dia- 
épor, eppavtiKov pucer pigav dé & exer pédarvay. 

Ocppavtixov b¢ Kal Spey Kal THs ap dou Tis 
aypias pita: év’ 0 0 Kab els. pirwOpov xpnotwov Kal 
edn dioas am ary" TO O€ KapT@ yrrodat Ta 
Sgouata. Téuverar S& macap @pav oT@pas Oé 

Apaxovtiov dé pia Bijxas év PENTEL dvdopévn 
mavely xenci pn. Kavnrov b¢ éxet ToLKtAov Oitwdn* 
oT EPMATL & ov Xpavrar. 

‘H 6€ THs Oarpias € emeruKn’ éav O€ TIS KaTaoXy, 
Kabaiper Kat avo Kal Kato: dvvatat S€ Kai Ta 
Tert@pata ekarpety: bre@mia Sé Toe? adda éx- 
Neva. 0 S€ Omds laxupoTeEpos aurijs cadaiper 
Kal ave Kal KaT@" oT eppare o ov xpavras 
yiverae dé cal GrAXOOL pev arap Kat év 7H ArtuKh 
Kal Ta Booknpara TAUTNS OvY dmrerat Ta 
éyxopia, Ta 6€ Eevixa BooKetar Kali Siappoia 

To 6€ modvmddioy peta Ta VdaTa avaBracTet 
oméppa 5€ ov pver. 

To dé ths éBévou EvXNov Kata peéev THY Tpocowe 
6 oLov TvE@ broicbév be pédav yiveran xp- 
oLuov Oé pos oplaruias d aKovn TpLBomevov. 

1 of. 9.15. 5. 2 cf. 9. 15.8. n. 

3 cf. 9.14.1; Diose. 4. 181-183; Plin. 23. 19 and 21. 
4 cf. 7.12.2; Diosc. 2. 167. ' ‘cf. ’Plin. 24. 89. 

5 Diose. 4. 153 ; Plin. 13. 125 and 126. 



given for the spleen: but neither its seed nor its 
juice is of use: it grows in Arcadia.! 

2 Daukon of excellent quality grows in the district 
of Patrai in Achaia, and is heating by nature: it has 
a black root. 

’The root of the ‘wild vine’ (bryony) is also 
heating and pungent: wherefore it is useful as a 
depilatory and to remove freckles: and the fruit is 
used for smoothing hides. It is cut at any. season, 
but especially in autumn. 

4 The root of edderwort given in milk is useful for 
stopping a cough. It has a -variegated snake-like 
stem : the seed is not used. 

5 The root of thapsta has emetic properties: and, 
if one retains it, it purges both upwards and down- 
wards. It is also able to remove bruises: and it 
restores other contusions to a pale colour.’ Its 
juice is stronger and purges both upwards and 
downwards: the seed is not used. It grows especially 
in Attica, but also in other places: the cattle of the 
country do not touch it, but imported cattle feed on 
it and perish of diarrhoea.’ 

8 Polypody springs up® after rain, and produces no 

10 The wood of ebony is in appearance like box, but 
when barked it becomes black: it is useful against 
ophthalmia, and is rubbed on a whetstone for that 


5 jnaéma... &kAevea: text perhaps defective. 

7 S:appola conj. Sch.; didppoia } UM: didppota abrois yiveras }) 

8 cf. 9.13.6; C.P. 2.17. 4. The account of the virtues of 
this plant is evidently missing. 

9 avaBAaore? conj. W.; aiel BdAAee Ald. 

10 Diosce. 1. 98; Plin. 24, 89. 



‘H be dpiaToroxia Taxeta Kal eo Oropevn mK pa 
T@ Xpopare pédawva Kal evoopos, TO 6€ prov 
aTpoyyvhor, ov TroNU bé TO UTrép THs ys. pverar 
be Kal pdduora év Tots Opec’ Kal attn Bertiotn. 
THD dé Xpetav auras els ToANAG KkataplO modo 
apiorn pev Tpos Ta kepanroOhaara, Gyan dé Kal 
Tpos Ta adda oren Kal ™ pos Ta épmera Kal ™ pos 
imvov Kal pos borepav @S TEeTCOS, TA [ev ow 
bdats avadevopévn Kal KataTrAaTTOMévn, TA S 
adnra eis mere Evopévyn Kal EXatov: Tav Oé épTreTaV 
év olv@ ofivn TLvoueVn Kal éml TO Onyma ért- 
TarTomevn’ els Umvov dé év olive perave avaTnp® 
kvicOeioa: éav bé al piyrpae T POTET@OL, T@ VdaTL 
amoknutew. avTn pev ovv EéoLKeE Suadépew TH 
Toru pnoTid. 

Ths dé (oKappovias @omep €& évavtias 6 OTs 
povov XPNTL MOS arro 8 ovdev. 

dé THs MTEpidos pifa povoy TO YVAM YruKv- 
a7 pudvos: Epa. be TaATELAV éxBadrev oT épua 
Sé ovK Eyer ode Omrov" TéuverOas O€ Wpaiay peTo- 
T@pOv daciv. 

aS Emus TULPuTOV éviois €Ovecww: éxXovat 
yap ws érl map Aiyorriot “ApaBes. “Appévtor 
Maradides Lvpoe Kinexes: Opdxes 8 ovK exouow 
oude Ppoyes: TOV be ‘EXAgver OnBaioi te ot 
Tepl Ta yupvacta Kal 6rws Bowwtoi: *AOnvaior 
5° ov. 

Ilavtwv 6é tov hapudkoyv ws amd@s eiTrety 
Bertio Ta ex TOV KYELmEepLVoV Kal TpoaRdoppwv 

1 of. 9. 13. 3. 2 «al uddrora conj. W.; udAiora Kad Ald. 
3 arn conj. Scal.; airy Ald. 



1Birthwort is a stout plant and is bitter to the taste : 
it is black in colour and fragrant ; the leaf is round. 
However there is not much of the plant above 
ground. It grows especially? on mountains, and 
then? it is best. Many uses of it for various purposes 
are enumerated ; it is best for bruises on the head, 
good also for other wounds, against snake-bites, to 
produce sleep, for the womb as a pessary: for some 
purposes it is soaked with water and applied as a 
plaster, for others it is scraped into honey and olive- 
oil: against snake-bites it is drunk in sour wine and 
also sprinkled over the bite; to induce sleep it is 
given pounded up in black dry wine: ‘in cases of 
prolapsus uteri it is used in water as a lotion. This 
plant then seems to have a surpassing variety of 

5 Of scammony, as though by contrast, only the 
juice is useful and no other part. 

Of male-fern no part but the root is useful and it 
has a sweet astringent taste. It expels the flat 
worm. It has no seed nor juice: and they say it 
is ripe for cutting in autumn. 

6(This worm naturally infests certain races: 
speaking generally the following are liable to it— 
the Egyptians, the Arabians, the Armenians, the 
Matadides, the Syrians, the Cilicians : the Thracians 
have it not, nor the Phrygians. Among the Hellenes 
those Thebans who frequent wrestling-schools and 
the Boeotians generally are liable to it: but not the 
Athenians. ) 

Of all drugs, to speak generally, those are better 
which come from places that are wintry, face the 

4 Cited by Apollon. Hist. Mirab. 29. 
5 Diose. 4. 170; Plin. 27. 78-80. 8 Plin. 27. 145. 



kai Enpov: Sv 6 Kal tav év EdBoia ta év tais 
5] al xX AnD fal , / / / 
Aiyais ) Ta €v TO TerXeOpio hact> Enpotepa yap: 
/ 4 
To 6¢ TereOptov sioKiov. 
Tlept pév ody tav pilav doar happak@des Kal 
oTotacovv éyovaor Suvdpers elite év avrais elite év 
n ’ A Xd \ » \ A , ; \ \ 
Tois omrols 7) Kal GAA@ TiVL TOV popiwv, Kal TO 
<4 bs \ x a ” / 
brov el Te Hpvyavixov 7) To@bes Exe TolavTas 
\ a a7 ees 4 , 
kal Tov aocpov Kal bcas Eyovar Siadopas, 
WA > ‘ ® la > 7 
altrep ovOev HrTov hvotkat cio, elpnras. 




north and are dry: wherefore of those which grow 
in Euboea best, they say, are the drugs of Aigai or 
Telethrion, these places being dry, while Telethrion 
is also shady. 

1Thus we have spoken of drugs, those that are 
medicinal and those that have virtues of whatsoever 
kind, whether in the root itself, or in the juice, or in 
any other of their parts, and in general of all the 
shrubby or herbaceous plants which have such 
virtues, as well as their tastes, whether they be 
fragrant or without fragrance, with the differences 
between them, which are equally part of their 
essential character. 

1 This section begins a tenth book in UMAId.H.G; ef. 

9. 8. 1 n. The concluding words can hardly represent the 
original text. 

VOL. IL v 

a as oe i ery 

ay 5 war Fishes! GE SA: A 

; ihe : Fate a 4 seibeaee ANGE ee 

oe ee a at arhye ‘tee eat: dati tat oe 

re AE AEE AE Ho se we eae ama 

skills waclakewsd gh feed fines (ahie> aeukigvone é 

ek MBB: ie nak hi me, x. 
‘" oe att dale eS Se Reha ues 
pa ae ae eee ae SseAic ‘a 

shadhe sy Bell lta > oR calpiahy, ai BE dios kod 
i eae ny ep rs fai bri = 
A a ie tte fae Be at) ahs e teak ay 

ged HAAN NST ied: 7 isi Xs ‘Tey: beanies ae pie P ‘- 
. ‘ded tau 


: “4 ~ 
i z 
tke < J 
: 3 
; , 
y r e 
M ¢ 
i : 
be By Di ai I Ta 


Tue text of the two opuscula given here is re- 
printed from that of Wimmer in the Teubner series, 
1862, and in the Didot edition, 1866; the latter is 
very carelessly printed : a few slight alterations are 
mentioned in the notes. Both works are included 
in the Aldine edition (1497), and in that of Camotius 
(see p. x). For the de odoribus two MSS., Cod. 
Vaticanus (A) and Cod. Parisiensis (Q) were collated 
by Brandis. The text of the de signis is considered 
by Wimmer to be very corrupt and defective: he 
has admitted some emendations made by Schneider 
from an old Latin translation published at Bologna 
in 1516. Schneider's commentary makes frequent 
reference to an edition of the opuscula of Theo- 
phrastus by Turnebus and Daniel Furlanus, printed 
at Hanau in Prussia in 1605, and reprinted there in 

The de signis was one of Aratus’ authorities for 
his Diosemeia: I have only however made reference 
to that work where it appears to throw light on 
the text of Theophrastus. These and most other 
references for the two fragments I owe chiefly to 







ao ere Of odours in general and the classi- 
fication of them. 

Of natural odours: Of those of animals and of the 
effect of odours on animals. 

Of smell and taste. 
Of odours in plants. 

Of artificial odours in general and their manufac- 
ture: especially of the use of perfumes in wine. 

Of the oils used as the vehicle of perfumes. 

Of the spices used in making perfumes and their 

Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and 
of the composition of various notable perfumes. 

Of the properties of various spices. 
Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes. 

Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing 
of various perfumes. 

Of the properties of certain perfumes. 
Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes. 

Of the making of perfume-powders and compound 

Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain 
curious facts as to the smell of animal and vege- 
table products. 

Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions, 



T. Ai dopat ro pev Grov éx pikews ect 
Kabdrep of Xvpol* TO yap auiKTOY amav dodpmov 
4 BA \ \ \ e a ” 
@otep ayupmov, 510 Kal Ta aTAa dodua, olov 
ef >\ a e \ a / tae , > \ 
vdwp anp wip: 7 Sé yh madoT  pmovn ddpunv 
éxer O10 wddioTa MLKTH. 
a lal A al 
. Tav & dduav ai péev dorrep aedets Kai Ddapets 
Kabatep éml TaV yupav, ai 8 Exovoai Tivas 
a7 e ee / n \ > aA n 
idéas. ai & idéar doxodar pev axorovbeiv tais 
a n , n . 
TOV YULOV, OV pnv EXovoL ye TAcaL Tas avTas 
, 4 a / 
TMpoonyopias, waomep €v TOS TpoTEpoY ElTroper, 
2O3 of 4 6 f a 16 4 
ovd Orws o0Tw Siwpiocpévatr Tots eideow BaTreEp 
€ \ b > e xX a / iva \ \ 
x \ be / a S > dL \ 
evoopa Ta S€ Kadkoopa. THS ev@dlas Kal 
KaKk@odias ovKEeTL Ta edn KATw@VOMATTAL KaiTeEp 
\ , > Qn a 
éyovta Siahopds peyddas emt y avTav Tov 
/ * A 3 \ 6 a / \ 

> . \ \ \ a \ a. > , 
ioxupa Kal paraKkn Kal yAuKela Kal Bapeta odun: 
Kowal © éviat ToUT@Y Kal TOY KAaKwSOD. 

1 7.e. there is not one set of terms applied to the varieties 
of ‘ good’ and another distinct set applied to the varieties of 
‘evil’ odours, but we get a cross-division, some terms (such 
as ‘strong’) being applied to varieties of both classes. cf. 



Introductory : Of odours in general and the classification of 

I. Opours in general, like tastes, are due to 
mixture: for anything which is uncompounded has 
no smell, just as it has no taste: wherefore simple 
substances have no smell, such as water air and fire: 
on the other hand earth is the only elementary 
substance which has a smell, or at least it has one to 
a greater extent than the others, because it is of a 
more composite character than they. 

Of odours some are, as it were, indistinct and 
insipid, as is the case with tastes, while some have 
a distinct character. And these characters appear 
to correspond to those of tastes, yet they have not in 
all cases the same names, as we said in a former 
treatise ; nor in general are they marked off from 
one another by such specific differences as are tastes : 
rather the differences are, one may say, in generic — 
character, some things having a good, some an evil 
odour.! But the various kinds of good or evil odour, 
although they exhibit considerable differences, have 
not received further distinguishing names, marking 
off one particular kind of sweetness or of bitterness 
from another: we speak of an odour as pungent, 
powerful, faint, sweet, or heavy, though some of 
these descriptions apply to evil-smelling things as 
well as to those which have a good odour. 





/ an a 
‘H 6€ xaddrXov Kat Botep emi maot Tots b1a- 

Pbctpopévois caTpoTys. atav yap TO onmopmevov 
an > / \ bl / / a ” 

- 4 an ¢ / na a 
CATPOTHTA TH OmoLroTnTL THs POopas. év aTract 
8 éotly 1% Tov campov Kkaxwdia Kai év dutois 
kat év fwows Kal év Tois arpvyxos: ev dace Oé 
1 \ 
SiabOerpopévors ov pn % avaoTacis evOds éx 
, ec 7 \ + \ \ n A 
ToLavTns VANS’ Eyer yap Eva Kal THY THS DAS 
b) v4 J \ 3 \ / nr? , A 
oopnv, ov pny él wadvTw@Vy ye TOUT aKoXovOe?. 
\ \ > >) \ > la] la if 
399 e 4 e > a / / \ >] 
ovd of pvKnTes ot x THS KOTpov hvomevor Ta 6 

> / , \ ‘ / , 
ex onrews huoueva Kal ovvicTtapeva KAK@ON. 

’ \ e an >] an \ - 

\ \ \ oe ae a2 \ alaw me 
Kal A\eTTa Kal HkLoTAa yewdn TO yap Ths dopas 
an \ / 
év dvarrvon Kaxwdn Sé Snrovore Tavavtia. Toa 
a tek n / b] / \ , 

Sé @oTEp TOV yAUKEwr eudhaiver TVA TiKpOTNTA, 
Kal TOV EevwOa@V BapuvTHTAa Tats dopats. 

Il. "Exes 5€ Exactov dopny idiav cat Cowv 

“ val \ A“ 7 7 ? 
Kal duTov Kal TOV afrvyov boa dopedn TOKE 

1 And so here we have a term which possibly is applied 
only to the one class of ‘ evil’ odours. 

2 Which is not an ‘evil’ odour. 

3 7.e. putridity is a quality which things acquire as they 
decay, and does not necessarily imply that they are them- 
selves formed out of decaying matter. In fact things so 
produced are not always ‘ putrid.’ 

4 The sense is apparently that ‘lighter’ (or less solid) 

things exhale a lighter and pleasanter odour because in their 




Putridity however is a general term, applied, one 
may say, to anything which is subject to decay!: for 
anything which is decomposing has an evil odour,— 
unless indeed the name putridity be extended to 
sourness? in wine because the change in the wine is 
analogous to decomposition. The evil odour of 
putridity is found in all things, alike in plants in 
animals and in inanimate things: it attends the 
decay of things which are not formed directly out of 
a substance which is decaying: for some things have 
also the odour of that substance, though it is not 
found in every case.2 Thus in many instances things 
which are produced by decaying matter have no evil 
odour: for instance, mushrooms which grow from 
dung have none: but things which grow from decay 
and are actually formed out of it have such an odour. 
To speak generally then, things that have been 
cooked, delicate things, and things which are least of 
an ear thy nature have a good odour,‘ (odour being a 
matter of exhalation), and it is obvious that those of 
an opposite character have an evil odour. But, even 
as many things pleasant to the taste present a certain 
bitterness, so many things that have a good odour 
have a kind of heavy scent. 

Of natural odours ; of those of animals and of the effect of 
odours on animals. 

II. Every plant animal or inanimate thing that 
has an odour has one peculiar to itself: but in many 

case exhalation is easier. The sense given to dvamvon requires 
illustration (the passages cited by LS. are not in point). Sch., 
construing apparently as W. does, ‘since smell depends on 
breathing’ (? inhalation), admits that he does not see the 
point of this clause. 




8 e > / 8 x \ , 4 \ 
nutv ov paivetar 01a TO YElplaTHY exe THV 

” 7 id > aA > \ al ” 7 
aicOnow TavTny ws eiTety. mel Tots ye GAXOLS 

\ \ la} A / / / 
Kal Ta TAVTEAS Aodua hawopeva Sidwai tiva 
b] A lal , n 
Oopnv, BoTeEp ai KpLOal Tots vTofuyiols at éx THs 
Kedpo7rdX1os, as ovx éoOiovoty dia THY KaKx@diar. 
4 a \ \ e na / 7 n ’ 
Has dé Kal at Tov Cowv NavOdvovow TOV do pw- 
an 4 > / \ 9 > \ , 
Sav Soxovvtov. evwodia pév odv odvfev daivetar 
’ e \ / e > n > x, @ i \ 
Kal’ avTo yaipew ws eitreiv, ANN boca Tpds THY 
\ \ \ > , a , ” 
tpodiy Kal THY aToXavol. Toveiy 8 ena 
A > a a 
daivetar Tais oopais Kal Tals evwdiars, eltrep 
> \ \ ee n n \ an , 
arnbés TO érl Tov yuToY Kai TOV KavOdpor. 
a \ A e 7 rd , a ‘5 > na 
todto oé¢ éfAov ws Ou’ évaytiwaw THs év adTois 
7 e \ ? a uA a \ 
gicews. ws O€ Kal’ Exactov dpa Set THY ye 
a \ a a 
Kpaow THY ExaoTOU Kal THY THS OTUs NapBaver 
3524 \ ‘J 4 n >/ i > an 
Eict pév otv Eat tov evoopwv Kal év tais 
tpopais, olov at Tv axpodptwv Kal atiwv Kal 
\ a n a 
pynrwv' avTat yap avev THs tpoadopas Hjdeiat, 
Kal “aAXOV ws eiTrety. Ov pV AAN Os y aTADS 
a e / > > £. *™ e \ \ 
duedety ai pév eiot KaP avTdas ai O€ KaTa oup- 
BeBnkos: ai pev TOV YUAOY Kal THs Tpodhs KaTAa 
, e ] ev a > lal , ce / 
ovpBeBnkos, at 8 waotep TOV avOav Kal?’ adtas. 
ws 8 érimav Ta eVoopa, Kabdtep Kat mpoTepov 
x» / \ \ ¢e / 
éréxOn, Svoyuua Kal otpupva Kal vTomTiKpa. 

1 In Thrace. cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 36. Turn. quotes an illus- 
tration from Scriptor @avuaclwy &koveudtwr 126, 
2 ebwdiats. ? ebddect. 


ete sa gee 


cases it is not obvious to us because, one might 
almost say, our sense of smell is inferior to that ot 
all other animals. Thus things which appear to us 
to have no odour give forth an odour of which other 
animals are conscious: for instance beasts of burden 
can smell the barley of Kedropolis,! and refuse to eat 
it because of its evil odour. Also we are unaware of 
the odour of animals which appear to possess one. 
Now no animal appears to take pleasure in a good 
odour for its own sake, so to speak, but only in the 
odour of things which conduce to its nurture and 
enjoyment. Indeed some animals seem to be annoyed 
by odours, even good? ones, if what is said of 
vultures and beetles be true ; the explanation is that 
their natural character is antipathetic to odours. 
To appreciate this in particular cases one should 
take into consideration the temperament of the 
animal in question and also its power of smell. 

Of smell and taste. 

Now the odour of some things which have a good 
odour resides in things which are used for food, for 
instance that of stone-fruits* pears and apples, the 
smell of which is sweet even if one does not eat 
them ; indeed it may be said to be sweeter in that 
case. However, to make a general distinction, some 
odours exist independently, while others are inci- 
dental ;* those of juices and things used for food 
are incidental, those of flowers exist independently. 
And, as was said above,' things which have a good 
odour are generally of unpleasant, astringent or 

3 axpodpiwv here apparently plums, peaches, etc. 
4 7.e. the smell is a kind of ‘accident,’ or by-product of 
the taste. $8, 



4 be A b] / \ AY) 0 / \ \ 
évia O€ TOV EvyvpoV Kal KaKwdn, KADdTEp Kal TO 
Aiydrrtiov Kadovpevoy cdKov, yAUKD bv, Kal et 
A an > > > A \ ¢e A 
p41) TavTayov adr éviaxod. Kal 1 apKevlos 
eupaiver TWa TH pacnoe KaKkwdiay yduKeEia 
ovoa: TO 8 odpov Towel ev@des. 
"Ezrel 66 TOV Oopaev ai pév év duTois Kal Tois 
TOUT@Y popiots, olov KrAwaol PvAXOIs gAoLOois 
n / e \ 7 /. > / 
Kaptrots Oaxpvols, at O€ damep Sieiropev év Cwors 
[cal dutois] cai rots avyors, adtar pév pavepov 
vg / v4 4 > an >] , 
6Te Tei Exaotar AauBdvovow ev Tols oiKelots 
\ \ bial \ a > A \ 
[ais]: kal 7d evades Kal Kax@des axorovbel Kata 
\ > / / e be / lal > / @ a 
Tas oikeias Poets, 7 O€ Téris TO oiKkei@ Oepue. 
> \ an > 7 lal “ e fal , \ 
év 5é Tois axpuyos Tais TOV ATAOY SUVdmeEat Kal 
yivovtat Kal peSiotavtar Kabdtrep oi YUpol. 
TIT. "Ocar 6é 6 Kata téxvnv Kal érivotav 
4 cal / 
yivovTa: Tept TOUTWY TELpaTéoY EiTEiY WaTrEp Kal 
mTepl TOV xUAOV. ev auhoiv bé dHrov a@s ael 
N \ , 9 wlial ells , A \ 
mpos TO BédtLov [Hv] Huiv 7 avapopa: Taca yap 
Téxyn oToydleTas TOVTOV. elal pev Odv Kal Tols 
/ A & al A 
GpikToLs dapat TLVES POS As oUvEpYElY TELpaY TAL 
a n \ \ lal 
Kal tals Tapa<oKevais, ws KaI> TpPOs Tas TOV 
a by / > \ b > cf a n 
XUEO@Y EevoTOmiasS. ov pny aXXN ws y amas 

1 of. H.P. 1. 11. 2. 

2 ¢.e. the berry: Sch. would read apxevéis. of. H.P. 3. 12. 4, 
with which this statement is inconsistent. Sch. suggests 
punctuating—yAvid bv. Kal ei wh mavraxod aAX’ éviaxod Kal 
h &pxev@os x.7.A. _ 3 nal purots om. Turn. 

4 ais I omit; # wal rd ed. conj. Turn. 



somewhat bitter taste. Again some things which 
have a good taste have also an evil odour, such as 
the carob,! which is sweet (this is true of some 
regions, if not of all). Again the Phoenician cedar,’ 
though it is sweet to the taste, when chewed pro- 
duces a sort of evil odour, though it makes the water 
Of odours in plants. 

Some odours being found in plants or in their 
parts—as twig, leaf, bark, fruit, gum—and others, as 
we distinguished, in animals ® and in inanimate things, 
it is plain that the former are matured each of them 
in the part to which it belongs; and‘ a good or evil 
odour follows according to the natural character of 
that part, the maturing being due to the warmth 
which is found in it. On the other hand in inanimate 
things the odour, like the taste, is formed and 
modified by the properties of the simple substances 
of which the thing is made. 

Of artificial odours in general and their manufacture: especially 
of the use of perfumes in wine. 

III. Next we must endeavour to speak of those 
odours, and also those tastes, which are artificially ° 
and deliberately produced. In either case it is clear 
that improvement is always what we have in view; 
for that is the aim of every artificial process. Now 
even uncompounded substances have certain odours, 
which men endeavour to assist by artificial means,°. 
even as they try to assist nature in producing 
palatable tastes. However, to speak generally, the 

5 The same phrase occurs in similar connexion C. P. 6. 11. 2. 

6 Text defective. Ald Bas.Vo. have marks of omission. 

W. after Turn. gives rai tats tapa<okevais, as Kal> Tails Tov 
Xupmay evoto <piau>, Which I have slightly altered. 



a / / 
eltrety év pikes TO TréOV, Kal OUTwS at <piEeLs> 
ad \ ¢ an / al e n \ le) 
dvoty pev @s TO yéver AaPetv, Vypod Kai Enpod: 
Lal \ / e/ x € \ ¢e a 
TpLYa@s 5é yi<vovTat>, Stay 7 Omoryevés Omoryevel, 
BI n , A @ a 
i Enp@ Enpov, <i vyp@ Enpor>. 
"Ex dvoiv yap tovTav Kal 7 ToY xXvAMV Kal 
" a \ 
diatdopata ovvtiGévtes Enpois mpos Enpad: as 
4 n 
5 of Ta pvpa Kepavvertes 1) TO olv@ éruyéovTes 
ec a \ e , \ \ / A \ val 4 
Uypois Tpos vypd. TO dé TpiTov, 0 Kal mrEloTOY 
> e e \ a \ e , s 
€oTiv, @S oi pupetrot Enpois mpos vypa: mavTos 
yap pupov kal ypicpatos 7 ctvOects attn. Set 
© eidévat motat Toles evpLeTOL Kal TotaL Toto 
a \ a / 7 a 
cuvepyovow eis TO Trolely pilav WoTrEp éTL TOV 
Yuu@v. Kal yap éxet tavTO TovTO EnTovow oi 
puyvovTes Kal olov aptvovtes. TadTa peyv ovdv 
> e \ 2 ® e f n \ , 
év ols kal du’ ov ai Téxvat TovobytTat Ta TEXAN. 
, n n an 
Miyvuvtat Sé Ta pev adTis THs oops evexa 
\ \ 7 \ yy \ ] e/ 
Kat mpos tavTnyv tiv alcOnow, Ta 8 Woep 
e 4 , \ nr ?. e e \ Fd 
novverv BovrAdpeva THY yedow, Oloy @S Ol TA Mpa 
a v7 > / x Ai SS , > x 
Tots olvots émruxéovTes 7) TA Ap@maTa éuBdrXAovTes. 

1 T have supplied ulte:s to fill the lacuna marked by W. 
after oftws ai: the text to the end of the section is defective, 
but a makeshift restoration and rendering seem possible : 
the sense of oftws is obscure. 



result is usually obtained by a mixture, and accord- 
ingly | such mixtures are of two things (or classes 
of things), a liquid and a solid: but there are 
three ways in which the result may be reached (the 
combination? being one either of like with like, or 
of unlike substances), according as a liquid is com- 
pounded with another liquid, a solid with another 
solid, or a solid with a liquid. 

For tastes and odours alike are derived from these 
two things: the method of the makers of spices and 
perfume-powders ?* is to mix solid with solid, that of 
those who compound unguents or flavour wines is to 
mix liquid with liquid: but the third method, 
which is the commonest, is that of the perfumer, 
who mixes solid with liquid, that being the way in 
which all perfumes * and ointments are compounded. 
Further one must know which odours will combine 
well with which, and what combination makes a 
good blend, just as in the case of tastes: for there 
too those who make combinations and, as it were, 
season their dishes, are aiming at this same object. 
So much for the ingredients and the methods 
whereby these arts attain their ends. 

The object of the mixture is in the one case 
simply the production of a particular odour and the 
gratification of the corresponding sense, in the other 
there is a desire to produce, as it were, a pleasanter 
taste: this for instance is the object of flavouring 
wine with perfumes or of putting spices into it. 

2 «.e. given two components we have three possible com- 
binations, A with A, B with B, or A with B. 

3 Siamaocuara. cf. Plin. 13.19 ; 21. 125. 

4 The difference between ptpov and xplouatos does not 

appear ; ~vpov seems to be loosely used, as just above it was 
used of an entirely liquid mixture. 





at yap aicOnoes avveyyus ovoat Trolodci Tiva 
aTohavaw adAjAwV, Bev Kal adTois Tois yev- 
otots Enrovot Tas evoopias. 
> 7, > BA 7 \ / 4 
Amtopyaee 8 av tis tows Sa Ti Tote ptpov 
\ x fal 
Kal TaNAa EeVOTpA TOS meV olvoUsS HOvVEL TOV Sé 
, \ 
Bpopatov ovdév, aAAAG TavTAa AvMaiveTrar Kal 
/ > 
amvpwta Kal tetupwpéva. 1 8 altiov brro- 
/ an fal a 
AnTTéov Ste cvpBaives TAaV pev Enpav adatpel- 
/ \ ? a \ 5 \ \ > \ \ 
cOai Te Tov oixeiov yvdOv Sia THY ioydyv Kal 
dpa ocuveripaivery Tov avTod dvTa otpudvov 
\ \ n 
Kab UTOTLKpOY: aTav yap TO EvoTpoY ToLOvTOD, 
Stapacwpévors 5€ Kal wadrov éudhaves dia Te TH 
, \ \ ec) } fal / 
Orippw Kal Ttounv Kat étt TO yYpovifecOar. Tov 
+ Ya aay DNA a \ \ ¢ i VS , 
&’ olvoy ovdétepov Trovet* Kal yap 0 yudOs ioyupo- 
TaTOS Kal TAEL@Y Els TO wy KpaTelcOaL Kai ovdéva 
fal / / > / > > v4 > / 
Th yevoe Ypovov éemidiatpiBav arr scov éri- 
/ 4 \ \ 5du > 5 60 A > / 
Oryydvov, @oTe TO pev NOV Evdtoovat TH aicOrnjoeL 
\ \ \ \ 7 na 7 \ 7 
To O€ Mexpov Kal SvaxXUpOY TH yevoer py eudat- 
vel, AANA oupBaivery TO ovTL KAaOaTEp Hdvopma 
n \ > A 
yivecOas TH TOmaTe THY OoMHV’ TO pev yap 
a \ / / \ \ \ ” 
yAuKel Kal pardiota Seomév Sia TO pndev exew, 
n >] v e/ lal > >? a 4 , 
tois & dAXots Waotep pias €E audoty yevomévns 

1 cf. 67; Arist. de Sens. 5. 2 of. Arist. J.c. 
3 As opposed to wine. Sch., misunderstanding this, thinks 
oad corrupt. 
4 T have restored xa}, which Sch. and W. omit, missing the 
point of the antithesis wey... 8é. 



1 For the two senses of taste and smell being akin to 
one another, each provides in a way for the enjoy- 
ment of the other: wherefore it is through things 
which appeal to the taste, as well as those which 
appeal to the sense of smell, that men try to discover 
fragrant odours. 

The question may perhaps be raised why perfume 
and other fragrant things, while they give a pleasant 
taste to wine,’ yet have not this effect on any other 
article of food, but in all cases spoil food, whether it 
be cooked or not. The explanation we must take 
to be that this is what happens—the perfume if 
mixed with solid* things is in any case powerful 
enough to deprive them of their proper taste, and at 
the same time it makes obtrusive its own taste, 
which is astringent and somewhat. bitter,—all per- 
fumeries having that character,—while, if one bites 
up the food, this effect is even* more apparent 
because the food is crushed and broken up, and also 
because it remains longer in the mouth. But on 
wine neither effect is produced, since in this the 
taste is very strong and too generally diffused to be 
overpowered: also wine does not linger on the 
palate for any length of time, but merely touches it, 
so that, while it makes one conscious of its own 
pleasant taste, it does not make the palate feel the 
bitter unpalatable taste of the perfume: in fact the 
odour of this acts as a sort of relish ® to the draught. 
This effect indeed © it has on wine which is sweet 
and specially needs the addition of perfume, because 
it has no ‘relish’ of its own; while with other wines 
the reason is that, as the effect of the mixture, the 

> Se. ‘ bouquet.’ 
6 T have restored yap, omitted by Sch. and W. 


VOL. Il, 



a 4 \ , 
Sua thy piéw. 0 yap olvos, oTEep Kal MpoTEpoy 
\ bd] , 
eréyOn, Sewvds SéEacOas Tas oo pas. 
x \ 4 
12 “Eyer & dropnow nat rode, dra TL TA pep 
” \ \ A > / > a 
av0n Kal TA oTepavopata acbevécTEepa ovTa Tals 
> a \ / Q@ bd ¢ 8 * \ \ 4 é 
dopais Kai woppwbev d€er, 7) 5 ipis Kai TO vapdov 
a n > , 
Kal TaAXa TA evoopa TaV Enpav toyupoTepa 
< , 4 \ 
éyyv0ev: Kal évid ye mpoceveyxapévors, via Sé 
\ , 5 al \ PS) / \ be 
Kal tpiivews mpocdeitar Kal Svatpécews, Ta O€ 
Kal Tup@cews, oTEep 7 suvpva Kal 0 UBavwTos 
a ’ n \ 
13 Kal wav to Ovpiatov. aitiov & OTe TaV meV 
fal n a \ > \ rn 
avOay énimoAns TO ToLovy THY OTMHY ATE pavav 
fal a \ 
dvT@V Kal ovK éxovtav Babos, Tav dé pilav Kai 
/ n n > / \ > 54 
mTavtev Ttav atepeav ev Bde, Ta 8 &EwOev 
la \ » ear rn 
ateEnpampéva kal Temuxvapéva: 510 Kal adiaort 
, \ > / \ Pa e > , dé 
TOppw Tas aTroTrvoias, TA 0 olov avoi~ews SéovTat 
a / 
TaV. TOpwVv, bOev Statpotpeva Kal KoTTOMEva 
/ > > / \ >] y / 
TavtT evmdéatepa, TA 8 avOn KaxwdéoTEepa Tpi- 
/ \ :. lke \ > / \ b] a \ \ 
Bopevas Ta pev yap éxdaiver TO otKxetov Ta dé 
t P 
TpochkapSdave. TO addOTpLOV. O 5€ ALBavwToOs 
Kal 1) opvpva TuKVoTépay Ett THY hvaw EyovTa 
TpoodéovTar TUp@aEews mahaKNs, 1) KATA pLKpoY 
€xOeppaivovca tromoe THY avabupiaci. éap 
/ A 
yap KoTTn TLS %) TPLBN TAadTA, TpocoicoVTaL meV 

' 7.e. of the unadulterated wine and of the perfume. 

2 C.P. 6.19.2. Sch.’s reasons for bracketing this sentence 
seem inadequate. 

3 ¢.e. fragrant leaves, etc. of. H.P. 1. 12. 4. 

4 Made from the rhizomes; of. H.P. 1. 7. 2, and Index. 



two ! odours combine, as it were, to form one. Wine 
indeed, as was said before,” has a special property of 
assimilating odours. 

Another question also suggests itself,—why it is 
that, while the smell of flowers and other? things 
used for garlands, though it is not so strong, can be 
perceived even at a great distance, the iris-perfume,* 
spikenard and other fragrant solids smell stronger at 
a short distance: and of some of these the smell is 
only perceived when they are eaten, while some 
need even to be bruised and broken up, and others 
to be subjected to fire, as myrrh frankincense and 
anything that is burnt as incense. The explanation is 
that, whereas in flowers that which causes the smell 
is on the surface, seeing that the texture of flowers 
is open and they are not substantial, in all such solid 
substances as roots the power of producing smell 
is diffused through a substantial mass, while the 
exterior parts are dried up and of close texture : and 
this is why flowers emit the scent which exhales from 
them to a long distance, while things like roots need 
an opening of their passages. Hence, when these 
are broken up or bruised, they are in all cases more 
fragrant, while, if flowers are crushed, they have a 
comparatively evil smell: for under such treatment 
roots give forth the property which belongs to them, 
but flowers acquire a property which is not their 
own. Again frankincense and myrrh, since they are 
by nature of even closer texture than roots, need a 
gentle application of fire, which, by gradually 
warming them, will cause the scent to be exhaled. 
For, if these substances are bruised or crushed, they 
will indeed present an odour, but it will not be so 

5 ef. Arist. Probl, 12. 9; 13. 3 and 11. 


dopny ovy opoiws dé jdelav odd edTapievToV. 

14 «IV. Tov &€ pdpev % cvvOecrs Kal 7) KaTAT KEV?) 
TO OXov oloy eis Onoavpicpov éoTt TOY OTMOY 
dsomep eis ToUNaLoy TiPevTat: TOUTO yap Ypoww- 
TAaTOV Kal dua Tpos THY YpEiavy padtoO appoTTor. 
erel htoet Heiota OexTiKoy daophs va THY TUKVO- 
TaTOV, Olov TO apmuydddvov' TO b€ oNodptVoOV 
Kal TO ék T@Y éXaLOY padduioTa. 

165 Xpavrac dé paddtota TO €x THS Baddvov Tis 
Aiyutrias Kat Yuplas, jxiota yap AuTapov: éTel 
Kal T@ €K TOV €XKALOY padioTa YXpoYTaL TO 
@poTtpiBel THs havdrlas: Soxet yap aditréctatov 
éyewv Kal ANeTTOTATOY’ Kal TOVT@ vé@ Kal py 
Tada@ To yap vmép eviavTov axpeiov TaXv- 
Tepov Kal LTapw@Tepovy yevomevov. EAatov pev 
hac o€ tives Kal <év> TO XpiopatL TO eK THY 
TiKp@V apuyodrwv’ Toda O€ yiverat mepl Kire- 

16 Kiav Kat Totovow €&€& avTov Xpio pa. pact dé 
Kal eis Ta oTovdaia TOV piper a dpporrew, domep 
Kal TO éx THs Bardvou Kal abt moet 88 <ta> 
Kedvhn adTav evoopov eis TO édatov éuBarXO- 

1 This passage was misunderstood by Plin. 13. 19, The 
sense seems to be that the viscous character of oil, though 
preservative of perfume, is not easily receptive of it. 

2 of. H.P. 4.2.1; 4.2.6. Bdadavos, balanites aegyptiaca. 
See Index. 



sweet nor so lasting as when they have been sub- 
jected to fire. Such are the explanations of these 

Of the oils used as the vehicle of perfumes. 

IV. Now the composition and preparation of 
perfumes aim entirely, one may say, at making the 
odours last. That is why men make oil the vehicle 
of them, since it keeps a very long time and also is 
most convenient for use. ! By nature indeed oil is 
not at all well suited to take in an odour, because of 
its close and greasy character: and of particular oils 
this is specially true of the most viscous, such as 
almond-oil, while sesame-oil and olive-oil are the 
least receptive of all. 

The oil most used is that derived from the 
Egyptian ? or Syrian balanos, since this is the least 
viscous; the olive-oil which is most used is that 
which is pressed from ‘coarse olives’* in the raw 
state, since this is thought to be the least greasy 
and the least coarse: this is used while it is new, 
not when it is old, for that which is kept above a 
year is useless, having become thick and viscous. 
This then is the kind of olive-oil which is most 
suitable, since it is the least greasy. Some say that 
for unguent the oil derived from bitter almonds is 
best: these are abundant in Cilicia, where an 
unguent is made from them. It is said that this is 
suitable for choice perfumes, like the oil of the 
Egyptian balanos : this is suitable in itself! however 
the shells of the fruit are thrown into the oil to give 
it a good odour: indeed they are also thrown into 

3 of. H.P. 2. 2.12; C.P. 6. 8. 3 and 5. 
4 gird conj. Sch.; todro Vulg. W. 



b] \ A \ a al ” \ lal > 
peva* eel KAL TO TOV TiKpaV. Hdn b€ TAS OVK 
, / val 7 
€vavTioy aua Mev TO GoopmoTaTtov EnTelv, waTeEp 
\ \ ’ \ > lal fal ¢ ’ > 
Kal TO @poTpiBés ex Tov dhavrtov, dua 8 év 
TovToLs Tove; SpywvtTyTa yap exXel TO TOV 

b) / > x 0. D> LS 2Hets e / 
apuyoardov: eb fq) ap OTe TO EXaLov Eropevov 
17 Xpavrar b€ mpos mdvta Tois apwpact, Tois 
pev ertatvpovtes TO EXatov Tots b€ Kal THY dopnv 
cal \ a 
€x TOUT@Y éeuTroLovYTES. UToaTipovat yap TAY 
> \ ¥ cal \ > / ef \ 
els TO b€EacOat parrov THY dopHY, OoTEp TA Epla 
> \ / € / \ al > /, 
eis THY Babyy. wroctvdetat d€ Tois aa PeveorTE- 
a > / sf) e/ > 7 
pos Tov apwudtev, ei? tbaotepov éuBddrdXovew 
ad ov adv BovrAwvTat THY oopnv AaBetv éemi- 
KpaTet yap del TO éxyaTtov éuBaddopevoy Kal 
av €XaTTov 4: oloy éav eis KoTUANY opUpYNS 
1s a n \ > lal , 
EuUBANOH pva Kai vaTepov EuBANOHot Kiwwape@pov 
Spaypuat Svo, KpaTodow at ToD Kwapepmou dvo 
/ > » yy Ps? f \ \ 
is @avyudoere S av tis tows TodTO Te Kal bua 
Tl TOTe TA apoOpaTta mpoeuBarropeva SexTiKo- 
Tepov TroLel TovAaLovY dopiy EexovTa: Set yap 
7A Ss \ / \ \ / 
a@bes eivat TO SeEOpevov, TO Sé KaTELAnMMEVOY 
e ’ i? / > 7A vd >) = 3 a s 
td €éTépov ovK awdes, dof Hrrov éexphv eivar 
dextixov. aitiov 8 apudotépov 4 wavtwy TO 
5) \ \ 3 Tas a A, ff \ ; 
avto. &Enpa yap ovtTa TO Nitros EAKEL TPOS EavTA 

1 +d conj. Sch.; ra Vulg.W. Sch. also adds auvyddayr after 

TiKpOV. A 

2 z.e. those derived from the Egyptian balanos and bitter 
almonds. d 



that! which is made from bitter almonds. Once 
more, is it not inconsistent to seek the vehicle which 
has the least odour of its own, such as the oil which 
is pressed raw from ‘ coarse olives,’ and yet at the 
same time to use the above-mentioned? oils as 
vehicles? (for oil of almonds has a pungent smell). 
Possibly the explanation is that it is only by 
being cooked that oil acquires an evil smell.? These 
matters then are subject for enquiry. 

They use spices in the making of all perfumes ; 
some to thicken * the oil, some in order to impart 
their odour. For in all cases they thicken the oil to 
some extent to make it take the odour better, just as 
they treat wool for dyeing. The less powerful spices 
are used for the thickening, and then at a later 
stage they put in the one whose odour they wish 
to secure. °®For that which is put in last always 
dominates, even if it is in small quantity; thus, if a 
pound of myrrh is put into a half-pint of oil, and 
at a later stage a third of an ounce of cinnamon is 
added, this small amount dominates. 

At this one may well wonder ; and also why it is 
that the previous addition of spices, which have an 
odour of their own, renders the oil more receptive : 
for the vehicle should be scentless, but a substance 
over which another substance has thus prevailed, 
cannot be scentless, so that it ought, one would 
think, to have become /ess receptive. However both 
facts, or rather all of them, may be accounted for in 
the same way :—the spices, being solid, attract to 

3 Sc. ‘and these oils are used in the raw state’ (?). Ido 
not see how Furlanus’ explanation, quoted by Sch., is to be 
found in the text. The following sentence shews that T. 

does not claim to have settled the question. 
4 7.e. to make it less volatile. 5 of. Plin. 13. 19. 



\ b) f \ \ a tae, , b) a 
Kal avadéyetat, dio Kal THY cuvexevay eEatpel: 
\ \ , \ la) , > / 
pavov 5é yevopuevov [Kai] Tod AL7rous adatpeévTos 

b] ? \ € > / 4 > / , 
év ® Kal 1) OlKELA padioTa Oop, SEKTLKMTEPOV 
» ee, 4 ‘e] > / \ \ \ > 
éyéveto Tov émsBarropévou Sia TO py) avTLOTA- 
an ? \ \ 
19 «‘H &€ amo TOY apwydtwv odyn Kal acbevns 
od > \ \ b / 5, + , 
4 \ a 
3 an 
Noyov Kav EXaTTOV 7 TO ETLBAadropevon eriKparelv 
4 > / > / \ / 
\ 4 > \ / > + , Gant 2 
kal SexTiK@TEepov. ava doyov & éyer Kal % Todv- 
YpoveoTns 1) ev ExdoT@ Kal % Tpos THY TUPwWOLDY 
> \ 8 \ a \ \ 
evo0évera kal TaAAA TA TOLADTA. TO yap SeKTL- 
K@TaTOV, olov THS Baddvou, Kal YpovL@TAaTOV, Kal 
dua THY avTny aitiav’ pddtoTa yap woTEp év 
, \ \ \ / 6 / 2° A 
yiwerat Kal oupdves TO pwadtota Seyopevov" del 
\ \ aA 4 \ 
yap TO ToLovTOV StamovwTtator, S10 Kal Tupovpe- 
vov wariota aTrabés. 
¢ / ° 
20 ‘Oeavtws b€ nal Tov aAAwY TO oNcdpLVo?, 
7 an \ , \ 
TOUTO yap SextiKwTaTOV: TO dé duvydddLVoV Trap- 
/ \ cage ; 
akpater TAX Kai OALyOXpoVL@TaToY Sia.THY évav- 
, 2 Sf \ \ 
Tlav aitiay’ TO yap HKiota Se~dpevov TayioTa 
61 an € / \ / \ \ 
peBinot. Tod podivov d& pddioTa SexTiKOV TO 

1 [ have bracketed kal. 
2-2 This passage is omitted, apparently by accident, in 
both W.’s texts, though represented in his Latin version. I 



themselves the viscid part of the oil, and so it 
attaches itself to them; thus the density of the oil 
is destroyed : the oil, thus becoming thinner by the 
removal! of its viscid part which chiefly contains 
the characteristic odour, becomes more receptive of 
the spice which is added to it, because it does not 
now offer resistance. 

Again that odour which is due to the spices be- 
comes less powerful as it is spent on the viscid part 
of the oil, while at the same time it is preserved by 
this because it has entirely filled up its passages. 
Wherefore it naturally follows that, even if the 
added spice is in small quantity, its odour _pre- 
dominates, since it passes into a vehicle which is 
in itself not at all powerful and which is more 
receptive than itself. A corresponding account may 
be given of the keeping quality of the several oils, 
of their power of resisting fire, and other such 
qualities. Thus that oil which is most receptive, 
for instance, that of the Egyptian balanos, will also 
keep longest, and for the same reason; namely that 
that oil which is most receptive unites, more than 
others, into one single substance, as it were, with the 
spices. Such a substance will always last longer than 
others; which also explains why, if exposed to fire, it 
is less affected than others. 

‘Of the other oils the same applies to that of 
sesame, this being specially receptive ; ? but, for the 
contrary reason, almond-oil soon loses its virtue and. 
keeps for a shorter time than any other, for that oil 
which has been least receptive parts soonest with 
the property received. Sesame-oil however receives 
rose-perfume better than other oils? because of its 

have printed it from Sch.’s text. The omission is evidently 
due to the double occurrence of 7b ohoamvor, 




/ Ps \ \ / A , be 
onodpivov Sia THY ALTAapOTHTA*’ Tupovsevov Se 
b} lA , , , / e \ 
efofe. onoauov Kxabdamep avadvopevov. ai pev 

i al ? / 7 \ f ol 
oby TOV éaiwv duoes Kal Suvapels TOLADTAL. 
\ , 
V. Ta & adpopata ravta oxedov Kal evoopa 
s,' a > a \ \ \ \ \ 
TAnY Tov avOav Enpa Kal Oepwa Kal oTuTTiKa 
Kat OnktTikad. ta b€ Kal EXOVTA TLVA TLKPOTYTA, 

/ \ a 
Kabatep Kal év Tots mpotepov eltopev, WaTrEP 
= , , e > e A > wn A 
ipts cpvpva ALBavwrTos, @s O ATAMS ElTrely Kal 
Ta pupa. KolwoTatar 6€ Tav Suvdpewv TO TE 

‘ \ 7 , a A \ , / 
OTUTTLKOY Kal TO Oeppavtixov, & bn Kal épya- 

¢ , \ 5 , / \ 
Trootvdovta: pev ody TavTa TupovpEVva, TAS 
] , \ \ , »” / \ | 
8 dopas tas Kupias évia -AapBaver Wuypa Kai 
/ \ nr . nan \ \ 
aTUpwTa. Kal eolxey WaoTEp TOV avOav Ta peEV 
fal a , 
yuypoBapn ta Sé OeppoBad} TapatrAncIws 
tA \ > \ fal bd] nw / \ id 7 
éyew Kal érl Tov dopov. travtwv bé H Ernots 

\ , \ \ 

els Te THV UTOTTUWLY Kal Tas KUpias Oopas EvLOT- 
an vA lal 
apéevov TOV ayyelov VOaTe yiveTay Kal OUK AUTO 
lo! / raf 
TO Tupt Ypwpévov: TodTo dé, STL pardaKny eivat 
ro \ , \ b] - A / 7, A 
det THV OeppoTnta, Kal aTovcia TOAAN yévolT av 
- \ / \ » fal xX ¥ 
TH proyi Xpwpévorv, Kal Ett Kavow av For. 
love? 8 €XatT@ THY adrovciav boa TrUpOvpeva 
a A 
NapBaver Tas Kuptas do pmas waAXOV 7) boa ruxpa 
a \ 
dua TO Tpodhvpacbar Ta Tupovpeva, TA pEV oiV@ 
/ A A 
evoder, Ta S€ VOaTu HrTov yap avatrivers Ta SE 

wruxpa Enpa dvta pardrov, kabarep ipis KoTTelca. 




viscid quality ; and, when subjected to fire, it gives 
out a smell of sesame, as though it were being 
disintegrated. Such are the special characters and 
properties of the various oils. 

Of the spices used in making perfumes and their treatment. 

V. Almost all spices and sweet scents except 
flowers are dry hot astringent and mordant. Some 
also possess a certain bitterness, as we said above, 
as iris, myrrh, frankincense, and perfumes in general. 
However the most universal qualities are astringency 
and the production of heat; they actually produce 
these effects. 

All spices are given their astringent quality by 
exposure to fire, but some of them assume their special 
odours even when cold and not exposed to fire ; and 
it also appears that, just as with vegetable dyes some 
are applied hot and some cold, so is it with odours. 
But in all cases the cooking, whether to produce the 
astringent quality or to impart the proper odour, is 
done in vessels standing in water and not in actual 
contact with the fire; the reason being that the 
heating must be gentle, and there would be con- 
siderable waste if these were in actual contact with 
the flames ; and further the perfume would smell of 

However there is less waste when the perfume 
obtains its proper odour by exposure to fire than 
when it does so in a cold state, since those perfumes 
which are subjected to fire are first steeped either in 
fragrant wine or in water: for then they absorb ! less : 
while those which are treated in a cold state, being dry, 
absorb ! more, for instance bruised iris-root. Thus, if 

1 @vantver. So Sch. explains. cf. éxmlywouv, 24. 






AauBavovtos yap Tod audhopéws Enpas ipidos 
/ / \ , e iW \ 
KeKopevns pédtuvoy Kal S00 HulexTa TONY 
a , \ 
moveiy hacly amovaciav, av Sé peTpiws pupdon 
a \ a 
Nelrrev Saov Svo Yoas, Tots dé TOAXOIs EXaTTOP. 
Tiveras 8€ to BéXtiov tpwov éav 4 Enpa Kai 
/ \ 
amrvpwtos  ipiss axpatectépa yap 7 Sivamis 7 
>\ a \ . / , \ 
éay upadeicoa Kal mupovpévn. cvpBativer Sé 
wotmep Kat €KOrAiBecPar padrov éx TOV TpO- 
D “A \ @ > , \ 
Twepupapévav Oia TO HrTov avadéyecOar Kat 
> e 4 4 \ > \ , 
EXxew eis AUTO’ TpooTUpovTes 5é OV TOALY ypd- 
bea pee J , > I a ? \ 
VoV €@ol TA ApwpaTa adr’ Ee€alpovoy, OTwS M1 
TOAD éxTrivocy. 
\ a \ 
IIpos &eactov b€ TOV pipwv éuBddXovet Ta 
lal \ . 
Tpocpopa Tav apwudt@v, oloy eis wey THY KU- 
Tpov Kapdduwpov acTarabov avadhupdcartes TO 
ted > \ \ Ft a > 4 
evoder. eis 6€ TO podiwvor cyoivov acmddalov 
4 e > ? 4 ¢ / \ al 
Kddapov. » 8 advadvpacis opoiws. Kai Tots 
\ , a / A 
adNols el TA GpyoTTOVTAa. T@ podivm o éuBar- 
na \ 
NovTat Kat Gres Todo! Kal TodT idov Tapa 
3 \ \ , > / / , 
Tanra, 610 Kal TrEloTN arrovcia yiveTat ply- 
\ 3 \ BJ / "4 / 
vuTat yap els Tov apopéa Ovo pmédipvor. 
A , lol 
Tis 6€ cvTpou 7) péev épyacia rapaTAnCia TH 

1 Dry measure : the equivalents given are, of course, only 
To BéAtiov Ipivov W. after Sch.; 1d BéAtiov 7d Ypwor vulg. 
The article must be omitted in one place or the other. 
Kvmpos, called from a tree of that name: not mentioned 

in H.P. cf. Plin. 12. 119. 

* cf. H.P.9. 7.2and3. — Sof. HP. 9. 7. 3. 


into eight and a half gallons of oil we put thirteen 
gallons! of dry and bruised iris-root, they say that much 
loss is caused, while if one does not steep it too 
much, only about eleven pints and a half are wasted : 
and in the case of most perfumes the waste is less. 

However the superior? iris-perfume is made by 
using the root dry and not subjecting it to fire: for 
then its virtue asserts itself more completely than 
when it is steeped in a liquid or subjected to fire. 
It also comes to pass that, if the perfumes have been 
first steeped, their virtues are, as it were, squeezed 
out of them to a greater extent, because they take 
in and absorb less: and so, when they are making 
them astringent, they do not leave the spices in the 
oil for long, but take them out, so that they should 
not absorb an excessive amount. 

For making each perfume they put in the suit- 
able spices. Thus to make kypros® they put in 
cardamom * and aspalathos,> having first steeped 
them in sweet wine. To make rose-perfume they 
put in ginger-grass aspalathos and sweet-flag : and 
these are steeped as in the case of kypros. So too 
into each of the others are put the spices which 
suit them. Into rose-perfume moreover is put a 
quantity of salt’: this treatment is peculiar to that 
perfume, and involves a great deal of waste, twenty- 
three gallons § of salt being put to eight gallons and 
a half of the perfume. 

The manufacture of sypros resembles that of 

6 +@ edwde: here evidently means the same as 7@ yAvxei, 44, 
where t¢ olvy TG cdHder occurs just above: cf. meAtkpat@ h 
yAunei, C.P. 6. 17. 2. 

7 To prevent decay, as Diose. 2. 53 explains. 

8 Turn. suggests that wédimuvor should be uvai, the initial M 
having been misunderstood by a copyist. 



ne / \ > > Div \ , > / 
TOU podivou’ ANY AAN’ édv Tis i) TaYéws eEaipy 
n \ f 
Kal aTroOniBn on is éyywopuévn bOciper Ta ptpa 
dia tHv Svocwdiary toi yap ofp avuypat- 
5] » n / 
vouévyn. tapatAnata & épyacia cal Tod unrtvov: 
/ \ bs / \ \ a > / 
mpootudevtos yap €Aaiov Kal Ta pHra éuBar- 
> / oe Pe eee nr / \ Lal 
ovo eis Wuypon, eit’ éEatpovot Tadwvy mpd TOU 
4 \ s \ ? , 
peXaiverOar Kata tTracas Tas éuBords* pedatvo- 
pévav yap on is b1a TO avuypaiverOat, Kabdtep 
na 4 
Kal él THS KUTpOV. 
27 «VI. “Amravta 6€ ocuvtidevtar Ta pipa Ta pev 
at’ av0av ta Sé amo PvANwY Ta Sé ard KAwVOS 

Ta 8 aro pifns Ta S amo EtNwv Ta S ad Kap- 
an \ > > \ 4 \ \ 4 > ¢ 
woo ta & awd daxptov. puxta dé mav as 
> nw > ’ > nr \ \ 2S \ \ 
eimety. at avOadv pév olov TO podivov Kal TO 
NevKdivov. Kal TO covcwworv Kal yap TodTO &kx 
a , 4 \ \ / \ ee 4 
Tov Kpivev: étt 6€ TO ciavpBpivov Kal TO éprvr- 
Nuwvov Kai 1) KVTpOsS Kal Tpos TOUTOLS TO KpOKLVOY" 

, an 
BértiaTos 8 év Atyivy nat Kidexia. amo 68 Trav 
4 ze / / \ \ > / 
hUAAwY olov TO TE pUppiVoY Kal TO oivavOwor: 
ef > 9 / , 9 x \ rs 
aitn 8 év Kirp@ vera opewn cal todvodpmos" 
a aie 
ato O€ THs ev TH “EAAASL Od yivetar bia TO 
28 «Amro pilav 5€ 70 Te ipivoy Kal TO vapdwov Kal 
TO apapdaKwov €k TOD KdaTOU’ TOTO yap dVO- 

1 ef. Diosc. 1. 58. 

2 I have bracketed xa as suggested by Sch. 

* This passage, with some variations, is quoted by Athen, 
15. 39. *ef.; Plin.; 39. ‘11: 

° of. H.P. 6. 6. 11. for the plant, and for the perfume 
Athen. 15, 38. 



rose-perfume, except that, unless one soon takes out 
the flowers and squeezes them out, decay sets in and 
ruins the perfume by giving it a disagreeable smell, 
since they cause decay as they get soaked. Similar 
also is the manufacture of quince-perfume!: the oil 
is first made astringent, and is cold when the quinces * 
are put into it: then they take them out before they 
turn black, removing each batch before the next is 
put in: for, as they turn black, decay ensues because 
they get soaked through—just as in the case of 

Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and of the 
composition of various notable perfumes. 

VI. 3 Perfumes are compounded from various parts 
of the plant, flowers leaves twigs root wood fruit 
and gum: and in most cases the perfume is made 
from a mixture of several parts. Rose and gilli- 
flower perfumes are made from the flowers: so also 
is the perfume called susinon,* this too being made 
from flowers, namely, lilies : also the perfumes named 
from bergamot-mint and tufted thyme, sypros, 
and also the saffron-perfume; the crocus which 
produces this is best in Aegina and Cilicia. Instances 
of those made from the leaves are the perfumes 
called from myrtle and drop-wort®: this grows 
in Cyprus on the hills and is very fragrant: that 
which grows in Hellas yields no perfume, being 

6 From roots are made the perfumes named from 
iris spikenard and sweet marjoram,’ an ingredient in 
which is soston ; for it is the root to which this name 

® Instances of perfumes made from twigs seem to be 
missing. 7 cf. 30. Text perhaps defective. 



pafovor THY (piSar. To 5€ ypiopa 7d ’Eperpixdr 
éx TOD KuTrétpov. Koptterar 5€ amd TOV KuxeXda- 
day 70 KUTELpOV. amd EVAOV Sé 6 hoimE Kadov- 
prevos* €uBaXXovor yap TY dvopalopéevny onaOnv 
Enpdvarres. amo Kapmav 6é 76 Te pjdwvov Kal 
TO Huptivoy Kal TO Sagvivov: TO & Aiyortiov eK 
é& adXov. 

29 _ Ere & ék T ELOVOY TovTOU TO peyaneior" Kal 
yap éx Uva peo ou ae Kal €K THs cuUpYNS KoTTO- 
EVs éXatov pet OTAKTH yap Kanetrat dua TO 
<KaTa> perk pov orate. 0 67) povov TWES pacw 
aT AOUY eivat Kal acvvOerov TOV pbpov Ta © 
didha mavra ovv0eta, TAY Ta meV éx Trevovor 
7a S ef eat Tovar, && éhaxtotov dé TO iptvov. ot 
fev ovdv ore Néyovow, ot dé Thy épyactay THS 
oT AKT AS evar Toudy Oe THY owupvav oray KoWoct 
Kal SiatiEwoor év édaiw Baravive muph paran@ 
Dowp é émixetv Oeppov: cunitdvew & eis BvOoy’ TI 
cpupvav Kat ToUhaLOV Kkabatrep iov: oTay 6é 
ToUTO GupBhH, TO pev Bde p annoety thv & baro- 
otacw aToOni Bev o opyavors. 

30 «=6To Se peyanretor éK pntivns KEKAUMEVNS TUV- 
riBea Oa Kal €Naiouv Badavivov: piyvuobar &é 
Kaclav KWwdpopmov cpipvav. mreloTny O€ Tpay- 
paTelav rept TO meyanetov Kal TO Aiydmtuop eivat, 

1 6f. BOP SO! 13 3 ‘OP? G41. TS: 

2 of. H.P. 2. 8.4. ondOnv appears to be a conj. of W. for 
vulg. rAarny: éAdrny Turn. ef. LS. 8.7. 

3 Said to be called after the inventor, one Megallos: cf. 
Plin. 13. 13. 



is applied. The Eretrian unguent is made from 
the root of kypeiron,! which is obtained from the 
Cyclades as well as from Euboea. From wood is 
made what is called ‘ palm-perfume’: for they put 
in what is called the ‘spathe,’? having first dried 
it. From fruits are made the quince-perfume, the 
myrtle, and the bay. The ‘Egyptian’ is made 
from several ingredients, including cinnamon and 

Again from several parts of the plant is made the 
perfume called megaleion,? which is made from 
cinnamon and... .4 and from the myrrh when 
it is bruised flows an oil: it is in fact called 
stakte® (in drops) because it comes in drops slowly. 
Some indeed say that this is the only simple un- 
compounded perfume, and that all the others are 
compound, though made from a larger or smaller 
number of ingredients, and that iris-perfume is 
made from the smallest number of all. Some 
assert this, but others declare that the manufacture 
of stakte (myrrh-oil) is as follows: having bruised the 
myrrh and dissolved it in oil of balanos over a gentle 
fire, they pour hot water on it: and the myrrh and 
oil sink to the bottom like a deposit; and, as soon 
as this has occurred, they strain off the water and 
squeeze the sediment in a press. 

Megaleion, these authorities say, is compounded of 
burnt resin ® and oil of balanos, with which are mixed 
cassia cinnamon and myrrh. They add that this 
perfume and the Egyptian are the most troublesome 

4 The end of the account of megaleion and the beginning of 
that of myrrh-perfume seem to be missing. ?Supply «a) 
Kaglas Kal ouvprns. 

5 of. H.P. 9. 4. 10. 6 of. Plin. 13. 7. 

VOL. Il. AA 




trEloT@v yap piEw Kat ToAUTEAETTATOYV. TO O€. 
peyarei@ Kai TO EXatov EerOar Séx’ Huépas Kal 
déxa vUKTAS, Elta OUTS THY pyTivnY EeuBardrecOat 
Kal TaANa* SexTiKwTEpOY yap apeWnOévr. TOS 
apapakiwov To xpnoTov €k TaV BerTicTMY apw- 
4 / \ b] / 4 >] > 
patov cuvtiOec8ar yopls auapdKov: TovT@ 8 ov 
xpncat move TOY apwpaTwv TOvs pupeors ovd 
eis Ev pov, AAAD revd@vupes TIS H ETLKANGLS. 
Ilovodor Sé Kal Tad péev axpwpadtiota Ta dé 
KeXpopatiopéva. xXpwpatifovar Sé apwapeéKiwov 
poduvov peyarelov, aypwudatiota Sé TOY peV 
movvTeA@v AlytmtTiov pndtvov KUmpos, Ta 8 
> A / A \ > / , \ 
evTeEAH Tavta’ TadTa O€ axpwpdticta SLoTL TO 
\ : eee aA \ \ / \ 5 / 
pev Aiytrrtiov Kal THY KUTpoV AEvKA Eivat Bod- 
NovTat, TO O€ UNALY@ THY TOV pHAwY YXpoar, Tots 
ie PNMVO T1) ) XPOay; 
9 > / > val \ ca) / 
& evteréow ov AvotTEenel TO Yp@pwa TpoaTiGévas. 
/ \ \ \ > \ nm > 4, \ ? 
xpwpatiCovar Sé Ta pev EpvOpa TH ayxovon, TO 6 
awapaKivov TO KaNovpev@ Yp@paTL’ TovTO & 
b] > Wie 4 , vc > a , 
éotl pifiov 6 ayouvow éx Tis Lupias. 
VII. Luvepyetvy dé Soxodor mpos Tas yevoess 
> Or \ 4 > \ \ e / \ 
ovxX al dual movoy GAA Kal al SpiyuuTHTEs Kal 
¢€ , DF, \ \ a yy \ \ 
ai Oepmorntes éviwy, d10 Kai TOV olvwv Tic TA 
TovavTa puyvuvTes WoTrEp KéVTPOV éuTroLodaL. 

gate 5é€ 4 pev opvpyn Oepun Kal OnKTLKH peTa 



to make, since no others involve the mixture of so 
many and such costly ingredients. To make mega/leion, 
they say, the oil is boiled for ten days and_ nights, 
and not till then do they put in the resin and the 
other things, since the oil is more receptive when it 
has been thoroughly boiled. The superior kind of 
sweet marjoram-perfume,! they say, is made of all 

the best spices except sweet marjoram : in fact this 
_ is the only spice which perfumers do not use for any 
perfume, and the name is a misnomer. 

Some perfumes are made up colourless, some are 
given a colour. They give a colour to sweet mar- 
joram-perfume, rose-perfume, and megaleion, while 
among expensive kinds the Egyptian, quince-perfume 
and kypros are colourless, as well as all the cheaper 
kinds. The reason why these are made without 
colour is that it is desired that the Egyptian and 
kypros should look white and that quince-perfume 
should have the colour of quinces, while it is not 
worth while to add colour to the cheaper sorts. 
The dye used for colouring red perfumes is alkanet ; 
the sweet marjoram-perfume is dyed with the sub- 
stance called khroma (dye), which is a root imported 
from Syria. 

Of the properties of various spices. 

VII. It is thought that not only the smells of 
perfumes contribute to a pleasant taste, but also the 
qualities of pungency and heat which are found in 
some of them: accordingly some of these perfumes 
are also mixed with certain wines to give, as it were, 
‘point’ to them. Thus myrrh is hot and has a 
biting quality as well as being astringent, and it also 

1 Clearly distinct from that mentioned in 28. 


AA 2 


oT IEDs, éyer O€ Kal TUK play. TO O€ KiVaEwLoV 
Spypurnra TWa HeTplay peta Beppornros. Tapa- 
mAnoiws dé Kal TO KOO TO. » O€ acta TOUT@V 
DrepBarnet Beppornre Kal Sppurnre Kal oruwpel. 
Depp dé Kal OTUTTLK? ral 7) ipis, Kad” umepBodnv 
dé Kal Tikpa véa ovaa Kal TOV XpOTa. Tov épyat- 
Omeveov adedkoi. OnuTixov dé Kat TO Kapoapo- 
pov peta Depporntos. Tov o€ Barodpov O mev 
OTOS Kal TO KapTLov avopiKarepa T pos dpporepa 
TavTa, To 6 EvAOV doVevéarepor. TapaTAnoiav 
& éyer ToUT@ Svvaptv Kal TO pu L0V. 

33 «‘O 6éé oXoivos OnKTLK@T EOD pev Tob kadapov 
kat Oepporepor, OTUTTUKE 5é opoiws aude. 
dé «al 7 aomadaos n evodns. 1 O€ vapdos 
SnxTLKy pera Beppornros. TO Oé€ pedpov Kal TO 
X pa La 70 els TO apapdKivov € peo wevov Jep- 
pavTiKnd. [ouvepyet d€ Kal THs ayxovons TO 
petiov eis TH xpoav TOU podivov Kal THS iptsos. | 

34 Néa peév ody ovta Toy apopmdtev évia duvipers 
jeev evOvs exel Bapetas Kat Spipetas, Tahavovpeva 
dé péypt TIS aki ‘yAveaiverat, elt avanveTat 
wad. obov 7 ipes els pev THY épyaciav ax pater 
peTa THV ouoyiy Tpla éry, Kat dtapéver Se 
™retorov Xpovov e& étn. TO d€ pwapor ety dvo. 
% O€ o wupya déxa én Srapever Bedriov ryevopmern. 
Tapamhnatos € TOUTOLS ” TIS aK BhS Sapovi) 
Kal ToD KW A pe LOU Kal Tov KOoTOV Kal THs 
Kkacias. oxoivos 6€ Kal Kddapos Tapakpmater 
taxyv. tov & av0av ta pév evOds yAwpAa dvTA 

1 of. Plin 21. 42. 2 ef. Index. exotvos (2). 
3 of. Index, kdAauos 6 edwdns. 


dell i i i 



has a bitter quality. Cinnamon again has a fair 
amount of pungency as well as heat. So too is it 
with koston. Cassia exceeds both of these in heat 
pungency and astringency. Iris-perfume is hot and 
astringent, and excessively bitter when it is fresh, 
lin which state it causes sores on. the skin of those 
that work on it. Cardamom has also a biting quality 
as well as heat. The juice and the fruit of balsam 
of Mecca are more active in producing both these 
qualities, while the wood is less so. Nepaul cardamom 
has also a property similar to this. 

Ginger-grass* has a more biting quality than 
sweet-flag,? and is hotter; but both are equally 
astringent. Kypeiron is however more astringent 
than either. The sweet-scented aspalathos also has 
this quality. Spikenard has a biting quality as well 
as heat. Maron and the khroma which is mixed with 
sweet marjoram-perfume are heating. ‘* The root of 
alkanet also contributes to the colour of rose-perfume 
and iris-perfume. 

Now some spices when they are fresh have at first 
heavy and pungent qualities, but in course of time 
become sweet till they have reached their prime, 
and then lose their properties again. Thus the iris 
is at its prime for manufacturing the perfume for 
three years after it was gathered, and ® lasts for six 
years at longest.5 Maron lasts two years; myrrh ten, 
and improves with time. Cinnamon foston and 
eassia keep at their best for about the same periods 
as these. Ginger-grass and sweet-flag soon get past 
their prime. Of flowers some, like the rose, possess 

4 This sentence seems irrelevant here. 

5-6 kal—i?rn. These words are omitted, apparently by 
accident, in both W.’s editions, though represented in his 
Latin translation, 



Tas duvapers &yer, KaAOdTrEp TO podov, Ta bé Enpar- 
/ 4 e / Bed 4 \ 
Oévta, Kabarrep 0 KpoKos Kal 0 méeNiAWTOS' VYAWPA 
yap vyporepa. 
\ \ s 4 \ / n > 4 
35 «Tas pév odv dios Kal duvdpers TOV GpapaTov 
éx ToUTaV Oewpnréor. 
VIII. Aoxet 6€ TO peyaretov adpdéypavTov 
elvat TavTos TpavpaTtos: TO dé podivoY apLaToY 
n >] n 
mMpos Ta MTA. TavTa 8 ovK adOyYws. TOD pev 
yap » avvOecis ek pntivns Kexavpévns, WoTrEp 
eréyOn, Kal Kacias Kal Kivapopou Kal cpvprns, 
adnavta 6€ Tadta otumTiKa Kal EnpavtiKd. TO 
\ Cw lal b] \ > \ ¢ > c \ e€ 
dé podswvov tols @olv ayabdv btu év arolvy H 
/ b ld \ \ > , \ 
Toinow: avaknpaiver yap Kat éxOeppaiver dra 
tovs ddas: 810 Kal  ddocaxvn ayadov. adra 
a / / al 
TO THS TTpayyoupias Noyou Seitat> Kal yap TavTH 
na > 
Néyovar pddtoTa Bonbeiv. aitiov 8 av ely diote 
a ee / / bd a a , 
mav To UneEdyew pédAXov avardoat Set mpoTepov 
To UTeEayOnodpevov: TodTO dé Ot Ades TroLovawy, 
eo > bi. \ e \ > £5 
4 8 evwdia THY oppny amrédaxe. 
EL cir wy Geer Ul, ov \ y atleast ink 
36 Ava ti dé TO iptvoy evoopov pév ov Tote’ 5é TH 
oppyv; % OLoTL oTUTTLKOY Kal ovVayer TovS 
/ A / 4 \ , 
Topovs, WaTEe GuyKAEloeL KWAVELY THY diodov; 
GNA Kal Kotdtas AUTLKN Sid TE THY OEeppoTyTa 
\ \ \ <A / \ » eB." \ , 
Kal Ola TO atootidew Tovs éml THY KOT 
 ¥ ; 
mopous' amoKNEloMévav yap ToVT@Y eis THY 
KoiNLav %) auppon. TO dé brOv happaK@des Kal 

lef. C.P. 6. 14. 8 and 11, 



their virtues from the first while they are still fresh, 
some only after they are dried, as crocus and meltlotos,1 
these having a certain amount of moisture while they 
are fresh. 

These examples may suffice for study of the 
characters and properties of spices. 

Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes. 

VIII. Megaleion is believed to relieve the in- 
flammation caused by any wound, and rose-perfume 
to be excellent for the ears. And this is probable 
enough. For the former is composed, as was said, 
of burnt resin cassia cinnamon and myrrh, and all 
these have astringent and drying properties: 
while the reason why rose-perfume is good for the 
ears is that salt is used in the manufacture of it: for 
it is by reason of the salt that it dries and warms 
(which is why ‘ sea-foam 2’ is also good for the ears). 
Its use against strangury however needs explanation : 
for it is said to be specially helpful against this. 
The explanation may be that anything which is to 
remove the difficulty must first dissolve that which 
is to be removed ; and this is the effect of the salt, 
while the fragrance supplies the necessary stimulus. 

Why however, it may be asked, though iris- 
perfume is fragrant, does it not give the stimulus? 
Perhaps it is because it is astringent and closes the 
passages, so that by shutting them it prevents free 
course. On the other hand this perfume acts as a 
laxative on the bowels because of its heating 
quality and because it astringes the passages leading 
to the bladder: for, when these are closed, the 
liquid collects in the bowels. In general iris- 

2 Said to be a zoophyte: cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 14. 2, 




: ee An lal / e€ > oe / 
TO ipwov Kal dda THY pvpav. 7 8 aitia TavToD 
€ / 3 a > a / a > 
@s Kkaborov eimety év tats Suvdyeot tats eipn- 
pévats, OTL oTUTTLKa Kal CepparvTiKd: Ta apo- 
\ a / a 
pata yap Ta TolavTa happax@dn. TavTa pev 
5 a fs es 
ov Ew Ths TExVNS. 
IX. Kpdows 5é wal pikis od« éoti wpicpévyn 
TOV apwpatov, bot éK TOV aUToV del YpNnoTa 
a \ , 
Kal Omora yivecOar, aAddoia é cupBaiver Ova THY 
avopyariay Tov Svvduewr TOV év TOls apopact. 
fal > eae | / Ii , 7 / 4 
THs © avopanrias aitiat wreiovs. pia pév, Hrrep 
e/ \ , arene’ 8 > A) , 
attn yap mwodvyouvotépas oTé 8 aabevertépas 
a / ») an A 
tas Ouvdpets <movet>. érépa de év TH avdAXROYH, 
a a a x a \ 
TO TpoTEephoar THS aKuAS i) VoTEpHoat Kal yap 
aA > \ Py / ? Pe e \ 4 
TovTO ov puxpov Stadéper. Tpitn O peta THY 
/ e / a \ \ > / 
auAN0yHV, boa xXpovov Seitar Tpos THY aKprD, 
e b] / \ \ > n 4 3 \ 
@oTep €héxOn Kal yap évtavOa éortt TO TpoTe- 
peiy Kal voTepev. 
a a > a 
Tovtor 5€ TO péev TOV eTOY OVK eh Hiv, TrIY 
’ \ > / \ a / \ ’ 
eis TO eidevar TA Tota chodpoTépas Kai aaOeve- 
/ ” \ , \ de \ \ > \ 
otépas éyet Tas Suvdpes: Ta OE KATA TAS UKMAS 
a an \ \ \ > 
eon > , a O77 a A 738 / 
9 n / 
‘H peév ody yéveois Kab cuv0ecis THY pupwV EK 

“le -. = Soe 


perfume, as well as others, has medicinal properties. 
And the explanation in all cases, to put it generally, 
lies in the above-mentioned properties of astringency 
and heating; for it is spices possessing these pro- 
perties that are medicinal. However these matters 
lie outside our subject of study. 

Of rules for tie mixture of spices, and of the storing of various 
perfumes, — 

1X. There is no fixed rule for the combination 
and mixture of spices in the sense that the same 
components will always produce a satisfactory and a 
uniform result: the result varies by reason of the 
varying quality of the virtues found in the spices. 
For this there are several reasons. One, which 
applies also to fruits, is the character of the season ; 
this causes the virtues to be sometimes much more 
than ordinarily powerful, sometimes less so. Another 
is to be found in the time of collection, according 
as it is made before or after the spices are in their 
prime. A third cause operates after the collection, 
that is, in the case of those spices which need time 
to come to their prime, as was said‘: for here too 
it is possible to be too soon or too late. 

Of these causes that which depends on the seasons 
is not within our control, except so far as we can 
discover which spices in a particular season have 
powerful, and which weak virtues.2 But we can 
control those which depend on collecting them 
when in their prime, or on keeping them after they 
are collected, that is, if we know pretty well how to 
hit the right moment. 

So much for the origin and composition of 

1 34, 2 7.e. and we can select accordingly. 



TloAvypomeatatov 8 éott to 7 Aiydatiov Kal 
7 \ 
TO lpwov Kal TO apuapadKiov Kal TO vapduvor, 
mavrov b€ pddytoTa 1 oTaKkTy, Stapéver yap 
oTocovouvy xXpovov. upoT@Arns bé Tis ébn Tap 
> an / > 4 \ > , a ” 
avT@ penevnxévar Aiyvrrtiov wey OxKT@ én, tpivov 
v \ » 4 la x a b 
8é elxoot, Kal ére Stapévery BéXtLov Ov TAY axpat- 
/ 4 
39 «6Ta 8 avOwa ravta acbevi. cupBaiver 8é 
a , / lal 
tois avOivois axpualew pev ws ert TO Tay peta 
, / > » Soe, ( \ a > a 
Siunvov, petaBadrew 8 él To yelpov éviavtod 
mpoeNOovtos Kal mepixatadkaBovons THs pas 
b] e \ > \ / \ v is Stk , 
ey 7 THVv axpny AauBaver TO AvOos. ava Noyov 
dé 7H acOeveia Kal TO edrétavta eivar Kal dros 
eviiatrvevata? Ta 0 €x TOY pilav Kal TOV NoLTOV 
\ \ / 
Xpovi@tepa: TArelwyv yap 7 apr Kal taxupoTépa 
Kal copmatwdeotépa. 
\ / 
40 AtadOeipes 5é Ta pvpa Kai dpa Oepur Kal 
/ \ e . x O60 - PS \ \ ¢ 
ToTos Kal o ros, av Te@ou 810 Kal of pupo- 
a an \ 5 / e / \ \ 
moat bntodor Tas olKias wmepwovs Kal py) 
, b] , ow / / > 
mpoondlouvs AAX OTL MaALTTA TaALCKLOVS adat- 
a ¢ 
peitar yap Tas dapas O HALOS Kal TO Oepmov Kal 
A / lal a a 
dros éLiotnar THs pvcews paddov Tod >ruypod: 
TO O€ Wuypov Kal o Tayos, eb Kal doopoTepov 
mows Sua TO cuaTéXXELY, GAN oOvK adatpeitat 
\ , / e \ \ 4 
ye Tv SUvamv Tel€ws. 1 Tovnpa yap HOopa, 
KadaTep THY olvywy Kal TOV aAAwV YVADV, TO 
TO oixetov adarpeicOar Oeppov. 810 Kal eis aryyela 
PorAVBSa éyyéovat Kal Tods dhaBdoTtpous EnTodar 
TowovTov AiPov: yruypov yap Kal TUKVOY Kal Oo 





Those which last longest are the Egyptian, the 
iris, the sweet marjoram and the spikenard perfumes : 
but myrrh-oil has the longest life of any; for it will 
keep any time. A certain perfumer said that he 
had had Egyptian perfume in his shop for eight 
years, and iris-perfume for twenty, and that it was 
still in good case, in fact better than fresh perfume. 
These are instances of perfumes which will keep a 
long time. | 

On the other hand all those made from flowers 
have little vigour. These are usually at their best 
after two months, but they deteriorate when a year 
has past and the season has come round again at 
which the flowers are at their best. Also, as these 
perfumes lack vigour, so also do they quickly mellow, 
and, in most cases, quickly evaporate. Those made 
from roots and the other parts of the plant last 
longer, their odour being fuller stronger and more 

Perfumes are ruined by a hot season or place or 
by being put in the sun. This is why perfumers 
seek upper rooms which do not face the sun but are 
shaded as much as possible. For the sun or a hot 
place deprives the perfumes of their odour, and in 
general makes them lose their character more than 
cold treatment: while cold and frost, even if they 
make them less odorous by congealing them, yet de 
not altogether deprive them of their virtue. For 
the most destructive thing that can happen to them, 
as to wines and other savours, is that they should be 
deprived of their proper heat. This is why men put 
them into vessels of lead and try to secure phials of 
alabaster—a stone which has the required effect : 
for lead is cold and of close texture, and stone has 





/ c lo] 
porAvBbos Kal o diBos 6 ToLodTos: Kal dptoTtos 
TOS pupols O padLoTAa TOLOUTOS. Wate Ov audo 
fe) Mee a fel A / 
THpovel, Kal TO Wuyp@® Kal TO TvKVo, pte 
é / Y4 \ > \ /Q? @ > , 
wévtes €€@ THY oopny pnO brows emideyopmevor 
/ \ \ € re \ / \ Li 
pndév. Kal yap 4 avarrvon dbeipe Kat TO tEwOev 
, \ 
€metolov Kal AAAOTPLOV: émrEL Kal TA TvEvpaTA 
, , / 5 / \ 
POcipe kal Katavadioxe, Kabdtrep édéxOn, Tas 
b] / ” \ \ \ / 
OO Mas, ANAWS Te Kal TAS pH PvoLKas. 
X. Kegararyn 6é tev péev TorvTEeA@V TO 
\ a a 
auapaKwov Kal TO vadpdwov Kal peyadetov, TOV 
a ry \ lal \ 
& evTeA@y Ordos pevy Ta TrEloTA PadtoTa bé TO 
’ A , 
dapvivov. édXadpotata Sé TO pédwov Kal 4 
a , / 
KUTpOS, & Kal Tois avdpdot pddiota apyLoTTew 
a \ \ / al 
doxel, Kal TpOs TOUTOLS TO Kpivov: Tals Se yuvarEly 
\ a \ 
) OTAKTH Kal TO peyareioy Kal TO Alydmrvov Kai 
TO GuapaKiwov Kal TO vapd.ivory bia yap Tip 
ioxvv Kal TO TaXOS OVK EvaTTOTVOAa OVd evad- 
/ a \ \ r 
aipeta* CnTovat <yap> Ta ypevia. 
> \ be \ A > ‘al a \ 8 > / \ 
Ere 6€ ta pev aoberh ta ioxupd, Kal 
> , RS oe | a e hn \ \ » \ 
ioyupoTepa Ta ato ToV pilav Kal Ta adda TA 
\ nA \ 
mMpoetpnucva, Oud TOUTO TA pev avOLWa p12) TPpL- 
/ ¢ a a 
Bopweva evoopotepa, Ta 8 amo Ttav pilav Kal 
\ \ , \ \ \ a , 
Ta ola TplBomevar TA pev yap StaTrvetrai 
\ ¢ / A \ a 
Te Kal dua Siadeppawopeva Sid tiv Ttpivev 
>g-/ \ 3 an \ \ \ \ 3 \ 
eEiotatal Kat addovovTat, Ta 5é Sia Thy ioxoy 

1 €.9. alabaster, which here at least is spoken of asa kind 
of stone. 2 yap ins. Sch. 



the same character, that being the best for keeping 
perfumes which has it in the highest degree.t So 
that vessels made of these materials keep the 
perfume well for both reasons, their coolness and 
their closeness of texture: they neither let the 
odour pass away through them, nor do they take 
in anything else. For evaporation destroys the 
perfume, and so also does any foreign substance 
- which finds its way in: for even draughts of air 
destroy odours and cause them to waste, as was 
said, especially those odours which do not belong 
to a thing’s essential nature. . 

Of the properties of certain perfumes. 

X. Headache is caused by sweet marjoram spike- 
nard and megaleton among costly perfumes: most of 
the cheap ones have also this effect, notably that 
made from bay. The lightest are rose-perfume and 
kypros, which seem to be the best suited to men, 
as also is lily-perfume. The best for women are 
myrrh-oil, megaleion, the Egyptian, sweet marjoram, 
and spikenard: for these owing to their strength 
and substantial character do not easily evaporate 
and are not easily made to disperse, and? a lasting 
perfume is what women require. 

Inasmuch however as some perfumes are stronger 
than others, the stronger being those made from 
roots and the others already mentioned, for this 
reason those derived from flowers are more fragrant 
if they are not bruised, while bruising improves 
those made from roots and the others. For the 
former kind evaporate and pass off as they are 
warmed by the bruising, thus losing their character, 
while the latter owing to their strength have, as it 





éuhaveotépav trovel THY OopHv. 6 Kal ém avTov 
Tov pilav Kat dos TaVY oTEpeav cUpPBaiveL, 
Kadatrep €éxOn. Kata bé TOV avOdr évarTias, 
OOTE TcorovOnnev éxdTepa TH apx?. Ta © éx 
TIS omvpVns evroyarata 80 appoo* Kal yap 
piyvuTau paddov Kal <1)> Oeppworns 7) ” TIS Tpiipews 
ovK adnroTpia, paraky Tls ovaa* Kal yap <> 
opupva Cnret Twa TUPWOL. aTAWS be Tay TO 
TOAUOO OV avr evades avTeE Kaxddes avre Spey 
avt 0&0 avT omrovovody TUyXavyn, KWovpevov ép- 
pavéatepov TOTE yap woTrep evepyeia avapiyvuTat 
LadXov TO dé pl. 

Tov 82. pupwv TO Aiyumtiov Kal D) OT AKT) Kal 
el TL AXXO TrOAVOS MoV [«at] peyvopeva TO oiv@ TO 
evade dio Tapacpetrat yap a Bapirns avTav: 
émel Kal 1) onUpYN avTn Tpos THY avabupiacw 
BpexGcioa € év TO yAuKEL, KASaTEp év TOIs TPOTEpOV 

45  IIpos be Tas _Ouvdpers KOT OUMEVOLS do€evev av 

aTOTTOV eivat TO ovpPatvov éml ToD podivov: Kov- 
poratov yap ov Kab acbevéotatov adaviter Tas 
TOV adhov do pas OT av T popupia ace 610 Kat 
ol bupoT@dat Tovs émridia TaCovTas Kal a) @voU- 
févous Tap avtav émiuvpifover ToUT@ Tpds TO 
pn aicavecbar Ta Tapa TOV adAXoV. aiTLov 
& 6tt NeTTOTaTOV bv Kai Tpogdires TH aiaOijcer 
Sia thy Koudétnta pddota Suxveirar Kal cup- 

1} ins. W. 2 7 ins. W. 
3 The words &yre dpiud are omitted in both W.’s editions, 
but represented in his Latin version. 



were, certain passages opened by the bruising, and 
so their fragrance is made more obvious. This, as 
was said, also takes place in the case of the roots 
themselves and of the solid things in general; but 
the result in the case of flowers is just tle opposite, 
so that both kinds behave according to their origin. 
That this should apply to the perfumes made from 
myrrh is quite natural for both reasons; they mingle 
more than others with the air, and the heat! due to 
the bruising is not prejudicial, since it is gentle, and 
myrrh ? in fact requires a certain amount of heating. 
And in general any strong odour, whether it be 
pleasing or the reverse, whether it be pungent? or 
sharp, or whatever its character, becomes more 
pronounced with movement; for then it becomes, 
as it were, active and mingles more with the air. 

The Egyptian perfume, myrrh-oil, and any others 
that have a strong odour become‘ sweeter if they 
are mixed with fragrant wine; for then their heavy 
quality is removed. In fact myrrh itself is made to 
exhale a more fragrant odour by being steeped in 
sweet wine, as was said ® in a former treatise. 

If one has regard to the virtues of the perfumes 
in question, one may well be surprised at what 
happens in the case of rose-perfume :—though it 
is lighter and less powerful than any other, if one 
has first been scented with it, it destroys the odour 
of the others. And this is why perfumers, if a 
purchaser hesitates and is not inclined to buy this 
perfume, scent him with it so that he is not 
able to smell the others. The explanation is that, 
being very delicate and acceptable to the sense of 
smell, by reason of its lightness it penetrates as no 

4 T have bracketed xa). 5.6 P26. AF: 


mrnpot Tovs Topovs, WGO 7 aicOnots KaTELANM- 

46 wévn Kal wAHpyS ovoa Kpivety advvaTet. Svo 



yap eiot TpoTror, Taya b€ TpEis, OF K@AVOVTES THY 
, e \ e lal > / 7 oe > J \ 
Kpiowv. els péev Oo viv elpnuévos arXos 8 oO amo 
a al 4 
Tov icxyupov aorep peOvaoKwv THY aicOnow Kal 
KkapnBapav tow: Tpitos 8 btav tpoxatadngey 
n "4 + \ > / \ an > 
T® PBedtiovs TO yap émetcdyew TO YeElpov ov 
ce LO > 4 x ec v Q A o 
padiov: ov déxetar yap 9 aic@nois, woTeEp ov 
> \ n a yh ia \ \ / 
Katioxyvaivew dé doxet to podov Kat thy ovv- 
>] / 4 A > / \ ” 4 / 
Oerov oopnv Stav yap axpaln To avOos, podifover 
tas auvOéces, avovyopevar 8 é£ofovar tovtov 
povouv Kal udduota. Tavetar dé Taxd Kal AnyEL 
\ \ > , ON , - er \ > / 
dua THY acOéverav Kal NerrTOTNTA, Ov Hv Kal é&o- 
al ” A \ 9 : ¢e > \ A 
a 4 a fal 
nm \ / nr \ > \ \ 
Tav Kat dtadidotat mavtayod. dia TavTo 4é 
TOUTO Kal amrodnyEes TAaXU Kal KaTaKpaTeiTaL 
/ > ° \ \ \ \ , 
Tadww: acGevel yap TO NeTTOV Kal wadaKor. 
a /, nm fal 7 
Ilovotot Sé tives TodTO Kal TOV olvwy, waTE 
mpoTodevtes adhavifey thy TV ado HdovHV. 
oA > a :," b] / € / \ + 
éviot 8 wate pn eTrLdévec Oat padiws Tovs adXouvs, 

1 cf. 57, 58. atvOeros douh or civOeois seems to mean a 
kind of pot-pourri, which was from time to time renewed 
with fresh rose-petals. Sch. understands ctv@eo1s to mean 
‘ a wardrobe’ (cf. Lat. synthesis), but it must 
surely have the same meaning here as otv@etos doun: Sch.’s 
citation from 57 does not seem to prove his point, and 
pévovet woAdy xpdvov af cuvGécers in 58 is conclusive against 
him. of. also 69. 



other can and fills up the passages of the sense, so 
that being entirely taken up and filled with it, it is 
unable to judge of others. For the power of judging 
is inhibited in two, or possibly in three ways; one is 
that which has just been mentioned ; another is that 
the sense of smell is, as it were, intoxicated with its 
powerful virtues and becomes stupefied : the third 
is that the sense may be preoccupied with the 
superior odour; for then it is not easy to introduce 
after it what fe inferior, since the sense of smell 
refuses this—just as the sense of taste in like case 
refuses flavours and foods in general. 

It is also thought that the rose even weakens the 
effect of compound perfume! ; for, when the flower is 
at its best, they treat compound perfumes with it; 
and, when these come to be opened, they smell only 
or chiefly of rose. However this effect is only 
temporary and transient because of the weakness 
and delicacy of the rose-scent, (the very quality 
which also causes it to assert? itself over the scent of 
the other ingredients). For, as it is so delicate and 
is compressed by confinement, it is exhaled before 
the others aid disperses in all directions. It is also 
for this reason that the rose-scent only asserts itself 
for a short time and then is overpowered again; for 
anything that is delicate and subtle must be lacking 
in vigour. 

Certain wines have also a similar effect: if they 
are first drunk, there is no satisfaction in others. 
Some again make it even difficult to take others 

2 ¢.e, when the pot-pourri is first opened: the ‘ delicacy’ 
of the rose-scent causes it to be given off quickly and so (1) 
to be the first scent perceived, (2) to be volatile. é¢w in 
this passage is used with gen. in two distinct senses. 

VOL. If. BB 


or ¢ 3 a ¢ t x \ f 
womep 0 EpvOpatas aduxkos Tis OV Kal padaxos. 
\ Sa \ / b An e / 
THY aitiav <dé> Tetpatéov éx TOV opmolwvy ap- 
, ” Sy a> 9» Stor s ef 
Bavew: éye Sé tovr idiov TO podivov, doTreEp 
axedov Kal miKp@ TpoTepoy elpntar’ Ta pev yap 
add\v\a TavT Ta TrELoTA KEehararyh, ToUTO Oé, 
wd > / \ \ / Se ig 
w@aoTrep EXXON, AUTLKOV Kal Bapous Kal adyndovos 
Kal THS ATO TOV ppav. 

49 «SH & aitia havepa dia Tov Tpoerpynpevor, elTrep 
a A \ 
érixpatel Kal dvadveTar TavTayov. Ta ev yap 
arr’ doa Kkehararyhn Bapéa bia TO Ex ToLovTwY 
cuyKetabar Ta mev pilav Ta 8 oTa@v: TovTO dé Kal 

a al ial / 

TH oopn éradppov Kal TH OepuoTynte cvpmperpor eis 
TO oupTréyrat Kai SiavotEas Tovs Topous. ol yap 
a a / 

69 Tovot Ths Keparhs 7) KaSvypatvouevns 7) mvev- 
patovuperns TO évaTroAapBdverOal, Mote TO pev 

I a lal \ \ / x 3 al 
éxxpivat Set TO O€ méyras 7) adheneiv. 
\ 7 \ € , / \ ’ 
50 Ilpos &ravta Oé 4 Oepporns ypHotpor, Kal eis 
adaipecty Kal Ett waddov eis TO TETTELV Kal Stay- 
oiryery TOvS Topous, cis & TUMBdAXETAL TO ev TO 
ant metroncOar Kal yap avactopodcr Kal dia- 
Oeppaivovow ot addres. 4 8 evoopia Kal opunv 
Tiva Toles Tmpos THY Kivnow. ayaov 8é Kal 
al \ lal 
Soxel mpos Tovs KoTroUs elvat TH OepmoTnte cvp- 
MeTpoy Ov Kal TH KoupoTytt Kal TH Stadvoer pos 
TOUS €vTOS Topous: ws bé TLWés hac, OvY HTTOV 
 KUTTpOS ETL TOUTOU: MadaKn Yap % oom Kal 

1 of. 52. 2 d¢ ins. W. 
8 7.e. the case is so far analogous to that of rose-perfume ; 
but the comparison does not hold as to what follows, 



after them; this is the effect for instance of wine 
of Erythrae,! which has a taste of brine and is 
subtle. The? explanation one must endeavour to 
find by comparing analogous cases. However there 
is one peculiarity which as we have already more or 
less indicated, is possessed by rose-perfume only ; while 
all or most of the others are heady, this, as was said, 
gives actual relief from heaviness and discomfort, 
even from that caused by other perfumes. 

’ The reason for this is plain in view of what has 
been already said, seeing that this perfume over- 
powers others and penetrates everywhere. For the 
others that are heady are heavy because they are 
made of heavy substances, whether roots or juices ; 
while this perfume is both light as to its scent and 
also by its heat well adapted to bring the passages 
to a suitable temperature and to open them. For 
pains in the head are due to an excess of moisture in 
it, or of air which gets confined in it, so that it is 
necessary to get rid of the one, and to raise the 
temperature of the other or to remove it. 

And for all such purposes heat is useful, both for 
removing the moisture or air, and, still more, for 
raising the temperature of the passages and opening 
them: and to these ends it is helpful that the 
perfume should have been prepared with salt, since 
the effect of salt is to open the passages and to 
warm them thoroughly. Again the fragrance also 
supplies a stimulus to movement. This perfume is 
also considered to be good against lassitude, because 
its heat and its lightness make it suitable, and also 
because it penetrates to the inner passages. Some 
however say that kypros is quite as efficacious: for 
this too has a delicate scent which is grateful to the 

BB 2 

\ aA \ \ e / an 
Tpoopirns TO YpwTl Kai » TavTns. Kal TadTa 
bev Kal TA Gpota TovTOLs MaoTrEp LdLa av Ein. 
a , e / A a 
51 = XI. Tod podivou 8€ ai wi€ets al év tals dopais 
kal év Tots YUpmois, av Hpmoopévar TvyKavwct, 
éyouval Tiva Ypelay, ai pev apaipodoa THY Bapv- 
> i 
TnTa Kal THY iayvdY, ai O Evoduiav Tiva ai dé 
yAuKUTnTa éuTrovovcal, Kabatep Kal éml Tov 
\ ec" e A 
olvev.. Kat yap o év Odow o &v TS TpuTaveiw 
Siddpevos, SOavpactos Tis ws EotKe THY HdovHY, 
> / > / > / \ > \ / 
npTumévos €oTiv: éuwBaddovor yap eis TO KEpa- 
n / / ¢ A 
pov aotais pédAtTL pupdoavtes, WoTE THY MeV 
n 4 rn 
oopny am avtovd, Thv O€ yAUKUTHTa ato TOU 
\ y 
oTatTos AapSavewy Tov olvor. 
: , \ a) \ \ \ fal v 
62 LvpBaivew S€ TodTO Kal KaTa Tas TOY oivwr 
piéers olov éav Tis KEpdon TKANPOV Kal eVoTpoV 
A \ >. f 4 \ ¢ , 
paraKk@® Kal aoopw, Kabarep tov Hpaxkrewrny 
kat Tov "Epu@paiov, tod pév THY wadaKoTHTA TOD 
/ , , 
5é THv evoomiay Tapeyopévou' ocuptinte yap 
/ a 
dpa Ta Kaka adAnA@V adhavitew TH pwaraKoTyTL 
a / 

Oatépov <xal TH evocpia Oatépov>. oddas bé 
p Res ey / A a 7 
Kal GAXas ol ETretpot A€yovot Kal icact pikers. 
A n , 

0 Kal él TOY Oc MaV eVAOYOV cUpBaivey, Kal érl 
a 4 

TOV XpoLatov av Tis AawBavy Tas apmoTToveas 
a / 
piEers. TodTO pev ovdv idtov TOD podivov. 
\ \ \ ’ , b] , 7 / 
53 ©6Td O€ xowov émt TavT@Vv amropnua, Ti Oy ToTE 

1 Quoted by Athen. 1. 58. 2 of. 48. 
8’ This sentence must be defective: as it stands, the effect 
of only one wine is given, though the effect is said to be 



skin. These and similar properties may be con- 
sidered peculiar to these particular perfumes. 

Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes. 

XI. The admixture of rose-perfume, whether in 
scents or in flavours, if it be well blended, is bene- 
ficial, in the one case by removing the heaviness and 
strength of the scent, in the other by imparting a 
fragrant scent or a sweet taste to the flavour, as in 
the case of wines. 1Thus the wine which is served 
in the town-hall of Thasos, which appears to be 
of wonderfully delightful quality, is thus flavoured, 
For they put into the jar a lump of dough which has 
been kneaded up with honey, so that the wine gets 
its fragrance from itself, but its sweet taste from the 
honeyed dough. 

This result also follows, it is said, from the mixture 
of different wines,—-for example, if a strong fragrant 
wine be mixed with one that is mild and without 
fragrance, (for instance, if wine of Heraclea be 
mixed with wine of Erythrae),? since the latter con- 
tributes its mildness and the former its fragrance: 
3for the effect is that they simultaneously destroy 
one another's inferior qualities through the mildness 
of the one and the fragrance of the other. There 
are many other such blends mentioned by and known 
to experts. And it is quite to be expected that such 
a result should follow from blending odours, as it does 
from blending colours, if one discovers the suitable 
combinations. This then is peculiar to rose-perfume. 

However there is one question which applies to 
all perfumes, namely, why it is that they appear to 
mutual. I have added kal rH edooule Oarépov after Sch.; his 

text however is oupmimre: yap Gua, Kal Ta Kane G&AAHAwY 
apaviCer, Th wadrandryt: <Kal TH evooula> Barépov. 



* \ n ~ \ oD) / PS) 
amd TOD KapTrOD THs yetpos HOveta Haiveras, dio 
Ne a5 a ha \ , \ 
Kal of pupoT@Aat TOUTO pupiCovet TO pépos. THY 
PI > Pe: of > a2 , / ¢ \ \ 
& aitiay é« tod évaytiov AnTTéov, OTL TO Oeppov 
éFiotnot Kal adroLot taxela 8 75n 9 alcOnors 
A A / 

54 Azropettas dé Siots of un etwOoTes pupifecOar 
parrov é&dfover Tov cuvexas pupifopev@v: ein 
pev yap av r€yew Kal ott havtaciar Kal ovK 

arnbevar Sua TO pn eiwOds: ei & odv Kal adnOés, 
7 \ \ e / Q , b] 
goike TO Mev Olov avvavapiyvucBat TrEiocLY oo- 
pais érépais bd’ @Y apavpodTa, cuyKaTapiyvu- 
an / 
pévov Kal TOU xpwTds, TO b€ Wotep axépatov 
, \ x \ ’ , A b] / 
déyecOas TO pavoy Kal éxhawwew TH alcOynoe 
] \ , an 
xpovifouevov. ein 8 av kal évavtios AaBeiv ws 
ATTov Sexomévou bia TO aavvnbes, Bpadvtepov & 
> , 7 / b] / . al 
avayyvipeva Trew ypovov é€ofew. Kal TovTO 
Qn e 
pev €XaTTOV Kal ov havepas opmooyovpevov. 
55 “Amrtetas 5€ padota ToD ypwTos Kal Keparis 

a a / \ 
Kal TOV ado Kal TrElaTOV YpovoY Eupéver TA 

1 Se. a part of the body which, not being fleshy, does not 
spoil the scent by its warmth. So Plin. 13. 19. appears to 
give the point—experimentum (unguentorum) inversa manu 
capitur, ne carnosae partis calor vitiet, though it may be 
questioned whether inversa manu represents kaprod. Pliny’s 



be sweetest when the scent comes from the wrist!; 
so that perfumers? apply the scent to this part. 
The explanation must be sought by observing what 
happens in the contrary case, inasmuch as heat 
changes or destroys the character of a scent, and the 
effect on the sense of smell is immediately perceived 
when perfumes are brought into close contact with 
the skin. 

The question is also raised why those who do not 
habitually use perfumes smell of them more strongly, 
when they do so, than those who use them habitually. 
The suggestion might be made that this is an illusion 
due to the fact that the use is not habitual, and 
does not represent what really happens. If however 
it does, it would appear that in the one case the 
perfume becomes, as it were, confused with a number 
of other scents which weaken its force (the smell of 
the skin also becoming mixed with it), while in the 
other case the porous condition of the skin takes in 
the scent as it were uncontaminated, and so makes 
it perceptible by the sense of smell, because it 
lingers for some time. One might also make a 
suggestion of opposite character, that the skin takes 
in perfumes less readily because it is not used to 
them, and so, as the perfumes mingle with it more 
slowly, they preserve ® their scent for a longer time. 
One may add that this is.a small point and that all 
do not agree as to the fact. 

Those perfumes whose scent is strongest get the 
best hold on the skin head and other parts of the 
body, and last for the longest time: such are 
phrase presumably means the back of the hand, and suggests 
that ard rod kapwod may be corrupt. 

2 Sc. in offering samples for choice. 
8 Sc. it is not absorbed by the skin. 





b) / a b a ® a a. 
isxupotata tals dopais, olov peyadeiov, Aiyv- 
\ n 
TTLOV, awapaKivov: Ta S acOevi Kal <ov> Trondv- 
by \ a a 
odua, Kovdpyny EXovTA THY avaTTVOHD, TaXelav Trotei 
/ ' 
Kal THY aTonenpiy, BoTEp TO TE podsvoy Kal 1) 
KUT pos. ) 
” \ \ > \ ¢e / > a v 
Evia O€ Kat eis THY voTEpaiay ov xetpov bfer, 
, yy 2A / \ A pee 
Svavemvevkvias el tis evqv BaptTyns. Ta dé Kal 
a 4 
GAws Eupova padrov, WBamep % vdpdos Kal To 
ipwov, wdavtTwv dé padioTa <Ta> toyupoTaTa. 
Kal Ta pev & TE Tols NOUTPOIs Kal TH avéceL 
a \ x 
Suatnpel Was THY Copy } OV ovyKaKvver’ TA Oe 
a / a a 
Kakuvoueva TELM TTolel Svtwodiay avTaY TOV 
/ 4 x a 
ispotar, as av aippeas Twos 7) SiapOopas ywo- 
Kal ta pév mept THs TOV pipwv ToLnoews TE 
Kal Svvapews etl TocodTov eipyobo. 
XII. Ta &€ wep tiv trav Enpadv pikw, é& dv 
\ / \ e / > BA a 
<Ta> diatrdopata Kal ai cvvOéces, ovK Ett Ente? 
/ al / e , > » Meat 4 7 
rv , \ x / LE 4 + kD \ 
Treiw Kal ToLKIN@TEpa wlEN, TOTOUTH Kal  OopN 
7 a 
Aaptpotépa Kal noiwv, waoTep Kal é€& avTav 
an La \ 
TOV ApOLaToV TOV Mmpoxelpov: eis TavTO yap 
puyvovtes atravta ypa@vtat. E§ntovor 8 év Tov- 
\ 4 / \ ae. > \ 4 
ToOls Kal oTrevdovolY WaTE MH EVOS GAAA TaVToOY 

1 +4 ins. Sch. 



megaleion, Egyptian perfume and sweet marjoram- 
perfume. Those on the other hand which are weak 
and have not a powerful scent, since they are volatile 
and evaporate, also quickly come to an end: for 
instance rose-perfume and kypros. 

There are some however whose scent is even 
better on the second day, when any heavy quality 
that they possessed has evaporated. Some again are 
altogether more permanent, as spikenard and iris- 
perfume, and the stronger! a perfume is, the longer 
it lasts. Again some perfumes for some reason keep 
their scent in the bath when the body is relaxed, 
or at least do not help to produce a disagreeable 
effect ; while others become disagreeable and cause 
an even more unpleasant odour than the sweat, as 
though some sort of decomposition or decay took 

Let this suffice for an account of the manufacture 
and properties of perfumes. 

Of the making of perfume-powders and compound perfumes. 

XII. As to the mixing of solid substances to make 
powders! and compound perfumes, we do not find it 
here necessary to mix certain specified ingredients : 
the more numerous and the more various the per- 
fumes that are mixed, the more distinguished and 
the more grateful will be the scent—just as though 
one were mixing whatever spices themselves? were 
procurable. As a matter of fact the custom is to use 
a mixture made of all kinds. Again in perfumes of 
this class the aim and object is not to make the . 
mixture smell of some one particular thing, but to 

2 Sc. the natural products from which the manufactured 
perfumes are made. 



\ > \ \ \ r¢ 
KOWHY TWA THY OopHnY elvat. 640 Kal avoiryorTes 
n 4 n 
Sid Tivwv nuepav TO é&dfov eEatpodow del Kal 
a a / 
TOV iayUpav EAaTTW pLryVUOVOLY, WaTEp ... TA 
7 \ , 
& ddws ov pryvvovow, wWaoTEp TO EpvociaKnTTpor, 
/ / 
drép ov Kal aptiws édexOn. 
/ \ / n ” A 
68 Bpéyovar b€ cvvtiévtes TH olvo TO cdwder’ 
gouxe © ody YpHaimos Elvat Tpos TAS evoopias, et 
a / 
ye Kal of pupepol xpa@vrat. pévovar dé rroddy 
xpovov ai cuvOéces. 1% S€ yphots TOUTWY pe Eis 
THY TOV (maTiov dopHny, TOV é StaTTacudTwY eis 
¢ \ \ nr 
Kal yap artetat wadXov Kal éupovmTtepov TovTo, 
Kal @oTrEep avT éxelvov TOUTO ToLovoLW. ot be 
/ » BEG 4 » / > 7 
mpotepov évéBarov oive KkataBpéyovtes ev@der 
mpos TO TapatpetcOar THy dopny, évria Sé Kal 
peduxpat@ Kal olvm puyvivtes avédevov, Ta Oé 
\ > 8 n x / 4 \ \ aN ” 
Kal avT@ TH pediepdt@. Td yap Odov aphoo 
a ~ \ 
TavTa ouvepyel mpos evoopiav. Siapévovor bé 
ai ovvOécers. avepov 8 éx tovTwy brep Kal 
/ rE 0 5 / \ \ \ > / 
mpoTepov €réxOn, Sots Ta Enpa Kal evoopotepa 
Mpos GAANAA <puyOévTa> Tals Oopais. 
59 EvAdyws 5€ Ta pvpa happaKkodn bia THY TOV 
©) Gowpator Suvvamiv: Kal yap Ta apopata ToLadTa. 
Snrot b€ Tad TE KaTaTAaGopaTAa Kal & BH TIVES 

1 The example is missing. Turn. supplies costwm et amomum 
from Plin, 13. 16, which does not; however certainly refer 
to this passage; see 69, where this passage seems to be 

* The reference of éxelyov is obscure, 

3 uxdévra add. Turn. 



produce a general scent derived from them all. 
This is why every few days they open the vessel and 
remove each time that perfume whose scent is over- 
powering the others, adding at the same time smaller 
quantities of the less powerful scents, such as . . .,} 
while some perfumes are never added, such as 
galingale, of which we spoke just now. 

When they make compound perfumes, they 
moisten the spices with fragrant wine: and this 
certainly seems to be useful for producing fragrance, 
seeing that perfumers also use it. These com- 
pound perfumes last a long time. They are used 
to impart a pleasant odour to clothes, while the 
powders are used for bedding, so that they may 
come in contact with the skin: for this kind of 
preparation gets a better hold and is more lasting, 
so that men use it thus instead of scenting their 
bodies directly.2 Some, before putting the powder 
in the bedding, soak it in fragrant wine, so that it 
may acquire its scent: and some powders they 
moisten by mixing them with mead and wine, or 
again simply with mead. For in general both these 
things help to give them fragrance. Compound 
perfumes also last well. From which what was said 
above becomes manifest, inasmuch as solid perfumes, 
when mixed? with one another, acquire a greater 

4It is to be expected that perfumes should have 
medicinal properties in view of the virtues of spices: 
for these too have such virtues. The effects of 

4 In. W.’s text, which I have followed, there is some re- 
arrangement (after Furlanus) of the order of sentences in 
this chapter and the next: e.g. part of §61 is transferred to 
§59. Both figures are retained for convenience of reference. 







/ A / 3 , / 
pardypata KaXodow oias atrodeixvuTar Suvapets 
Ta Te hUpaTa Kal Ta aTooTHpaTa SiaxéovTa Kai 
émimToAns pev adda Kal ta év Babe, otov, av 
, 4 od / \ \ A 
Tus KaTaTAdon Ta vUToxovdpia Kal TO oTHOos, 
2A. \ a3 on 3 4 td \ 
evOds adv Tois épuypois atrodidwov ev@ders Tas 
Oo Mas... . 
XIII. Ai 6é tav Sowv dopal Kata tas idias 
/ / e / / > 7 > , \ 
ylivovtar dices’ Exdot@ yap éoTi TLS OiKEla KATA 
\ a 2s 8 7) a \ \ 0 \ 
THY Kpacw. avTat noclar pev Kal KaBapai 
\ \ \ > \ » Eg 9 e a 
[xal] cata Tas axpas Kal dtav ed Eywowy éavTor, 
étu O€ HOLovs ATAaN@Y Kal véwY OVT@Y. TEioTaL 
\ \ , \ \ 3 , \ @ 
Sé xal KaxwdéoTaTar Tepi Tas oxXelas Kal brows 
CUYTNKOMLEevOv Kal KapvovToV cwopatov: 610 Kal 
oi tpdyo. Kal ot éhadot Kat Nayoi Kal Tara 
! / bd 
TOTe warLoTa OCel. 
@avpactov 6 Kai idiov To. cupticyev Tas 
4 / n ¢€ a 
tpayéas, Stay 7 Opa KaOnKn THs opuhs. altiov 
\ / Le / / b] fal / 
dé OnAoveTi TO UTONEiTETO AL TIA ev TO SéppuaTe 
/ A ec / 4 943.4% € ¢ \ 
Siva  bypotnta ToravTnv ad Hs % opp 
yivetat kal Covtwy: Kivovpévns odv Kali Svabep- 
patvomevns TaUTNS UT Tov aépos eVAOYoV Kal 
eo \ 
Ta Séppata xa’ dcov émiBddre. 610 Kal ws 

1§ 60 on some other medicinal effects of perfumes is 
omitted.. -—®._ xa bracketed by W. 



plasters and of what some call ‘ poultices’ prove 
what virtues they display, since they disperse 
tumours and abscesses and produce a distinct effect 
on various other parts of the body, on its surface, 
but also on the interior parts: for instance, if one 
lays a plaster on his abdomen and breast, the patient 
forthwith produces fragrant odours along with his 

Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain curious 
facts as to the smell of animal and vegetable products. 

XIII. The smells of animals correspond to their 
several characters: each has a smell of its own 
according to its particular composition. These 
smells are pleasant and pure when? the animal 
is in its prime and in good condition, and even 
pleasanter when they® are young and _ tender. 
But the smell is strongest and least pleasant at 
the breeding season, and generally when the body 
is wasting or out of condition: wherefore goats 
stags hares and other animals have most smell at 
such times. 

It is a remarkable fact and peculiar to the goat 
that goat-skins* are sympathetically affected when 
the breeding season comes round. The reason plainly 
is that there remains somehow in the hide the sort 
of virtue or moisture from which arises the breeding 
impulse when the animal is alive. It is natural 
therefore that, when this is excited and warmed 
by the air, the skin also should be excited 
so far as it belongs to it to be so affected. 
Wherefore the original cause as it were of the 

3 éavtév can hardly be sound : ? aira (sc. 7a (Ga), 

* 7,¢. the skin of a dead goat. 
5 W., adds kweioda: after ém:BadrdrAet. 



A v . ¢ / / \ e \ 
mpatov aitiov » didfeciws* TOTE yap Kal of p1) 
b] , v \ Cr VS, \ e 54 e 
oyevovTes OCovat Kal of Ayovot Kal ai aires Gdws. 
n & oxela TOTE ev peydAny pepida cupBdrreTat, 

? e \ b] a / € / 

Kal’ avtny & aitia yiverat } dvabecrs. 

63 YuuBaiver Sé tporov tiva Kal év adAdols 7 
TotavTn oupTdbera: Kal yap oO olvos Gua TH 
otapvaAn doxel cvvavOeiv nal Ta oKopoda Kal Ta 

/ / 4 a id \ > a 
Kpopva TOoTe SpimvTatov bev, Stay <Ta> ev TH 

an / \ 4 [uA / \ 
yn Bractavyn mAnv TovTOLs dua ovpBaiver Kai 

by a , e/ \ 4 “ 
avutots Bractavev. drs Sé TavTa KiveiTaL 
Ta protopita Kal capKopita pn ameEnpappéeva 
KaTa TAS BAaCTHTLKAS Wpas: 7 yap évuTdpyovca 
Svvauis €v avtois Kiveitat. Oavywacimtatoy 6é 

cal yy ee val / > / 
cupBaivov, elmep dua tais daria émaipetas 
Kal éxmAnpol Ta aryyeta. 
64 XIV. Té b9 mote Anwoxpitos Tovs pév yupods 
\ \ n b 7 \ 7 9 \ , \ 
Mpos THY yevow atrodidwat, Tas 5 dopas Kal Tas 
Xpoas ovX Gpolws TMpos Tas UToKELWévas aicO2}- 
a af 

aes; det yap ék TOY oYNUdTMY. 7%) TOUTO YE 
\ / 

Tpos aTaVTAaS KOLWOV; ATraVTES yap Ol pEeV ovns 

1 7.e. to form a ‘crust.’ 2 7& ins. Sch. 

Piet. U2. 2. 2. G39. 

4 7.e. when the fat of the living bear becomes abnormally 
developed. Plin. 8. 128, expresses his surprise at T.’s credulity 



phenomenon is the special condition of the animal 
at such periods: for at these times even those 
males which are not breeding have the smell, and 
the sterile goats and the females in general. In- 
deed, though at that particular time the fact that 
animals are actually breeding is a powerful factor in 
producing the smell, yet their condition is in itself 
a cause. 

Similar sympathetic behaviour is found in a 
manner in other things also. Thus wine appears to 
‘bloom’! at the same time as the growing grape, and 
stored garlic and onions appear to have the most 
pungent smell at the season when those? in the 
ground are sprouting: however in this case sprouting 
takes place in the stored vegetables also. And in 
general any plant whose root is in layers® or fleshy 
becomes active at the season of sprouting, unless it 
has been completely dried : for it is the force latent 
in such plants which is stirred into activity. But 
the most remarkable phenomenon of the kind is 
what occurs with bears’ grease: it makes active 
growth at the time of the bear’s winter sleep* and 
completely fills the vessels in which it is kept. 

Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions. 

XIV. What can be the reason why Democritus, 
though he assigns various flavours to the sense of 
taste, yet does not in like manner assign various 
smells and colours to the senses to which they 
belong? According to his system he should have 
done so. Perhaps the same criticism should apply 
to all who have dealt with the subject: for they all 

in this matter: his version (coctas ursorum carnes) adds to 
the marvel. 



oi 6€ wddiota Ta’Tns Ta TaOy Aéyouat Kal Tas 
7 \ 
dtahopds, as év Ypwmact evKOV Kal pérav, Kal 
2 a \ \ eet > ef a 
év yupois yAuvKD Kal TiKpov, ovy otT@ 8 év 
5] n IQA \ \ > BA \ , 
dopais: ovdéy yap mAnY TO T evoomoyv Kal TO 
/ >> > e a , \ > \ \ 
KaKOC MOV. OVO év amTotss mrEi@ yap evOv Ta 
e \ \ \ val 
65 “Adda parrov év dovais, o&d Kai Bapv. ett 
\ \ \ \ \ ] ” BA \ € 
Sé Ta wey puxta Ta 8 AwiKTa. AptxTor xvAol oi 
\ A \ / cA 9 44 > a 
ev TO pn KaTtapepifecOar war €F apdoiv, olor 
/ n “ 
bdwp EXavov hréypa ala, bros wav TO éruvéov 
aN \ a ef \ yw \ \ / \ 
4h TO Ovatpovv, WaTrep TO GEos Kal TO yadda. TO 
\ a , \ / 7 v4 S 
yap TH Wiécel Kal Tpifver puryvdpevov ETEpov Eidos. 
lA \ ’ ¢ \ BA \ \ / 
aAXov S€ TpoTrOV ol pn EVMLKTOL TrPOS THY XpEelav 
7) Kal AvMalVomEevoL AAANAOUS, olov 1) POdraTTA 
Vik , \ \ of \ y \ 
Kal Ta VITPWON Kai TLKpAa VdaTAa TOUS olvoUS Kal 
\ , \ \ Wen) an , 
TA TWOTLMA, €av ny EVOS ypHTat TLS. 
66 Oopal dé ai pév otTws AutKToL TrELoUS Kal 
oote kaboXou NaBelv ai Kaxwdels Tais KaKw@OECL. 

f \ an lal 
as dé Bértiov TL TO EE apdoiv Epyov evpeiv ei 

1 i.e. taste. 

2 There seems to be some confusion here, as in the first 
sentence of the section T. complained that colours are not 
classified. The following passage is unusually elliptical, and 
the text is probably defective. T.’s complaint seems to be 
that sense-experiences in general have been inadequately 
classified (cf. 2); and in 66 foll. he specially mentions smells. 



either give the various qualities and distinguish the 
experiences of this sense! alone or at least com- 
paratively neglect the others: thus with colours? 
they distinguish white and black, and with flavours 
sweet and bitter, yet they make no corresponding 
classification of smells, but merely class them as 
‘pleasant’ or ‘unpleasant.’ So too they fail to 
distinguish different experiences of the sense of 
touch, whereas several belong immediately to this 
sense, as hardness, softness, roughness, smoothness. 
In sounds still more are there differences, as 
that between shrill and deep. Again some sense- 
experiences are simple, some compound. Flavours: 
are simple first in the sense that they cannot be 
resolved into two components *: instances are water 
oil phlegm blood,* and in general anything which 
floats, like milk,®> or which causes separation, like 
vinegar. (Where mixture can be produced by pres- 
sure or crushing, it is quite a different matter). 
Secondly there are flavours which do not readily 
combine in another sense, namely for human use, or 
which even spoil one another if they are mixed, as 
sea-water, or water with soda in it or which has a 
bitter taste : these spoil wines or other things that 
are good to drink, unless they are taken at once. 
Now the odours which in this sense do not com- 
bine are numerous, and, speaking generally, it is the 
pleasant odours which do not combine with the 
unpleasant ones. It would indeed be difficult, if not 
impossible, to find a case in which mixture is an 

8 Sch. and W. after Turn. add <@y yivecOar> after dudoiv, 
which seems unnecessary. | 

* 7.e. a liquid which, in one way or another, refuses to mix 
with another liquid. 5 ? cream. 

VOL. II, c-¢ 


pn advvaror, eis THY ToLavTny bé SivAapLY <ovY> 
¢ e > n \ n ” > > 
aitav ws eimeiv mpos Tay evoomov. arr e&0a 
\ vy / a @ be 4 fal , 
bev iaws xelpw trovet évOa Sé Bertiw, Kalarep 
ral A r 
érl TOV pipwv' TA we yap apalpEelTaL TO axKpa- 
\ , \ > > 4 \ v4 
Tov Kat oxAnporv, Ta & atroOnrvVver Kal dorep 
> Lal \ > / > \ a a 7 
éfvdatot tas aouds. év bé toils Enpois atacar 
\ \ / id x / 
Ta yap Swatdcpata bom av 7 TrELOVoV 
apeiva. trovet 6€ Kal 4 TOD olvov KaTdapuéss Kal 
pupa évia Kal Ovpidpata evoopotepa, Kabatrep 
Thv apvpvav. Soxet dé Kal TO upov HdvvELY TOUS 
v \ \ e \ b] A > oh , 
olvous, 816 Kal of pév ev TH oivotrotia puryvvovetv 
e , / 
of dé otTws émixyedopevoy Tivovow. ovK adoyov 
dé auvéeyyus Tas aicOncers ovocas Kat év Tois 
avTois UmoKepéevols EyeLY TLVA éTTLKOLV@ViaY’ &S 
\ > \ \ lal 1) \ bd \ ” + 
yap érl TO Tay ovdels oUTE yYUAOS Aoopmos OUTE 
b » hae 4 - a be ing w) / b] ae 4 
oopn aXvAos: TovTO € GTL ovdeula ex un ExOVTOS 
J | 

68 SupBalver $8 Kal peraBdrrew tas dopas pa 

tois xuAois, WoTep emi TE TOU oivov Kai ert 
a a a 
KapTa@v TIWa@v éviwv € Kal ev TO AvOEL TPOTEpoOr, 
a a , \ 

@aoTrep TOV Botptav: 7 5é TOV pUpwV eis aKmI)V 

/ an 4 
povov Kal otov dbicw. petaxivodvtar 8 év tats 
DJ , vd 4 > e > a / \ \ 
érelats pais mav ws eimetv, paddota bé Ta 

1 I have inserted odx, suggested by Sch. 
2 Like Sch. I fail to see the relevance of this remark. 
The sense required is ‘while the fruit is still on the tree’: 



improvement to the odour: in fact one might say 
that not! every combination of one fragrant thing 
with another will produce such a quality, but though 
sometimes the effect of such mixture is an improve- 
ment, sometimes it may be the reverse, as in the case 
of perfumes: for while the effect of some admixtures 
is to remove excessive strength or harshness, in other 
cases the odour is enfeebled and made, as it were, 
insipid. With solids however all combinations are 

In fact powders are the better, the more in- 
gredients they have. Also the admixture of wine 
makes some perfumes and things used for incense 
more fragrant, for instance myrrh. It appears also 
that perfume sweetens wines, wherefore some add it 
in the manufacture, some put it in at the time of 
drinking. Nor is it unnatural that between these 
senses, since they are akin and are affected by the 
same objects, there should be a sort of reciprocity : 
for, to speak generally, no taste is unaccompanied by 
smell and no smell is unaccompanied by taste, the 
reason being that a thing which has no taste pro- 
duces no smell. 

It is also the case that smells actually change 
along with tastes, for instance in wine and certain 
fruits. And in some cases, as with grapes, the 
change takes place earlier, during? the flowering 
period : while in perfumes it occurs only when they 
have reached their best and are about, as it were, to 
go off. Almost all perfumes undergo alteration at 
certain seasons of the year, and this applies specially 
to the weakest kinds: in the case of those made 

possibly av@ei has got in from below and we should read 

cc 2 



/ \ A 
acbevéotata, Ta 8 avOwa Kal tv Spay avOei To 

\ a 
[Tas ovvOécers trowtow éx Tov apwpdtov: 
Q 7 \ \ , > b ipeth / 
pavoaytTes TOANGa Kali puEavTes els TAUTO KAEL- 
ovaw eis KiBwtiov, eit avoiyovtes Sia TLVeV 
npepaov Ott dv pariota few Sonn TovT alpovar, 
\ / \ \ 4 / U 
Kal wad 6€ Kal madw StadeiTovTEs YXpovor, 
” i \ er \ as \ 
Stas av pnbdevds e&0bn. Oavpactiy 8 oop 
NapBaver Ta ipatia eis TadTAa TiOépeva. 
\ \ a / nr > / és 2 oh 
To dé THs BadXavou tis Atyurtias pupov avTo 
Mev OVK Gyav avaTrvel, uLyvvpevoy Sé TroLet TAXA 

/ / \ \ s 

Bertin wadduota Sé Thy ipw]).... 

1 of. 63. 
2 ef.57, of which this section seems to be a repetition. 
> ej. 15, 




from flowers this period is that at which the plants 
from which they are made are in bloom.! 

[Compound? perfumes are made from spices: 
they bruise and mix a variety of these and shut them 
up together in a box. Then after a few days they 
open the box and take out the spice which seems to 
have the strongest smell: this treatment is repeated 
at intervals, so that the smell of no one ingredient 
may overpower the others. And clothes put away 
with such perfumes acquire a marvellous fragrance. 

The perfume * made of the Egyptian balanos, 
though it has not much scent of its own, when 
mixed with others, especially iris-perfume, improves 

4 The remaining sentences (§§ 70, 71) seem to be discon- 
nected scraps, which perhaps do not belong to this treatise 

atall. The text of them being defective, it seems not worth 
while to attempt translation, 



L Lnpucia bdaTwv Kal T VEU LAT OV Kal Xetpedveov 
Kal evor@y OE éyparpapev Kal dcov Hv epixtov, 
& pev avtol T POTKOT NG AVTES & 6€ Tap étépwv 
OUK adoxipov AaBovtes. 

Ta pev ovv él tois aotpois Svopévois Kal 
dvaTéhovaw €K TOV doTpovowKav def Nap Ba- 
VEL. cial dé dvces Out ral: ot TE = yap adavic pol 
dvceus eioi TouTO Oé € éorl dtav apa ovvovv”n TO 
MMe TO dot pov, Kal OTav avatéXhovros Suvy. 
Omoiws Sé€ Kal avaToXal Ourral, ai HED E@OL oray 
mpoavatéhhy Tov »ALov TO dotpov, ai 8 aK po- 
vUX ol éray apa dvopéve avaTerry. 

At pev ovv Tov "A pkTovpou Neyouevar avatonal 
aud orépos oupBaivovow: 2 pev yap TOD Netpavos 
dx povuxos éotwv, 7) O€ peT@mopi é@a. Tav Oo 
GXX@V ai Theta ra TOV dvowatouevor é é@at, olov 
TIXerddos Kat ’‘Opiwvos Kal Kuvos. 

Tév de hovmav onpetov évia bev ida Kara 
Taoas xopas éotly év boas opn tyra Kal 
AUNOVES elot, pariota dé boa ™ pos Oddaccay 
Kabyner TOV _typnrav: TOV TE yap TVEULATOV 
apXopwevav Ta ved T poomimrer T pos TOUS TOL- 
ovtous ToTrous, Kal pweOrotapévwy eis TOvVaYTioP 




Introductory : general principles. 

I. Tue signs of rain wind storm and fair weather 
we have described so far as was attainable, partly 
from our own observation, partly from the informa- 
tion of persons of credit. 

Now those signs which belong to the setting or 
rising of the heavenly bodies must: be learnt from 
astronomy.! Their settings are twofold, since they 
may be said to have set when they become invisible. 
And this occurs when the star sets along with the 
sun, and also when it sets at sunrise. In like 
manner their risings are twofold: there is the 
morning rising, when the star rises before the sun, 
and there is the rising at nightfall, when it rises at 

Now what are called the risings of Arcturus occur 
at both times, his winter rising being at nightfall 
and his autumn rising at dawn. But the rising of 
most of the familiar constellations is at dawn, for 
instance, the Pleiad Orion and the Dog. 

Of the remaining signs some belong specially to 
all such lands as contain high mountains and valleys, 
specially where such mountains extend down to the 
sea: for, when the winds begin to blow, the clouds 
are thrown against such places, and, when the winds 

1 Or, perhaps, ‘from my astronomical works.’ 




b] , a; A / , \ Vd 
avTimeOiaTavTat Kal VypoTEepa yivopeva OLa Bdpos 
eis Ta KotNa avyKabifer. S10 Sei mpocéyev ov 
v Ԥ eS. = 4 \ a 
av Tis topupévos 4. Eats yap aei Tiva AaBeiv 
TOLOUTOV yv@pova Kal ~oTt cadhéctaTa onuela TA 
A \ \ 2 0 \ / X , \ 
10 Kat ayabol yeyévnvTat KaTa TOTOUS TLVAS 
> / 54 / > 4 
aoTpovosot éviot, otov Martpixétas év MnOdprn 
> \ a / \ 4 > / 
ato Tov AetretUpvov, Kat KXeootpatos év Tevéda 
> \ a "TS \ @ \ "AG / = b] \ n 
amo ths “Ids, cal Paewvos HVT amo TOD 
a \ \ \ a 
AveaBnrrod Ta mepi Tas TpoTras cupeide, Tap 
ov Métay axovoas tov Tod évos Séovta eixoow 
éviavT@v <KUKNov> cuvétakev. Hv dé 6 wev Daei- 
vos pétotxos “AOnvncw o dé Métov ’A@nvaios. 
QS \ \ / n > / 
” bé > a a / > / 
Adda 6€ dott onpeia & NapBdveTat aro Te 
nm / a / 
Cowv TOV KaT oiKkiay Kal ETépwY TIWOY TOT@Y Kal 
/ / \ , \ > \ 
ma0nudtov, pddtota 6€ KUplMTaTa <Ta> aTrO 
a a \ 
olov HALOS eote: Std Kal at ctvodoe TOV pnvaV 
e , na n 
amo tetpabos POivovtos péxXpt TeTPados LaoTa- 
/ So ey / > / , \ 
peévou. woTep ovv nALOV aTroAEIW ls YyivEeTaL KATA 
Tov Opmolov TpoTrov Kal THs GedHVNS ExXewris. 
del ov TMpocexYely pddioTa Tals avatorals Tails 
a ec tA xX fal 
TovTwy Kat Tais Svceow OTolas ay TOoL@Y TAL TOV 
BovXopevov Tpoyived Kev. 

1 Gytimebioravra. ?avTimebloratat. 

2 Plin. 5. 140. Of Matriketas nothing is known. 

3 Said (Plin. 2. 31) to have first recognised the Ram and 
the Archer. Athen. (7. 278 b) connects him with Tenedos, 



change, the clouds also change! and take a contrary 
direction, and, as they become laden with moisture, 
they settle down in the hollows because of their 
weight. Wherefore good heed must be taken to 
the local conditions of the region in which one is 
placed. It is indeed always possible to find such an 
observer, and the signs learnt from such persons are 
the most trustworthy. 

Thus in some parts have been found good astro- 
nomers: for instance, * Matriketas at Methymna 
observed the solstices from Mount Lepetymnos, 
Cleostratus * in Tenedos from Mount Ida, Phaeinos 
at Athens from Mount Lycabettus: Meton, who 
made the cycle * of nineteen years, was the pupil 
of the last-named. Phaeinos was a resident alien 
at Athens, while Meton was an Athenian. Others 
also have made astronomical observations in like 

Again there are other signs which are taken from 
domestic animals or from certain other quarters and 
happenings. Most important of all are the® signs 
taken from the sun and moon: for the moon is as 
it were a nocturnal sun. Wherefore also the 
meetings of the months are stormy, because the 
moon’s light fails from the fourth day from the 
end of one month to the fourth day from the begin- 
ning of the next: there is therefore a failure of 
the moon corresponding to the failure of the sun. 
Wherefore anyone who desires to forecast the 
weather must pay especial heed to the character of 
the risings and settings of these luminaries. 

4 Called ‘the great year’: cf. Aelian. V.H. 10. 7. rdv 
Tov évds déovra elkoow eriavtay <KUKAoy> conj. Sch. évavrdy 

. seems necessary. ? Kvpia TS. 




A ; . , 
IIpa@rov péev odv Anréov Ott ai Siyotopiar 
diopifover Tas Mpas, Wate él TovTwY Set aOpeiv 
\ n / a 
Kal éviavTov Kal prva Kal huépav. Suyoropet 
be \ \ > \ / 6 / \ > 
é Tov pev éviavtov Iderds te duvopévn Kal ava- 
/ > \ \ / / > n \ 
TéXNOvTa? ato yap SvoEews péexXpl avaTONHS TO 
a n / £ 
Hyucu Tod éviavtod éotiv. mote diva TéuveTat O 
Tas xpovos. opoiws 5é Kal ai TpoTrai Kal ion- 
pepiar tolodow. ola Tis av ovv } KaTdoTACLS 
we Oy / / e/ 4 € eli," \ 
tod aépos IInevddos duv0pévns,, ob ta yer ws ETL TO 
/ >\ \ \ / / v4 >? / 
mds éav 5€ pn petaBdarXrn, Svévyer Ews ionuepias, 
KaxelOev maaoavtas péxpt IInderdbos, kal aro Tav- 
TnS péexpl TpoTa@v Oepivav, Kal évTedOev péexpe 
ionmepias, Kal amo tonpepias péypt I1derados 
€ ? e 4 \ \ \ a 4 
Os & attas Exes kal wepi tov phva Exactov: 
a \ 7 b 
SuyoTomoder yap at Te Tavoédnvor Kal ai oydoat 
7 , ; ’ 
Kal al TeTpddes, WoTE aTO vovpnvias WS aT 
5] nr a r / \ id 5] \ \ 
apyns Set oxoreiv. petaBddre yap ws él TO 
ru > n a) Pe ée / fy A > 50 > be 
Tou ev TH TeTpadL, eav bé py, ev TH Oydon, et SE 
/ > ‘ \ / > > , 
Lin, TavoeAnve: amo S€ Tavaednvou els oydonv 
POivovtos, kal amo TavTys els TeTpAada, ATO Oé 
ig > ec \ t Pome, n id / Sar e 
Qs & attws Kal éml ths pépas Exovow ai 
petaBoral ws érl TO Tov. avaTor) yap Kal 
A \ / \ Py / \ bu \ iY 
mpowt kal peonuBpia cal Sern Kal dvows, Kal Ta 
THS vUKTOS MépNn TA AVaddoYa TavTO ToLel Tots 
elpnuévols TEeplL Tvevp“aT@V Kal YEl@vos Kal 
\ 4 ; , 
evdias. pdduota yap éav pédry peTaBarre, év 



Now the first point to be seized is that the various 
periods are all divided in half, so that one’s study of 
the year the month or the day should take account 
of these divisions. The year is divided in half by 
the setting and rising of the Pleiad1: for from the 
setting to the rising is a half year. So that to begin 
with the whole period is divided into halves: and a 
like division is effected by the solstices and equinoxes. 
From which it follows that, whatever is the condition 
of the atmosphere when the Pleiad sets, that it con- 
tinues in general to be till the winter solstice, and, 
if it does change, the change only takes place after 
the solstice: while, if it does not change, it continues 
the same till the spring equinox : the same principle 
holds good from that time to the rising of the Pleiad, 
from that again to the summer solstice, from that 
again to the autumnal equinox, and from that to the 
setting of the Pleiad. 

So too is it with each month; the full moon and 
the eighth ? and the fourth days make divisions into 
halves, so that one should make the new moon the 
starting-point of one’s survey. A change most often 
takes place on the fourth day, or, failing that, on the 
eighth, or, failing that, at the full moon ; after that the 
periods are from the full moon to the eighth day 
from the end of the month, from that to the fourth 
day from the end, and from that to the new moon. 

The divisions of the day follow in general the 
same principle : there is the sunrise, the mid-morning, 
noon, mid-afternoon, and sunset; and the corres- 
ponding divisions of the night have like effects in 
the matter of winds storms and fair weather; that 
is to say, if there is to be a change, it will generally 

1 Plin, 18, 280. 2 of, Arat, 73 f. 





tats S:xoTopias petaBdrdre. Kalddrov perv odv 
Tas @pas ovT@ bet mapaTnpeiy, Kae Exacta dé 
TOV onpelov Kara TOV vmroryeypappévov TpoTrov. 

‘ Téaros bev oy onpeia Ta TOLAUTA doxel eivat. 
évapyerTaTov Mev ovY TO EwOLVOr, bTAaV ‘™po rtov 
AVATONNS paivntar emupowvia cov onpetoy" 7) Yap 
avOnwepwov eTLanaiver v) TPLOY NMEPOY ws éml 
TO TOAV. Ondrol 6€ Kal Ta AANA onpuela: éav 
yap ju) WpoTepov, TpiTaia pddiota onpaiver 
TO émibowiocoy Kai Svvovtos, HTTov Sé % TO 
éwO vod. 

Kal éav uy Xermaovos i) Eapos els vepédor, 
TpLow 7) LE p@v @s Ta mona emia npaiver. Kab 
€av paBdor vordder, Tara be Tatra Boppabev 
yuvopeva dobevéatepa. Kal éav aviaxov pehav 
onetov loxn, Ka éav ex _ vepeh ov <av>eXy, 
dart iKor, Kal éay axrives avi XOvTos dvaretvoat 
mp dvareihat, Kowvov UOaTOS onpetov Kal avépou. 
Kal éav KkaTapepopevov Too adtou iplorntar 
vEepos, vp ov éav oxilovras al axtives, eLpepLvov 
TO onpelov. Kal Otay Kavpatias Suntar Kal 
avatéXrn, éav pn aveuos yévnta, datos TO 

Ta avta 5€ onpaiver Kal cehnun TAVS ENVY 
avicxyovoa, acbevértepa Sé oO pels. éav pev 
TUP@ONS, TVEVLATWONH onpaiver TOV Hive, éav oé 
Copadns, ddat oon: onuaiver O& OTL av onuaivy 
TpiTatos @v oO pels. 


1 roy boy. Tpémov seems to mean the same as Aristote- 
lian tov tonynuévoy tpémov, e.g. Hth. Nic. 2. 9. The 
rendering ‘the following method’ would isso suit the 


a a 


occur at one of these divisions. In general there- 
fore one should observe the periods in the way 
indicated, though as to particular signs we must 
follow the accepted method. 

The signs of rain. 

Now the signs of rain appear to be as follows: 
most unmistakable is that which occurs at dawn, 
when the sky has a reddish appearance before sun- 
rise; for this usually indicates rain within three 
days, if not on that very day. Other signs point 
the same way: thus a red sky at sunset indicates 
rain within three days, if not before, though less 
certainly than a red sky at dawn. 

Again, if the sun sets in a cloud in winter or 
spring, this generally indicates rain within three 
days. So too, if there are streaks of light from the 
south, while, if these are seen in the north, it is a 
less certain sign. Again, if the sun when it rises 
has a black mark, or if it rises? out of clouds, it is a 
sign of rain; while, if at sunrise there are rays®_ 
shooting out before the actual rising, it is a sign of 
rain and also of wind. Again if, as the sun sinks, a 
cloud forms below it and this breaks up its rays, it is 
a sign of stormy weather. Again, if it sets or rises 
with a burning heat, and there is no wind, it is a sign 
of rain. 

Moonrise gives similar indications, at the time of 
full moon: they are less certain when the moon is 
not full. If the moon looks fiery, it indicates breezy 
weather for that month, if dusky, wet weather ; and, 
whatever indications the crescent moon gives, are 
given when it is three days old. 

2 avéxp conj. Sch. 3 Plin. 18. 344, 


is “Agrépes modrol dvattovtes datos 1 mvev- 
patos, Kal O0ev av Siattwow évtedOev TO Tredpa 
H To bdwp. Kal édv axtives aOpoar avicoywou 
AVLOVTOS 7) OUVOVYTOS, anuElov <UdaTOS>. Kal dTav 
avicxovTos Tod HALov ai avyal olov @xXeiTrovTOS 
Ypapua laywow, VdaTos onpetov. Kal 6Tav vepérat 
TOKOLS épiov Gmotar Mow, Vdop onpaiver. [veToU 
5é onueta] Toudorvyes avioTduevat Treious eri 
TOV TOTALOY Ldwp Gnmaivovot TOAV. ws O én 
TO TOAD ipts TEpt AVYVOV H Sia AVYVOU Stadawvo- 
EVN voTLa onpaiver VOaTa. 

14 Kat of wventes éav votia 4, Vdwp onpaivovat, 
onuaivovat 6é Kal avewov KaTa Oyov ws av 
exoor mGous Kat peyéOous, optxpot d€ Kat 
Keyxpwcers Kal Naptrpol bdwp Kal avepwov. Kal 
Stav xXEeu@vos THY proya <o AUVyXVOS> aToOA 
duaditr@v olov Tmoudodrvyas, datos onpetov, Kal 
éay TNHO@oLW al aKTives em avdToV, Kal édav oTLD- 
Opes érrvyévmvTat. 

15 "OpviOes Novopevon py ev Batt Biobytes Udwp 
H Xelpovas onpaivovet. Kat dpvvn ovopéevy 
Kat Batpayot wadXov adovtes onpaivovoew vdwp. 
Kal ) cavpa hawopévn, iv KaXodct carapudvopar, 
eve O€ Kal yAwpos Batpayos emt Sévdpou adwv 
dwp onpaiver. xedLdoves TH yaoTpl TUTTOVTAL 
Tas ANipvas Vdwp onuaivovat. Bovs Thy Tpoc- 
Jiav oTAnv retEas yetwova 7} Ddwp cnpaiver. eav 

hoof, Oi: 2 $daros ins. Furl. 3 Plin. 18. 344. 
4 Plin. 18. 356. 5 Jerod 5¢ onueta bracketed by Sch. 
8 cf. Arist. Meteor. 3.4; Plut. Quaest. Nat. 1. 2. 

7 of. 42. 

8 4.e. breaks up into small ‘ grains’ (?). ef. 25, 42, 54. 



Many shooting + stars are a sign of. rain or wind, 
and the wind or rain will come from that quarter 
from which they appear. Again, if at sunrise or 
sunset the sun’s rays appear massed together, it is a 
sign of rain.2_ Also it is a sign of rain when at sun- 
rise the rays ® are coloured as in an eclipse ; and also 
when there are clouds‘ like a fleece of wool. The 
rising of bubbles *® in large numbers on the surface of 
rivers is a sign of abundant rain. And in general, 
when a rainbow ® is seen round or thr oagh a lamp, it 
signifies rain from the south. 

Again, if the wind is from the south, the snuff? 
of the lamp-wick indicates rain; it also indicates 
wind in proportion to its bulk and size: while if 
the snuff is small, like millet-seed,’ and of bright 
colour, it indicates rain as well as wind. Again, 
when in winter the lamp rejects® the flame but 
catches, as it were, here and there in spurts, it is 
a sign of rain: so also is it, if the rays of light leap 
up on the lamp, or if there are sparks. 

It is a sign of rain or storm when birds which are 
not aquatic take a bath. It is a sign of rain when a 
toad takes a bath, and still more so when frogs are 
vocal. So too is the appearance of the lizard known 
as ‘salamander,’ !° and still more the chirruping of 
the green frog in a tree. It is a sign of rain when 
swallows |! hit the water of the lakes with their 
belly. It is a sign of storm or rain when the ox 

9 i.e. refuses to light properly. The appearance seems to 
be that described Verg. Georg. 1. 391 (scintillare oleum). In 
the same passage putres concrescere fungos perhaps illustrates 
the comparison of the snuff to millet-seed above. 

10 of. de igne 60, where it is explained why the salamander 
puts fire out. 

1l Plin, 18. 363; Verg. Georg. 1. 377. 






\ 3 \ > \ > f : ’ , e 
8é els Tov ovpavoy avaxiTTov dodpaivntat, bdwp 
f : ok / A aA a 
Kopévn emt métpas Kopvccopéevn iv Kdpa 
catakrvles towp onuaivers Kal KokupBdca Tron- 
AdKis Kal TepiTreTOMern Vdwop onpaiver. Kopak 
modnXas peTaBdrrXrgcw ceiwOas dovas, TovT@V éay 
\ \ 4 \ > / \ /. 
taxv Ols bbéyEnras Kat érippottnon Kai Tiwd&y 
Ta wTépa, Vdwp onpaiver. Kai éav veTaV OvT@Y 
Todas petaBarrAn havas kal éav Pbepifnrar 
ém édaias. Kal édv te evddias éav te datos 
a A a / 
OvTOS punta. TH hovhn olov staraypovs, Vdwp 
onuaiver. édv Te Kopakes éay Te KoNOLOL avm 
TET@VTAL Kal Lepaxilwoty, Ddwp onuaivovar. Kal 
2\ >Q7 \ \ > al \ 7 \ 
éav Kopak evdias wn THY eiwOviay hovyy in Kai 
A , : 
érrippor8on, Vdwp onpaiver. 
24> \ cs =, / t \ + 
Kav (épaé émi dévdpov xabefopevos Kal elow 
elomreTopevos POerpitnrat, bdwp onpaiver. Kal 
/ A \ ? , A ” oa) 
Oépovs Stay troAXol aOpoor havoc dpvides oi 
Biotevovow év vnc, Vdwp onuaivovow: éav bé 
/ > \ >f\ \ lal >\ \ 
pétptor, ayabov aikl cal Botois, éav dé ToddXoi 
e ‘ol > \ > / e/- aie \ 
iTrepBorH, avypov iaxupov. Orws S€ dpvides Kai 
\ a 
anrextpvoves POepifopevor VdaTiKOY onpElov, Kal 
dTav mLovTar Vdwp ws Dov. 
Kal » vntta fyepos <éav> vmiodoa vd Ta 
a / id 
yeloa arom tepuyitntat, Ldwp onpaiver, opotws Sé 
Kal KoNotol Kal ddexTpvoves, Eav Te emi Aimy H 
OardatTn atomtepuyifovtTat, as vATTa Vdwp on- 

1 Plin. 18. 364; Verg. Georg. 1. 375. 

2 érippoicnon. Sc. with his wings probably ; not, as LS. 
‘croaks.’ Plin. (18. 362) seems to have had a fuller text, or 
to have drawn alsp on some other authority. 

3 Ser@y byTwy can hardly mean ‘ while it is raining.’ 



licks his fore-hoof; if he puts! his head up towards 
the sky and snuffs the air, it is a sign of rain. 

It is.a sign of rain when a crow puts back its head 
on a rock which is washed by waves, or when it often 
dives or hovers over the water. It is a sign of rain 
if the raven, who is accustomed to make many 
different sounds, repeats one of these twice quickly 
and makes a whirring * sound and shakes his wings. 
So too if, during a rainy season,®? he utters many 
different sounds, or if he searches for lice perched on 
an olive-tree. And if, whether in fair or wet weather, 
he imitates, as it were, with his voice falling drops, 
it is a sign of rain. So too is it if ravens or jack- 
daws fly high and scream‘ like hawks. And, if a 
raven in fair weather does not utter his accustomed 
note and makes a whirring with his wings, it is a 
sign of rain. 

It is a sign of rain if a hawk perches on a tree, flies 
right into it and proceeds to search for lice: also, 
when in summer a number of birds living on an 
island pack together: if a moderate number collect, 
it is a good sign for goats and flocks, while if the 
number is exceedingly large, it portends a severe 
drought. And in general it is a sign of rain when 
cocks and hens search for lice; as also when they 
make a noise like that of falling rain. 

Again it is a sign of rain when a tame duck gets 
under the eaves and flaps its wings. Also it is a sign 
of rain when jackdaws and fowls flap their wings 
whether on a lake or on the sea—like the duck. It 

4 fepaxi{wow. ? ‘hover like hawks.’ However, Arat, 231 
understood it to refer to the voice: so LS. 

5 émippoiBdn. Exact sense uncertain, cf. Soph. Ant. 1004. 

8 jyuepos. 2 7 Tmepos. 

VOL. Il. DD 


paiver. Kab Epwdios CpO prov PO eyy ouevos Bdap 
}) Tvedpa onpaiver: Kat éay éri Oddarrav TETO- 
pevos Bog, waddov bdatos onpetoy 7 mvetpaTos, 
Kal dws Body dveudoes. 

19 Kato omrivos év oixig oixoupery éav pOeyEnra 
éwOev, tdwp onpatver n KXEelpava. Kal xUTpa 
omwO npivovea Taca TepiThews datos onpetov. 
kal lovrot Tool Tpos TOLYoOV Epmovres vdaTLKOV. 
dehgis mapa yhy Kohup Pav Kal avadvopevos 
TUKVA VOwpP 7) Nerwava onpaiver. 

20 “Tuntros eAaTTov, avudpos KANOUVMEVOS, eay TO 
Koide vepédov eX vdaTos onpsiov: Kal éav o 
péyas “Tyntros tov Oépous exn vepéhas avo bev 
Kal é« mrayiov, Udaros onmetov. Kal éav 0 avu- 
Spos* ‘Tunrros AeuKas exn avabev Kal éx Waytov. 
Kal éav wept ionuepiay Aly mvevon, Vdwp on- 

21 Ac dé Bpovrai at pmev xetpepeval Kal ewPwal 
peadrov <dvewov n> Bde onpatvoucw" ai 6é 
Pepwvat peonuBpias Kab éomrepival Bpovrai vdate- 
KOv onMELOV. aotpamat dé edy rye Tavrax obey 
yevovTar, bdaTos av 7D avé pou onpetor, Kab 
éomepival @oavTws. Kal éav axpapias voTOV 
TVEOVTOS vor oder aotpayry, dap onpaiver 7 ave- 
pov. Kal _ bépupos aoTpan Tov Tpos Bopetov » 
Xepava 1 Ddep onpaives. Kal Bépous at éo- 
mépiat aotpatral bdwp avtixa onpaivovow 4) 


1 Sch. cites Plin. 18. 364, vermes terreni erwmpentes, as 
representing this, which seems doubtful. 
2 cf. Plin. 18. 361; Cic. Div. 2. 70. 

3 dav TG. 2 dav Cv TH. 



is a sign of wind or rain when a heron utters his note 
at early morning: if, as he flies towards the sea, he 
utters his cry, it is a sign of rain rather than of wind, 
and in general, if he makes a loud ery, it portends 

It is a sign of rain or storm if a chaffinch kept in 
the house utters its note at dawn. It is also a sign 
if any pot filled with water causes sparks to fly when 
it is put on the fire. It is also a sign of rain when a 
number of millepedes! are seen crawling up a wall. 
A dolphin? diving near land and frequently re- 
appearing indicates rain or storm. 

If the lesser Mount Hymettus, which is called the 
Dry Hill, has cloud in? its hollows, it is a sign of 
rain: so also is it, if the greater Hymettus has 
clouds in summer on the top and on the sides: or if 
the Dry Hymettus has white clouds on the top and 
on the sides; also if the south-west wind‘ blows at 
the equinox. 

Thunder in winter and at dawn indicates wind ® 
rather than rain; thunder in summer at midday or 
in the evening is a sign of rain. If lightning is seen 
from all sides, it will be a sign of rain or wind, and 
also if it occurs in the evening. Again, if when 
the south wind ® is blowing at early dawn,’ there is 
lightning from the same quarter, it indicates rain or 
wind. When the west wind is accompanied by 
lightning from the north, it indicates either storm 
or rain. Lightning in the evening in summer time 
indicates rain within three days, if not immediately. 

4 cf. Arist. Probl, 26, 26. . 

5 &veuov } add. Furl. from Plin. 18, 354. 

6 ef. Soph. Aj. 257; Arist. Probl. 26. 20. 
7 axpwptas. of. 42. So Arat. 216 renders, 

bp 2 





TPLOV HuEpOV. Kal oT@pas Boppabev aoTpaTrat 
vdaTLKOVY onpetov. 
e nr 
H EvBoa étav S:afwoOn péon, tdwp dia 
, Seis % > \ \ f- / / 
Taxyewov. Kal éav ert TO II1ndsov veheryn Tpooity, 
cr A s 2 n cf A» fey 
d0ev dv mpocitn, evTedOev Udwp 7) avey“ov onmaive.. 
Otay ipis yévntat, émionpaiver: éav- TE TOANAL 
7 / / cf > / > \ 
ipioes yév@vTat, onuaiver Vowp emt Torv. adda 
/ \ e ? a ef ed > f 
ToNAaKkts Kal ot ofets HALoL, OTav €x vedéerys. 
pupunkes ev KoLAwM Yopiw éay Ta wa Exdhépworr 
ex THS pupynKids ett TO UYnAOV yopiov, dwp 
> , 
onpaivovow, éav 5é Katapépwow, evodiay. éav 
/ s / \ e \ / c \ 
Tmapyndtor dvo yév@vtat Kal o pev votolev o dé 
na ‘ee. ee e \ / , 
Boppader, Kat dros dua dwp Sia Tayéwv onpat- 
\a@ e / ¢ \ \ a 
vovot. Kal ddws ai péXatvat VdaTiKOV Kal pad- 
e / 
Rov ai Seirys. 
>] na / , > / 7 2 e 4 
Ev 76 Kapkiv@ dvo0 aotépes eiciv, oi Kadov- 
” e \ 1, pa h € , 
pevor “Oval, wv TO weTa&d TO vepédov 7) Patvyn 
nm lal /, 
KaXoupern. TovTo éav Copades yévyntat, VdaTiKOV. 
7\ \ : eae \ A Xx 9.24. 13 , e Ts." 
éav pon emt Kuvi ton emt Apxtovp@, ws éri 
\ , x ” 
TO TONY Tpos Lonpepiay VOwp 7) avewos. Kal TO 
Snuoaloy TO Tepl Tas pulas NeEyomevoy adnOés: 
ty / a 
dtav yap Oadxvwct aododpa, BdaTos onpeior. 
aotivos pOeyyouevos EwSev prev Vdwp onpaiver 
n / 
} xetpwova, Seirns oe Vdwp. 
a \ \ 7 A 
Tis 6€ vuxtos OTav Tov “Tunttov Katwbev tav 
dkpwv vepéryn Sialoon evry Kal paxpd, vdwp 
/ a 
ylveTal @S TA TOAAA METPL@OV HuEpOV. Kal éav 

1 Evidently an Attic saying, of days when only the upper 
part of the Euboean mountains was visible. 



Lightning from the north in late summer is a sign ot 

1When Euboea has a girdle about it up to the 
waist, there will be rain in a short space. If cloud 
clings about Mount Pelion, it is an indication of rain 
or wind from the quarter to which it clings. When 
a rainbow appears, it is an indication of rain; if 
many rainbows appear, it is an indication of long- 
continued rain. So too is it often when the sun 
appears? suddenly out of cloud. It is a sign of 
rain if ants? in a hollow place carry their eggs up 
from the ant-hill to the high ground, a sign of fair 
weather if they carry them down. If two mock- 
suns* appear, one to the south, the other to the 
north, and there is at the same time a halo, these 
indicate that it will shortly rain. A dark halo round 
the sun indicates rain, especially if it occurs in the 

In the Crab are two stars called the Asses, and 
the nebulous space between them is called the 
Manger; if this appears dark, it is a sign of rain. 
If there is no rain at the rising of the Dog or of 
Arcturus, there will generally be rain or wind to- 
wards the equinox. Also the popular saying about 
flies is true; when they bite excessively, it is a sign 
of rain. If a chaffinch © utters its note at dawn, it 
is a sign of rain or storm, if in the afternoon, of 

When at night a long stretch of white’ cloud en- 
compasses Hymettus below the peaks, there will 
generally be rain in a few days. If cloud settles on 

2 of. H.P. 8, 10. 3. 

3 Plin. 18. 364; Verg. Georg. 1. 379. 

of, 29: 5 cf. 43, 51. 

5 ef. 19, of which this seems to be in part a repetition. 





év Aiyivn [al] émt rod Ads tod “EXXaviov 
. \ / 
vehérn Kabitntar, @s Ta TOoAAA VOwp yiverat. 
\ e/ \ / / \ 4 *' SF ¢€ 
éay data TodAAa yivnTaL KElmEpLVA, TO Eap ws 

* \ / > / - aX. 8’ > \ 
Ta TONG yiveTaL avdypunpov' éav 0 avxXuNpoOS 
€ , \ ” ¢ n v4 / \ 
6 xelwov, TO Eap VdaTades. STav KLoves TOARA 

/ / 
ylV@VTAl, @ TA TOAAA EveTNpla yiveTal. 

Paci 5é tives nat ef év avOpak Naurpa yarafa 
b / / / e \ oh: oe 
éripaivytat, xaddalav Tpocnpaivery Ws TA TONG 
+ ae \ 4 la \ \ , 
éav S€ WoTTEp KéyypoL plKpol NaLTpol TrOAXOL, 
Liat \ ” 3 Q7 q 2 Ads pA A 
avémov pev ovTos evdlav, wn avéwouv bé Vdwp 4) 

fal , 
divepov. éoTs © apevov mp@Tov yiverPar Bopevov 
bdwp votiov Kal Tois Pvopévors Kai Tots Faous: Sei 
Sé yAvKv elvar Kal pt) GApmupoy Tots yevopévots. 

§ er ” } , / alan 3 
Kal Sdws Eros BEXTLOV voTiov BopEloy Kal vyLeL- 

/ s+ Oe / ? 4 / 
votepov. Kal dtav <Tddw> dyevwrTar TpoBata 
} aires, KElsL@vos wakpov onpeiov. 

II. “Téatos pév ody tadtTa NéyeTat onpeia: 
ies al \ \ 4 / , /> e 
dvéwov O€ Kal tvevpdtov Tade. avaTérAXwV oO 
¢ , N eee) } =k a n 

\ a“ \ 2\ . tal / e€ e 
TO onpetov' Kal éay Kotrdos daivntat oO XAL0s, 
» ties X HO \ a : i 3. yl \ 
Huépas Kavpatias, avypmovs Kal avéuous Todv- 
xpovious onuaiver. éav at axtives ai pév pds 
Boppav ai 8é mpos vorov axifwvTa: TovTOU pécou 

1 So called also by Pind. Nem. 5.19. Paus. 2. 30. 3 calls 
it the Reni ple of Zeds MaveAAjvios, nat bracketed by Sch. 
woe ON eee 



the temple of Zeus Hellanios! in Aegina, usually 
rain follows. If a great deal of rain falls in winter, 
the spring is usually dry; if the winter has been 
dry, the spring is usually wet. When there is 
much? snow in winter, a good season generally 

Some say that, if in the embers® there is an ap- 
pearance as of shining hail-stones, it generally 
prognosticates hail; while, if the appearance is like 
a number of small shining millet-seeds,* it portends 
fair weather, if there is wind at the time, but, if 
there is no wind, rain or wind. It is better both for 
plants and for animals that rain should come from 
the north before it comes from the south; it must 
however be fresh and not briny to the taste. And 
in general a season ® in which a north wind prevails 
is better and healthier than one in which southerly 
winds prevail. It is a sign of a long winter when 
sheep or goats have a second ® breeding season. 

The signs of wind. 

II. Such then are said to be the signs of rain. The 
following are signs of wind and breezes. 7 If the sun 
rises with a burning heat but does not shine bril- 
liantly, it is a sign of wind. If the sun has a hollow 
appearance, it is a sign of wind or rain. If it blazes 
with a burning heat for several days, it portends 
long-continued drought or wind. -If at dawn its 
rays are parted, some pointing to the north and some 

3 &v@pak conj. Sch., supported by Plin. 18. 358; Arat. 309. 
aatpao. MSS. 

4 of. 14, 42, 54. ee OM SY a RES 
6 rdw ins. Sch.; text probably defective. 
7 Plin. 18, 342. 




évtos Kat dpOpov, Kowov datos Kal avéuov 
onpelov éorw. 

"Eos bé onpeta éy jri@ Kal cehjvy, Ta pev 
pédava vdaTos 7a 8” épvdpa TVEvMATOS. ay 6€ 
Kal o pels Bopetov OvTOS op0os eloTHKY, Céhupor 
eiBaow émumvety Kal oO pnV NELpwEpLvos Suatened. 
OTay [eV 1) Kepata <1 dve> TOD pvos emUKUT TY, 
Bopetos 0 0 Hels” étav © 1 Katwber, voTLOS” dav & 
opGos Kal pn KaX@S éryKexAtpévos bey pl TeTpa0os 
Kab eUKUKNOS, elw0e xerpdtew péxype Svyounvias. 
onpaiver Copwdns pev av vdwp mupwdys 6é 

28 « AlOuar Kai virtat [wrepvyifovcar] Kal dryprae 

kal tiOaccal tdwp pev onpaivovot Sdvopevar, 
mrepvyiCovcar S& aveu“ov. of Kémdoe evdias 
ovens Orrot av wéT@VTAL _avepov Tpoonpaivoust. 
aTpovbol XELMavOS ag’ éomépas GopuBodvres a 
avéwov pera Bodny onpaivovow 4% dep vérLov. 
ێpwotos amd Oardoons teTopevos Kai Bodv 
Tvevpatos onpelov éoTt’ Kal dXws Body péya 

20 «~Kuwy KudbovpEvos Nepuant péyeDos dvépou 

onuaiver. apaxyea mona pepopeva med ma i 
Xetpava onpaiver. j ) aprares Ropevov mvedpa 
onpaivet, TAN Mpa 33 vOTLOD. éav pev yap éK« 
Bopetwv TAnupopa ED els vOTLov peTaBanrnrer, 
éav ék votiov auTertis yivntat, eis Bopetov 

1 Plin. 18. 343 suggests that this is the meaning: text 
perhaps defective. cf. Verg. Georg. 1, 445. 

2 cf. 38. 

3 Lit. ‘the crescent moon has a northerly character.’ 7 
évw add. Furl. 


—— CC 


to the south, while the orb itself is! tigi seen 
between, it is a sign of rain and wind. 

Also black spots on the sun or moon indicate rain, 
red spots wind. Again, if, while a north wind blows, 
the horns? of the crescent moon stand out straight, 
westerly winds will generally succeed, and the rest 
of the month will be stormy. When the upper horn 
of the crescent moon is bent, northerly winds® will 
prevail for that part of the month: when the lower 
horn is bent, southerly winds will prevail. 4If 
however the horns up to the fourth day point 
straight and have not a graceful bend inwards but 
round to a circle, it will generally be stormy till the 
middle of the month. If the moon is dusky, it 
indicates rain, if fiery, it indicates wind. 

It is a sign of rain when gulls and ducks, 
whether wild or tame, plunge under water, a sign of 
wind when they flap their wings. Wherever the 
bird called kepphos flies during a calm, it is a sign of 
coming wind. If sparrows in winter begin to be 
clamorous at evening, it is a sign of a coming change 
or of a fall of rain. A heron flying from the sea and 
screaming is a sign that a breeze is coming: so is it 
in general a sign of wind when he screams loudly. 

A dog rolling on the ground is a sign of violent 
wind. A number of cobwebs® in motion portends 
wind or storm. The ebb-tide indicates a north 
wind, the flowing tide a wind from the south. For, 
if the flowing tide sets from the north, there is a 
change to the south, and if an ebb-tide comes from 
the south, there is a change to the north. It is 

* of. 38; Plin. 18. 347; Verg. Georg. i, 428; the English 
sign, ‘the. young moon with the old moon in her arm.’ 
5 Plin, 11. 84; Arist. Probl, 26, 61. 



petaBanrner. Odracca oidotca Kal axrat Bodaat 
Kal aiyrados NX OV ave moons. Kal O pev Bopéas 
AHryov edt Tov 0 6é voros apYomevos. TmapydLos 
om 00ev & ay 7 VOwp 1) i) Give OV onpaiver. 

30 “H TeMTrTY Kab dexaTn aTo TpoTaV TOV 
Xetpepevov @S Ta TOA VOTLOS. Bopetov dé 
yvowevov Enpaiver mavTa, votiwv O& vypaivel. 
éay dé voriov ovr@y poor <1l> TOY KEKONA 
Mévar, els TA VOTLA Onpaiver THY peTaBornv: éav 
dé 1706¢5 olddor, votia % petaBory. TO dé avTo 
onpetov Kab exvepiou. Kal obakay Tov Oe&LOv. 
exivos O xepoaios _ONMAVT LR" TOLELT AL bé 5v0 
oTras Gmou av oiKh, TY pev mpos Boppav thv dé 
votobev: omoTépay & dv amodpatrn, evted0ev 
Treva onpaiver, éav 8 apdhotépas, avéuov 

31 ‘Ray OPOS ..., TOS Boppé dive pov Tpoonpaiver. 
éay éy OardatTn éEaidyns TVEVLATOS yannvyn 
yivntas, petaBodiyy TVEVMATOS i) émidoow. éav 
axpar petéwpo haivwrvtar 7 Kal voor ex pias 
mXElous, votiav peTtaBorAnv onpaivers yh TE pé- 
Aawva wropaivopévn <Bopecov>, NevK? Sé VOTLOV. 
) TWept HALov: onuatvovor Sé Trvedua payetoas 
TEpt aupo, Kal } dv payh Tav’Tn Tvedpa. éTU- 

1 cf. 40; Plin. 18. 359; Verg. Georg. 1. 356. 

qf. Arist. Probl. 26. 12 ad Jin. 

* Enpatver, bypatver seem to be used quasi-impersonally ; but 
the text is perhaps defective. 

4 yétia MSS.; Bédpeca conj. Furl., surely with good reason. 
ef. Arist. Probl. 1, 24. 

5 After detidy Sch. and W. mark a lacuna, which does not 
seeni necessary. 6 cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 6 ad jin. 



a sign of wind when the sea! has a swell or promon- 
tories moan or there is loud noise on the beach. 
Now the north wind has less force as it ceases to 
blow, the south wind as it begins. A mock sun, in 
whatever quarter it appears, indicates rain or wind. 

The fifteenth? day after the winter solstice is 
generally marked by southerly winds. If there is a 
northerly wind, everything gets dried? up, if a 
southerly, there is abundant moisture. If, while a 
south wind is blowing, glued articles make a cracking 
sound, it indicates a change to a south‘ wind. If 
the feet swell, there will be a change to a south 
wind. This also sometimes indicates a hurricane. So 
too does it, if a man has a shooting pain in the right 
foot.5 The behaviour® of the hedgehog is also 
significant: this animal makes two holes wherever 
he lives, one towards the north, the other towards 
the south: now whichever hole he blocks up, it 
indicates wind from that quarter, and, if he closes 
both, it indicates violent wind. | 

If a mountain... ,’ it indicates wind from the 
north. If at sea during a wind there is a sudden 
calm, it indicates a change or an increase of wind. 
If promontories ® seem to stand high out of the sea, 
or a single island looks like several, it indicates a 
change to south wind. If the land looks black from 
the sea, it indicates a north wind,’ if white, a south 
wind. A halo?® about the moon signifies wind more 
certainly than a halo about the sun: but in either 
case, if there is a break in the halo, it indicates 
wind, which will come from the quarter in which the 
break is. If the sky is overcast in whatever quarter 

7 T have marked a lacuna after dpos. Furl. renders si mons 
versus aquilonem extenditur, venti signum est, with what 

meaning I cannot see. 8 cf. Arist. Meteor, 3. 4 ad init. 
9 Bépecov add, Furl, wef, bi. 






vepehov b0ev av avaTernyrau, evred0ev aVEMLOS. 
ai nn dades vepédar Bépous a ave pov onpaivovot. 

‘Eady dor pam mavtax obey yivntat, Ddop on- 
paiver, Kal d0ev av at aotpamat TuKval yivev- 
Tat, evr ed Oey mvevpara yiverat. Oépovs b0ev 
ay aotparal Kal _Bpovral yiverrat, evted0ev 
mvevpara yiverar ioyupa: éav pev ohodpa Kal 
io yupov dotpaTry, | Oartov cal opodporepoy mvev- 
cova, éav 8 npepma Kal paves, Kat odiyor. 
TOU dé NELwOVOS Kal pO tvor @pov TouvavTtov" 
mavovge yap Ta TVEVLATO al dot paras: Kal Oo@ 

av loxuporepau yivovTat aatparral Kal Bpovrai, 

TOTOUTD padrov mavovTat Tov © Eapos HT TOV 
av TavUTA onpeta Neyo, wamep Kal Nermervos. 

"Kav votou mvéovtos Boppadev aotpdrtn, tav- 
erat éav EwOev aotpantn elw0e travecbat Tpt- 
Taios, ot d€ &dXOL Tepm raion éBdopaior evvaraiot, 
ol 6€ derduvol Taxy mavovtat. ot Bopéat mavovTat 
as éml TO TONU év mepirrats of O€ voTOL év apriats. 
dvepo aipovras ap Hri@ avatéhovTe Kal ceijvy. 
éay avatédhov 6 HALOS Kab ced Tavowouw, 
erruTeiver Ta TvevMaTa” Xpowwrepa, dé kal toxv- 
potepa TA TVEUMATA YyiveTaL TA Huepas f VUKTwWP 
cpx opera. 

‘Bay érnaotat ToNUV Xpovov TVEVTOSL Kal 
peToT@pov yevntat avewades, 0 Xewev VHVEMOS 
yivetat, av 8 évaytiws, Kalb 0 xYetuov évayTios. 

1 nndddes, t.€. a ‘mackerel sky’ (?) The word seems to 
occur nowhere else except in Hesych., who renders &rvipos: 
derivation obscure. It should probably be read in §51 for 
KoiAddes, 2 Plin. 18. 354. 

3 tv. Se. elvar, which perhaps should be added. 


ee ee 


the sun is first seen, there will be wind from that 
quarter. Light! clouds in summer-time indicate wind. 

If lightning comes from all sides, it indicates rain, 
and from any quarter from which the. flashes come 
- in quick succession there will be wind. In summer? 
from whatever quarter lightning and thunder come, 
there will be violent winds : if the flashes are brilliant 
and startling, the wind will come sooner and be more 
violent ; if they are of gentler character and come at 
longer intervals, the wind will get up gradually. In 
winter and autumn however the reverse happens, for 
the lightning causes the wind. to cease: and, the 
more violent the lightning and thunder are, the 
more will the wind be reduced. In spring I consider 
that the indications would? not so invariably have 
the same meaning,—and this is also true of winter. 

If, while a south wind is blowing, there comes 
lightning from the north, the wind ceases. If 
there is lightning at dawn, the wind generally 
ceases on the third day: other winds than a south 
wind however do not cease till the fifth seventh or 
ninth day, though a wind which got up in the after- 
noon will cease sooner. A north‘ wind generally 
ceases in an odd, a south wind in an even number of 
days. Winds get up at sunrise or moonrise. If the 
rising sun or moon have caused the wind to cease, 
presently ° it gets up again with more force, and 
winds which begin to blow in the day-time last longer 
and are stronger than those which begin at night. 

If periodic winds have been blowing for a long 
time, and a windy autumn follows, the winter is wind- 
less: if however the contrary happens, the character 

4 Plin. 2. 129. 
5 So Furl, renders: W. inserts uy after ceAqvy. 



™pos Kxopupis dpous omdbev av vepern pnxdvnTat, 
TAUTH AVELOS mvevociran. ai vepédar ex TeV 
dria ev mpooitovoat Kal dma ev TvEevoovvTat, 
"AOws pécos SieSevypévos votios, Kal brws TA 
6pn Sielwopéva voTLAa WS TA TOAAG. Ol KOMHTAL 
aoTépes WS TA TOAAA TVEVWATA ONpaivovaty, éav 
5é moAnol, Kal avypov. peTa xvova, vOTOS, peta 
maxynv Bopéas elwOe mvetv. puKntes éml AVYVOU 
vOTLov TvEevdua 7) Bdwp onpaivovaw. 

35 At dé oT does TOV TVEVLATOV otras exovow 
as év 7 ypappare Sropiorat. tov & ave weov 
ert mvéouce Tois adows émimimtovot padoTa 
aTrapKTias Opaxias apyéorns. étav 6é pa vi 
adrrAnrwv SvartvovTar Ta TVEVLATA, adn’ avTa 
KaTapapavOaat, pweTaBarrovow eis Tors éyopué- 

22. ‘cf. G1. 
ef de Ventis 50; Arist. Probl. 26. 3. 4 of. 14, 25, 42, 54. 
5 The ‘ figure’ (giving points of the compass) has not been 
preserved. Arist. Meteor. 2. 6. describes such a figure (i7o- 
ypapy), Which may be reconstructed thus :— 



S 2 “i Q 
on %~ tee > Sls ‘S Ry 
1p BSD 



of winter is also reversed. From whatever quarter 
cloud streams out from a mountain peak, wind will 
blow in the direction thus indicated. Clouds which 
cling to the back of the mountain will also produce 
wind from the back of it. If there is a girdle! of 
cloud half way up Mount Athos, and if mountains 
in general wear such a girdle, there will generally 
follow a southerly wind. Comets? usually indicate 
wind, and, if there are many of them, drought is 
also indicated. After snow? a south wind, after 
hoar-frost a north wind generally blows. Snuff? in 
a lamp indicates wind or rain from the south. 

The points from which the winds come are as 
they are given in the figure.5 The winds which 
most often come on the top of other winds while 
these are still blowing are the north wind (aparktias),° 
the north-north-east and the north-west. When 
however the winds are not dispersed by one another 
but die down of their own accord, they change’ to 

the next winds on the figure, reckoning from left 

Arist. does not seem to distinguish Bopéas and amapxtias: his 
Opacklas is T.’s Opaxtas: his eight principal winds (underlined 
in diagram) correspond to those represented on the famous 
Tower of the Winds at Athens, built about two hundred 
years later. 

6 cf. Arist. l.c. 7 Plin. 2. 128. 





> \ Py / id e fal e , ” Py e 
vous émt de€id, WoTEp 4 TOD HALov Eyer hopd. Oo 
~S / lal 
voTos apxopuevos Enpos TereuT@v S€ Vypds. Kal 
e * € <a , re ee a 9 
0 evpos. 0 8 amndwTns amo avatoAns ton- 
n \ n 
pepwyns vdaTwdns Oia NeTTaV 5é dyer TA VOaTa. 
‘Typot dé pddwota 6 Te Katkias Kal Ri 
Ud b b) / \ , \ > 
yaralodns 8 amapktias Kal Opaxias Kal ap- 
t t \ 9 s ‘ f \ 
yéotns vipet@ons b€ 6 Te péeans [%) Bopéas] Kai 
avapxtias’ Kkavpat@dns 5é votos Kal fédupos 
Kal evpos: ot pev ols av x TeAdYOUS TpOCTinTw- 
e \ x \ a 7 ’ > \ 
ow, ot 5€ ols dv dia ys. Sactvvover 8 ovpavor 
/ \ / / / w 
védeot Kal KadUTTOVoL KaiKias padoTa -€iTa 
ifr. Kal of pev GAdot avewor ap éEavT@v Ta 
/ b] lal / \ , / > e , 
védyn w0ovat, Kaixias dé povos mvéwy eis éavTor. 
v \ , , \ > , \ 
alOpio. S€ pariota Opaxias Kal apyéotns Kal 
lal a b) / > / \ / ev 
TOV NOLTOV atrapKTias: éxvediar Sé padiota 6 
Te aTrapKTias Kal o Opaxias Kal o apyéorns. 
Tivovrar dé éxvediar dtav eis addAnjrOUS ep- 
5€ Aowra@v Eapos. aotpatraios bé Opaxias- Kal 
\ a 
apyéoTns Kal atapKtias Kal péons. éav ev TH 
/, 4 / \ e , 
ParatTn Taro. pépwvTat ToAXOL ot yLvOmEvot 
a lat ” / 
ano Tav akavOdv, avewov onuaivovow écecbat 
/ e/ xX > / 8 / / BA 
péyav. O0ev av actépes SaTTwot TOAXOL, AvEepov 

1 T have bracketed 4 Bopéas as probably a gloss on drapkrias } 
is difficult to account for otherwise: See diagram, 
2 Plin. 18. 360. 



to right according to the course of the sun. When 
the south wind begins to blow, it is dry, but it 
becomes wet before it ceases: .so too does the south- 
east wind. The east wind, coming from the quarter 
where the sun rises at the equinox, is wet: but it 
brings the rain in light showers. 

The north-east and south-west are the wettest 
winds; the north the north-north-east and the north- 
east bring hail; snow comes with the north-north- 
east! and north. The south, the west, and the 
south-east winds bring heat. Some of these have 
their effect on places which they strike as they 
come from the sea, others on places which they visit 
as they come over land. The winds which more 
than any others make the sky thick with cloud and 
completely cover it are the north-east and the south- 
west, especially the former. While the other winds 
repel the clouds from themselves, the north-east 
alone attracts them as it blows. Those winds which 
chiefly bring a clear sky are the north-north-west 
and the north-west, and next after them the north. 
Those which most have the character of a hurricane 
are the north the north-north-west and the north- 

They acquire this character when they fall upon 
one another as they blow, especially in autumn, but to 
some extent in spring. Those which are accompanied 
by lightning are the north-north-west the north- 
west the north and the north-north-east. If at 
sea2 a quantity of down is seen blown along, which 
has come from thistles, it indicates that there will 
be a great wind. Wind® may be expected from 
any quarter in which a number of shooting stars are 

3 cf. 13; Plin. 18. 352; Verg. Georg. 1. 365, 

| 417 
VOL, Il. EE 


a / e 
évtev0er éay 5 ravTaxdbev opmoiws, TOANA TvEv- 
MATa onpmaivovet. 
IIvevpatev péev odv onpeta Tadta. 
38 III. Xesuwavos 5é rade. HALos Svdpevos eis p71) 
Kka0apov. Kal as av pepicO7 dvopevos, oTas ai 
/ a 
Hepat émitedovvTal. olov et TO TpiTov pépos: 
3 ¢ x \ oo \ / >\ > \ 
atronerpOein 7 TO Hutov. TO cEeAnvioy éav opOov 
\ . 
SuxoTopmov: yépavor éav mpwt mwétTwvtat Kal aOpoot, 
a, / >\ be b \ \ \ / b] \ 
Tpot Yerpacel, cay Sé ore Kal TOALY Ypovor, oe 
\ n 
Netwace. Kal éav UTooTpapwot TeTOpmevol, YEt- 
ova onpaivovot. 
39 Xives Bodvtes warXov % Tepl citov payopevot 
/ , \ / 
xeléptov. .ativos atpovlos omilwv éwOev yet- 
péptov. dpxiros [as] etorwmy Kai eladuvopevos eis 
n / 
oTras YEel“ava onpuaivovat Kal épiOeds @aavTas. 
, / 
kopovn éav taxd Sis Kp@ln Kal TpiToV, YeLmepia. 
\ , \ / \ \ > Var 
kal Kkopovn Kail Kopak Kal KonXoLtds owe ddovrTes 
, \ v\ \ Fy \ ry 
yeréplot. otpovos éav evkos H Yeddov 7 
A / a 
onuaivovow, womep Kal, pédaves éav TodXol 
havoc, vdwp. 
/ / a 
40 Kat éav éx rreddyous dpvibes hevywot, yetpava 
/ , 
onuatvovot. Kat amivos év olkia oikoupervyn 
/ , 
POeyyouevos xetpéptov. Goa Vdwp cnpaiver, YeEt- 
lal \ , an 
pova ayer, éav pn BOwp, xLiova Kal yeimadva. 

1 j.e. and the succeeding day will be more or less stormy in 
proportion. admrorcipbeln. ? amodAnpbeln =‘ may be obscured.’ 

2 cf. 27. %.e, it is possible, more or less, to see the whole 



seen. If these appear in every quarter alike, it in- 
dicates many winds. 

Such then are the signs of winds. 

IiI. The following are signs of storm. The sun 
becoming obscured as it sinks indicates storm, And, 
according as its orb is divided as it sets, so the 
succeeding days turn out; for instance, a third or a 
half of the orb may remain visible.1 If the horns ? of 
the moon point straight up till the fourth day, and if 
it rounds to a circle, it will be stormy till the middle 
of the month. If cranes fly early and in flocks, it 
will be an early winter*; if they fly late and for a 
long time, it will be a late winter; and, if they 
wheel as they fly, it indicates stormy weather. 

*It is a sign of storm when geese make more 
clamour than usual or fight for their food; so too is 
it when a sparrow or chaffinch twitters at dawn. It 
indicates a storm when the goldcrest® goes into 
holes and hides itself; so also when the redbreast 
does the same. It is a sign of storm when the crow 
caws twice in quick succession and then a third time ; 
also when the crow or raven or jackdaw makes its 
call late. It is a sign of a great storm when a white 
sparrow or swallow is seen, or a white specimen of 
any other bird which is not usually white, even as 
the appearance of a large number of such birds of a 
dark colour signifies rain. : 

It is also an indication of storm when birds flee 
from the sea. A chaffinch uttering its note in an 
inhabited house is a sign of storm. All the signs 
which indicate rain bring stormy weather, that is to 
say, snow and storm, if not rain. If the raven utters 

3 So Arat. 343 f. interprets. 4 Plin. 18. 363. 
5 &s bracketed by Sch. 



Kopag povas TONNAS peTaBadrov XeLpwavos 
Tevdides xetpéprar. povn év Acpeve anovopotca 
Kab TONUTOKOY nxXodea NEtwepLov. Kal ob meu 
poves ot OaratTLoL éay Tool paivovrar év T@ 
Tehyel, NEtpepLvov éTous onpetov. mpoBata éav 
Tpwl o oxXEUNTAL, Tpoiov Xerpavea onpaivovat, 

41 Merorrwpe € éay mpoBara U) oes opuTTooe Kal 
KOLLOVTAL a0 poor T pos addous éxovTes Tas 
Kepands, TOV Netwava XeLpLeprov onpuaiver. év 
dé TO Tlovt@ gacw, oTav “A perobpos avateirAy 
Oarrov, évavtiovs Te Poppa veper Oar, Boes 
HaXrXov éabiovTes Tov ‘eloO ros Kal ert TO beEvov 
KATAKLVOMEVOL Neupeptov. Kal @Ta Kpovev ovos 
Xetpeptov- Kal pax opeva mpoBata Kal dpubes 
Tept ciTov mapa TO é0os° mporrapackevalov Tat 
yap: Kab pies TpiCovres Kal 0 opxoupevor Nerpeplor. 

42 Kal Kv@Y Tots Too W opuTTovea Kab oroAUY@D 
a@oovca povn aK pwplLas _XeuwEepov. yns evtepa 
Troha hawopmeva Xetpava. onpwaiver. Kal éav 
Top un Oéry antec Oat, XeLpéprov Kal ea AUXVOS 
anreaOau un eOér, Xerpava onpaiver: Kat Téppa 
Tyyvupery piper ov. AUXVOS evdias hovxatos 
KQLO{LEVOS Neypwova onpaiver' Kal éay XEtpavos 
ovTOs pKa pérauvar eruyivovTat, VELMOVA on- 
paives Kal éav @oomep KéyXpoLs TOANOIS KaTA- 

1 revises. The word is perhaps corrupt and conceals the 

name of a bird. 
2 cf. 21, 29. moddmraAoxey is Furlanus’ conj. for Vulg. 


% mvevuoves. Plin. 18, 359. pulmones: cf. 9. 154. 


a great variety of sounds in winter, it is a sign of 
storm. Jackdaws flying from the south are a sign 
of storm, and so are cuttle-fish.! It is a sign of storm 
when a loud? voice is heard in harbour, which is re- 
echoed many times. It is a sign of a stormy season 
when a number of jelly-fish? appear in the sea. It 
indicates an early winter when the breeding season 
of sheep begins early. 

If in autumn sheep. or oxen dig holes and lie 
keeping their heads close to one another, it indicates 
a severe winter. They say that in Pontus when 
Arcturus rises, (the cattle +) face northwards as they 
graze. Itis a sign of storm when cattle eat more 
than usual and lie down on their right sides. So is 
it when the ass shakes® his ears, or when sheep or 
birds fight for their food more than usual, since they 
are then trying to secure a store against bad weather : 
also when mice squeak and dance. 

A bitch digging holes with her paws and a tree- 
frog croaking alone at early dawn’ are signs of 
storm: it indicates storm when a number of the 
worms ® called ‘the earth’s entrails’ appear. It is a 
sign of storm if the fire refuses to catch, or if a lamp 
refuses to light: while, if much ash is formed, it is a 
sign of snow. If a lamp burns steadily in fine 
weather, it is a sign of storm: so is it if in winter- 
time dark snuff? forms: if it is, as it were, full of 
numerous millet-seeds, there will be stormy weather ; 

4 @arrov is clearly corrupt, and words indicating what the 
sign portends are missing. 5 of. 54. 

8. éra kpovwv doubtful. Sch. suggests oddas for dra. 

7 axpwplas. cf. 21. ; 

8 vis evrepa. So Arat, 225 explains. One might guess 

9 of. 14, 25, 34, 54. 






TAEWS 1); Xermepioer: wal cay KiKh mepl TO 
Nae pov aow evolas ovens, XLoviKoV. 

‘H tod dvov Parry el ouvia TaTat Kal Copepa 
yiverat, Xeypava onpaiver. Kal cay aoT pam) 
Nappa pn pv ™@ auTe pévn, XeLpeptov. emt 
TIyevade Suopevyn éav Aduaby Kara _Hapvna Kab 
Bpidntroy Kab “Tyunrror, ay pev aravra kara 
Adubn, péyav VELMOVA onpaiver, éay O€ Ta Svo, 
€XNATTO, éay dé IdpvnOa povov, evdvevor" Kal éay 
Netpavos ovros vepehn paKpa éml TOV “Tyntrov 7 7s 
XELLavos émitacw onpaive. “AOws Kal "Ondvp- 
Tos Kal OAwS Opéov Kopupal KATEXOWEVAL v0 
vepehov NEeLpeptov. éav evdlas ywopévns ve- 
pédtov painrar év T@ aépl TapaTeTapevoy Kal 

Kav TO peTom@pov evoLeLvov Tapa TO etKOS 
yevnT at, TO éap yiverar apuypov ws Ta TONG. 
éav T™ pot Xermager apEnras, mpoot Taverat Kal 
éap KANO, éav b¢ TouvavTion, Kab éap arpuov é eo Tal, 
ey NErpL@v VETLOS, TO éap avxmnpov, éav o 
avyuNpos o XELLOV, TO éap Kano. éav i) Omr@pa 
yivntas CTTLELKNS, Ta TONG yivera Tols Tpo- 
Baros Aus. éav TO gap Kai TO Gépos puxpa 
yivntat, 4 TE orwpa yiveTat Kal <TO> meTOT@poY 
TLyNpOV Kal ovK dvewedes. 

Oi Tptvor éav evKeapT Oat, Netmarves TONAOL 
opodpa yivovTar. éav em Kopupys Gpous vépos 
opOov OTH, XElmava. onpaiver, bev Kal ‘Apxidoxos 
roam “Drady’ dpa: Babbs yap 75n Kvpaci 

1 gyov pdtvn. ef. 23, 51. See LS, s.v. bvos ; Theoer. 22. 
21. Plin. 18. 353, sunt in signo Cancri duae stellae parvae 



and if these in fine weather appear in a circle round 
the flame, it is a sign of snow. 

If the ‘ Ass’s Manger!’ shrinks in size and becomes 
dark, it is a sign of storm; also if there is vivid 
lightning which does not remain in the same quarter. 
If at the setting of the Pleiad there is lightning 
over Parnes Brilessus and Hymettus—when it 
appears over all three mountains, it indicates a great 
storm; when over the two lesser heights, a less 
violent storm ; when over Parnes alone, fine weather. 
Again, if during a storm a long cloud stretches over 
Hymettus, it signifies that the storm will increase in 
force. Itis a sign of storm when Athos Olympus 
and mountain-peaks in general are covered with 
clouds. If during fine weather a cloud appears in 
the sky stretching a long way and torn to shreds, 
stormy weather will continue. 

If the autumn is unusually fine, the succeeding 
spring is generally cold. If winter begins early, it 
ends early and there is a fair spring; if the reverse, 
spring will also be late. If the winter is -wet, the 
spring will be dry, if the winter is dry, the spring 
will be fair. If the late summer is satisfactory, the 
sheep will generally suffer from hunger. If the 
spring and summer are cold, the late summer and 
autumn ? will be stifling hot and windless. 

If the kermes-oak® fruits well, there follows a 
long succession of storms. If a cloud stands up- 
right on a mountain-peak, it indicates storm ; whence 
Archilochus’ lines “ Mark you,* Glaucus ; deep ocean 
aselli appellatae, exiguum inter illas spatium obtinente nube- 
cula, quam praesepia appellant. * radd.Sch. % ef. 49. 

4 A comparison of war to stormy weather. Quoted also 

by Plut. de Superstitione, 72, and by Heraclides, Allegoriae 
Homericae, 4. In both citations the Greek is corrupt. 



tapdocerat llovros appl 8 dxpa <C'vpav> op0ov 
iotatar véghos Yhwa yewavos.” éav & opoxpav 
Hh Upeve NEVK@, YELwEplovy. OTav EcT@OTMOV vEepav 
érepa émidbépntar Ta & Hpeun, verpépia. 

46 <O ros> éay yeymmvos dSiartapras may 
arroxpupOh Kat TodTO Toujon dls n T pts, Hepa 
XELLEPLOS dievow. 0 To “Epyod aornp Xetmavos 
pev harvopevos Wwiyn onuaiver Oépovs bé Kadma. 
Oray pédTTaL je aToTéTMVTAaL paKpay aAN 
avtod évy TH evdia TéTwVTAL, YeLm@va éadpevov 
onuaiver. AVKOS WPVOMEVOS YELmOva onHpaiver 
Sia TPLOV AmEep@V. AVKOS Srav mpos Ta épya 
oppa i elowm xYelm@vos Mpa, yYeimava ocnpuaiver 

47 | "Eote 6€ onpetoy Yetmnovov peyarov Kal op- 
Bpov Kal btav yévovtat év TH pEeTOT@PH TOAXOL 
odiKes, Kal drav dpvibes NevKOl Tpds TA épydotpwa 
TAnatdlwot, Kal 6rws TA aypia Onpia édv pos 
Ta épydotmwa, Bopevov Kati XEtwavos péyeOos on- 
paiver.- ths IldpynBos éav ta mpos fFépupov 
divepov Kal Ta tpos DirAns Ppadtrntar védeot 
Bopeiwy dvT@v, KeLpéprov TO onpetov. 

as “Otay mriyn yivntat toxupd, ws Ta ToAAA 
avraTosiowot Kal yiveTrat yvetwov ioyupos. éav 
‘data é€apwa Tora yévyntat, Kavpata ioyupa 
év Tols Tredtvors Kat KotXoLs yivetat. Set odv THY 
apyny opav. édv TO peTorwpor evd.ervov yivnTat 

1 Tupav. yupotv W. Heraclides gives yupedv, Plut. yupedor; 
but one MS. of Plut. gives yépwy with a marginal gloss ‘sc. 
metpa@v, which suggests that the word is a proper name. Od. 
4, 500 mentions the Tépa: (i.e. the ‘round-backed rocks’) 



is now stirred up with waves, and about the heights 
of the Gyrae! there rises a cloud erect, the sign of 
storm.” If the clouds are of uniform colour, like 2 
a white membrane, it is a sign of storm. When, as 
some clouds are motionless, others move towards 
them while they remain at rest, it is a sign of storm. 

If the sun in winter after gleaming out is again 
obscured, and this is repeated two or three times, it 
will be stormy all day. If the star Hermes appears 
in winter, it indicates cold, if in summer, heat. 
When in fine weather bees do not fly ® long distances, 
but fly about where they are, it indicates that. there 
will be a storm, The howling of a wolf indicates a 
storm within three days. When a wolf approaches 
or enters cultivated ground in the season of winter, 
it indicates that a storm will come immediately. 

It is also a sign of great storms and heavy rain 
when many wasps appear in autumn, or when white 
birds* approach cultivated lands; and in general 
when wild creatures approach such lands, it indicates 
a north wind and a severe storm. If the western 
side of Parnes and the side towards Phyle are 
blocked with clouds during a north wind, it is a sign 
of storm. 

When there is severe heat, generally there is 
compensation and a severe winter follows. If there 
is much rain in spring, it is followed by severe heat 
in low-lying districts and valleys; so that one should 
mark how the season begins. If the autumn is 
wigs Aias Oileus perished. The word is missing in the MSS. 
18) . 

2 juotov has perhaps dropped out after dudxpwy 7; the 
adjective seems to agree with végos. 

8 cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 40 ad fin. 
4 Plin, 18. 363: presumably gulls, ete. 






opoddpa, TO gap WS TA TOAAA yiveTaL >Wuypov: 
2\ \ \ v / \ , ahd 
éav 8é TO gap dyiov yévntat Kal Wwuypov, 4 dTw@pa 
ovpia yiverat Kal <TO> peTOT@poV @ TA TOAAA 

e al e¢/ > a / e \ \ 

Oi mpivor Stav evapTacr opodpa, ws péev TA 
TOAAA Yetmw@va layupov anpaivovow, éviore Fé 
Kal avypovs hace yiverOar. Kal éav Tis oTd- 
Naka AaBov Urowdcas apyiAov eis mMiOdevyny 
07, onpaiver tais Povais ais adinow dvepwov Kal 
evdiav. Kal TO mavtaxod Sé Neyouevoy onpetor 
Snmootov yYewuéprov, OTrav des tepl opuTod 
pdxyovrat Kal pépwow. 

IV. Evdias 6¢ onpeta tdde. HrLos pev avi@v 
Aapmmpos Kal 1) KavpaTias Kal wn Exov onpelov 
pndev ev éavt@ evdiay onpaiver. as 8 adtas 
cednvn Tavoednve. Kal Svduevos ros yeu 

7 ) a ut >\ ie A a x 1 

a > \ > , n , 
Lavos eis KaBapov evd.ewvos, Ea pu) Tals TpoTépats 
id / >’ \ Q@ \ Py 5 \ 3 > 7) a 
npépars els pr Kadapov dSeduxas H €E evdidv 

e > \ ba \ >\ / e 7 
olTw@ dé ddnrov. Kal éav yewpalovtos 1 dSvots 
yévntat eis xalapov, evduevov' Kal éav Sdvov 

a / 
YELULOVOS WY POS H, evdiaY onpmatve. 
5 Muted \ 2\ a x \ 3 > 

Kal o pels €av tpitatos Ov Naptrpos 7, evOu- 

3 , Ser 3 av / 4 x \ \ 
ELVOV. Kab 7). TOU OVOU Marvy OTE AV Kkalapa Kat 

¢ la 
Aaprpa paivynrar, evdiewwov. Aras Oé eav omanrds 

1 7d add. Sch. 2 of. 45. 
5 onddaka Vulg.; omdxa Bas. Ald.; oxoddmaka (woodcock 2?) 
conj. Furl. 

4 ¢.e. (reading cxoAdraxa) for the bird to find worms in 
with its long beak (Sch.). It is hard to say, without illus- 


Os ae 



exceedingly fine, generally the spring is cold: if the 
spring is late and cold, the summer goes on late and 
the ! autumn is usually scorching hot. 

When the kermes-oak ? fruits exceedingly well, it 
generally indicates a severe winter, and sometimes 
they say that this sign is followed by droughts. If 
one takes a mole® and puts it in a tub, the bottom* 
of which has been covered with clay, it indicates 
by the sounds which it utters wind or fine weather. 
There is also the sign of storm which is popularly 
recognized everywhere, namely when mice fight for 
the possession of chaff and carry it about. 

The siyns of fair weather. 

IV. The following are signs of fair weather. 5If 
the sun rises brilliant but without scorching heat 
and without showing any special sign in his orb, it 
indicates fair weather. The same may be said of 
the moon when it is full. If in winter that part of 
the sky into which the sun goes down is clear, it is a 
sign of fair weather, unless on the preceding days 
that part has not been clear, though it was clear 
above the horizon: in that case the prospect is 
uncertain. It is also a sign of fair weather, if during 
stormy conditions that part of the sky into which 
the sun sets is clear; and also if, in winter at the 
time of setting, the sun has a pale colour. 

Again, it indicates fair weather if the outline of 
the moon on the third day is bright; also if the 
‘ Ass’s® Manger’ is clear and bright. If the halo’ 
forms and disappears evenly, it is a sign of fair 

tration, which is the more convincing of the creatures 
suggested. 5 Plin, 18. 342. § of. 23, 43. 
7 of. 22, 31; Plin, 18. 345; Arist. Meteor, 3. 3. 



mayh Kal papavOh, evodiay onpaiver. ai Kydes 
vepérar XELpdvos evduewval. "Oduprros dé cal 
"Adws kai 6rXas Ta. é6pn Ta onmavTiKa orav Tas 
Kopupas kalapas EX@OLY, evodlav onwaiver. Kal 
dtav Ta védn pos THY Oddaccay avray Tapa- 
Cavvvn, evdvervor. Kal OTay doavtos 7 pos Sua pas 
NarKaoes Ta veon ypaya evn: evdia yap ws Ta 
TOANA TH vorEpaig. 

62 “Otay 6é omixdy yeunrat, bdwp ov yivera 7 
éNaT TOV. oTav yépavor TeTOVTAL Kal 1) ava- 
KAT TOT, evdlay onuaiver: ov yap WéTOVTAL ™ ply 
» av TET OMEVOL kabapa idwot. yAavé Houxaiov 
pbeyyouevn év Nerpave evdiay Tpoonpaiver’ Kal 
VUKT@P XELLOVOS nouxatov ¢ adovea. Jararria be 
yrav€ adovea XeLpavos pev evdlay onpaiver, €v- 
dias 8é: Xerpava. eal Kopak Sé HOvOS , bev novxatov 
Kpatov, Kal éav tpls Kpden peta TODTO TOAAAKIS 
Kpakn, evdveLvos. EG 

58 Kai Kopa@vn Ewbev evOvs éav Kpaén Tpls, evdiav 
onjaivel, Kal éoTépas XELw@vos novxaior ¢ gdoved. 
Kal Bpxtros é& omis éxmeTopevos Kal ee Epler 
Kat e& oikias éEw0ev evdiay onuaiver. Kal éav 
vetua@vos BopevovTos Boppavev UTohapryes yevn- 
Tal AevKN, vorobev dé é évavTia TeTaypéevn H vepern 
oyK@ons, os emt TO TOAD els EevdLaV onpaiver peta 
Bornv. Kal dtav Bopéas vedérXas Todas Kw 
éxrvéwy péyas, evdiav onpaiver. 

1 «ndddes I conj. cf. 31, to which this statement answers. 
kotAddes MSS. 

* Plin. 18. 356. 3 Plin. 18. 357. ef. Verg. Georg. 1. 401. 

+ Plin. 18. 362. 

° év xema@v. ? in winter.’ The same ambiguity occurs in 
many places : the sense seems fixed here by the next sentence. 



weather. Light! clouds in winter are a sign of fine 
weather. It is a sign of fine weather when Olympus 
Athos and in general the mountains which give signs 
have their tops? clear: so too is it, when clouds 
encompass them at the sea-level. Also when after 
rain the clouds have a bronze colour towards sun- 
down: in that case there will generally be fine 
weather the next day. 

When there is mist, little or no rain follows. 
When cranes ?# take flight and do not come back, it 
is a sign of fair weather: for they do not do so till 
they see a clear sky before them as they fly. Itisa 
sign of fair weather when during a storm® an owl 
makes a low hoot, or at night during a storm it 
utters a low sound. If the sea-owl utters its note 
during a storm, it indicates fair weather, if during 
fair weather, it indicates ‘a storm. It is a sign ot 
fair weather if a solitary raven makes a low croak, 
and, after croaking three wee repeats the sound 
again and again. . . .6 

If the crow caws thrice directly the dawn appears, 
it indicates fair weather, as also if it makes a low 
note in the evening during a storm. It is a sign of 
fair weather if a goldcrest flies out abroad from a 
hole or from a hedge or from its nest. Again, if 
during a storm from the north there is a white 
gleam from that quarter, while in the south a solid 
mass of cloud has formed, it generally signifies a 
change to fair weather. Again when the north 
wind (Boreas) as it begins to blow violently stirs up 
a number of clouds, it indicates fair weather. 

8 T have marked a lacuna: the answer to uéy is missing, 
presumably a statement about the significance of more than 
one raven. cf. Verg. Georg. 1. 410. 






> \ fal 
ITpoBata owe oyevopeva eddsewov atrotedovat 
TO onpelov. Kai Bovs éml TO apiotepov taxiov 
. / 
tos: éml de&idv b& yYetwova. TéTTLyes ToOAXOl 
ylvopevor voa@des TO TOS onmaivoval. vyVOS 
a n / 
YELMOVOS KALOMEVOS NoVYalos evdiay onpaivel. 
Kal éav ém axp@ olov Kéyxpous éyn Naptpds: 
YY 35 > / > \ HE / a \ 
Kal éav év KuKrX@ THv pvéav Teprypadyn AapTPAa 
¢ a / \ / \ > / 
O Tis cxivov KapTros onmaivet TOVS apoToOUS: 
e a na 
exer O€ Tpla mépn Kal oT 0. TPATOS TOV TPwTOU 
na a / c 
apoTou anpetov, o SevTEpos Tov devTépou, Oo TpiTOS 
n / \ e xX / > / / 
Tov TpiTov' Kal ws dy TovTwY éxBaivn KadAMCOTA 
, ‘ ¢e 
Kab ryevnrae adpotatos, ovTws é€er Kai o KaTa 
TOUTOV ApoTos. é' 
Aéyerar dé xal Poise onpela bXwov TE TOV 
éviauT@v yiverOar kal TOV popiwy. av apxo- 
/ nN lal s / 
pévou TOV Yetuavos Copos 7 Kal KavmaTa yivnTat 
\ an ¥ ce e a we A na \ 
Kal TadTa dvev datos UT’ avéeuwv dtadvOH, Tmpos 
TO €ap onpaiver ydrdalav écopévnv. Kat éav 
peTa THY eapwny ionpepiav opiyrAar TiTTw>st, 
: ? 
Tvevpata Kal avéwous onuaivovow eis EBdSomnov 
phva aupotépov apiOuoupévov. Boar pev ama 
[envoeloel TH ceAnVH TimTovoLw, avTaL péev TVEv- 
£ n >] 
Mata onpatvovow eis éxeivov Tov xpovor, boat 6 
audikvptov ovons THs ceAnvns VOaTa. Kal do@ 

A iof.4 2 of. 14, 25, 42. 
3 A. P. 1. 13. 6 the same is said of oxfAAa, 


—T —— 


_—— . 


When sheep begin to breed late, it is a sign which 
fulfils itself in fair weather. So is it when an ox 
lies! on his left side, and also when a dog does the 
same: if they lie on the right side, it indicates 
storm. The appearance of a number of cicadas in- 
dicates that the season will be unhealthy. Ifa lamp 
burns quietly during a storm, it indicates fair weather. 
So also if it has on the surface an appearance like 
shining millet-seeds :? also if a bright line surrounds 
the lamp- nozzle. 

The fruiting of the mastich ® gives signs as to the 
seasons of sowing:* it takes place at three several 
periods, which indicate respectively the time for the 
first the second and the third sowing: and according 
as one or other of these fruiting-times turns out ® 
best and produces the most abundant fruit, so too 
will be the success of the corresponding time of 

Miscellaneous signs. 

The following signs are said to affect either the 
whole year or whole periods® of it. If at the be- 
ginning of winter there is dull weather followed by 
heat, and these conditions are dispersed by wind 
without rain, it indicates that towards the spring 
there will be hail. Again, if after the spring equinox 
mists come down, it is an indication of breezes and 
winds by the seventh month, reckoning inclusively. 
Those mists which come down when the moon is in 
its first quarter indicate breezes for that period, 
those which come down when the moon is in its 
third quarter indicate rain. And the more mists 

Sof. HP. Je ks } fol, 
® é«Batyy I conj.: ef. H.P. 7. 13. 6; xAlvy MSS. 
8 of. 6. 




av Hadrov éd’ EKAaTEPO 7 TX MATL Omlyrat 
TiTTWOL, LANOV Ta eLpnuéva oNmatvel. 

=npaiver dé Kal TH TVEU LATO. dpa, Tals Opl- 
Xrats emumem Tova aus ywopeva Kal édav pev am’ 
novs Kal peonpBpias yivntat Ta TVEUMATA, beara 
onpatver éav ag’ éomépas Kal amo THS dpeTou 
TVEU MAT aL Kal vyn. ods é KOUNTAS Aiyorreot 
Aeyouow ov povov Ta T poerpn eva, onpaivovaty 
oTav paivovras arrka Kal yoxn éml be TOIS 
dor pots elob ev @s él TO TOND onpaivew Kab Tals 
ionpepiais Kal TpoTrais, ovK ém avTais adr % Tpo 
avT@v 1) VaoTEpoy MLKP@. 

1 cf. 34; Arist. Meteor. 1. 6. 
2 Text seems doubtful, as cold weather was included above, 



come down when the moon is assuming either shape, 
the more certainly is the result just mentioned 

Also the winds which accompany the falling of 
the mists are significant: if the breezes come from 
the east or south, rain is indicated ; if from the west 
or north, breezes and cold weather. And the stars 
which the Egyptians! call ‘comets’ indicate not 
only the conditions just mentioned but also cold? 
weather. *In the case of the rising of the stars the 
indication, as in the case also of the equinoxes and 
solstices, is given not at the actual time but a little 
earlier or later. 

3 The text of this sentence can hardly be sound. onyalvew 
has no subject and rats ionuep{as kal tpowais no construction. 

VOL, II. F ¥ 

gy Sieh hie? eg Suites igs bis 
ha ani omg asic vf, pare i iy 0; - 
“ath # ae stein 
i het eetstt, RGR & 
Prt tiga: " highs vig paste . 
” pt 4 Pree ey r “Agta CE We oe va 

a Sane {fs 
eet roe Mt ai ra ahi ve fpr Haale.” ey ‘ 
uy e “‘gnk es * > nee re ry ree: pit: : . 


“gee: be wi iY 


ae ar ae ees 6 me 
Oh oink sf. wh on i) 

ce er, ee a 

Hare ve tad se to for ape 
rere 46 Hera, Lae: gt: anes ha sperms sp. 



F F 2 


SPRENGEL made the first comprehensive attempt to determine 
in modern nomenclature the plants mentioned by Theophrastus : 
Wimmer gives the result in the Introduction to his 1842 edition. 
Sprengel adopted the most probable identifications of earlier 
botanists, supplemented by his own conjectures and Sibthorp’s 
exploration of the Greek flora. The ambitious but uncritical 
Conspectus Florae Classicae of Fraas did not add much to our 
knowledge, which throughout had been vitiated by failure to 
recognise the fact that the Mediterranean flora differed from 
that of Western and Central Europe. MHalacsy’s Conspectus 
Florae Graecae now gives us a scientific enumeration of the 
native plants of Greece ; a Greek plant-name can be wedded toa 
plant which at any rate is Greek. Incidentally much has been 
cleared up by special research at the hands of De Candolle, 
Hanbury, Yule, Schweinfurth, Bretzl, and others. 

The identifications in the following Index are drawn from 
various sources; for their selection in view of the botanical 
data available I am indebted to Sir William Thiselton-Dyer. A 
considerable number may be accepted as certain, many are 
probable, some no more than possible. 





= denotes a PE pa 

ere a reference is added (see e.g. 

atpaxtvAis), it indicates that Theophrastus himself states that 
the names are synonymous. 

aBpérovoy, southernwood, Arlemisia 

1. 9. 4. evergreen; 6.1.1. in list 

of under-shrubs; 6. 3. 6. an un- 

named plant comp.: see App. 

(23): 6. 7. 3. propagation; 
6. 7. 4. much seed: roots 

ayvos (=oigos), chaste-tree, Vitex 

1. 3. 2. a shrub which becomes 
tree-like; 1. 14. 2. bears fruit 
at the top; 3. 12. 1. growth 
of xpdvea comp.; 3. 12. 2. 

roots of @yAvkpdvera comp. ; 

4.10. 2. cAaiayvos comp. ; 9. 5. 1. 
= Be KLVGJL@VOV and kacia 

pT td (? = xorvvos), wild olive, 
Olea Oleaster 
2. 2. 5. comes from seed of €Ada. 
a&ypwarts, dog’s tooth grass, Cynodon 
+ a A 2 Soot jointed; 1. 6. 10. 
: oe large and numerous; 
1. propagation ; 4. 6. 6. 
girs (6) comp. ; 4. 10. 5-6 root 
escribed; 4.11. 13. an unnamed 
form of KaNOLOS comp.: root of 
kK. 0 Ivéuxds comp.; 9. 13. 6. habit 
of épevOedavor yew a 
ayxovea, alkanet, A usa tinctoria 
7. 8. 3. leaves ‘on the ground’: 
7. 9. 3. roots red. 
adtavrov, maiden-hair, 
Capillus-V eneris, etc. 
7,10. 5, evergreen; 7. 14. 1. leaf 
cannot be wetted: two kinds 


THEOPH, ll. 

(see below): medicinal use: 
grows in damp places. ; 
ne is To AevKov (= tprxomaves 
. 14, 1), English maiden-hair, 
iat Trichomanes 
7.14.1. described by comparison 
with a. ro wéAav: medicinal use: 
likes shady places. 
adiavrov 76 wédav, Maiden-hair, Adi- 
antum Capillus- eneris 
7. 14. 1. comp. with a. rd AevKdv. 
ddgcigetis, orach, Atriplex rosea 
4. 2. bears fruit both on top 
oe at sides; 3.10. 5. seeds of 
irvpa. comp. ; 7. 1. 2-3. time 
of sowing and of germination; 
7. 2. 6. root described ; 7. 2. 7- 8. 
root of BAcrov comp.; 7. 2. 8. 
root: 7.3.2. seeds; 7.3. 4. seed 
borne both at top and at were 
7. 4. 1. only one kind; 5. 5. 
seed does not keep well. 

aetioews « be house-leek, Sempervivum 

«30; leaves fleshy; 7. 15. 2. 
always moist and green: habitat. 
Sfonstey traveller’s joy, Clematis 

5. 9. 6. wood makes moe fire- 
sticks: described; 5.9. 7. the 
stationary piece should be made 
of this or «trros. 

alyeipos, race poplar, Populus nigra 
be Bick 1. 5. 2. bark fleshy; 
2 2.10. Treks form bears fruit; 
3.1.1. propagation; 3.3.1. tree 

of mountain and plain; 
question if it bears fruit ; etc.; 



8. 4. 2. time of budding; 3.6.1. 
quick growing; 3.14.2. described; 
4.1. 1. likes wet ground; 4. 7.4. 
size of unnamed ae tree, 
see App. (12a), comp.; 4. 13. 2. 
shorter-lived by water; 5. 9. 4. 
wood makes an evil smoke when 
burnt for charcoal 

aiyiAwy (1) (=donpis), Turkey oak, 
Quercus Cerris 

8. 8. 2. one of the five press 

kinds of oak: fruit; 8. 4 
habit and timber; 3. 8. 6. 
galls: dackos (g.v.). 

alyikow (2) (grass), Aegilops ovata 

7.13.5. seed sometimes takes = 

years to germinate ; Bo te 
comp. with aipa; 8. 8. 3. eee 
specially among xpiBai s 8. 9. 2. 
like a wild plant; 8.9. 3. greatly 
exhausts the soil ; 8. 11. 8-9. 
peculiarities about seed. 

aipddwpov, broom-rape, Orobanche 


8.8.5. parasitic on Bovxépas (only) : 


ae darnel, Lolium temulentum 

5.2. ‘ bark ’ in one layer; 2.4.1, 
valighe turns into 4a.; 4. 4. 10. 
épugev comp.; 8. 4. 6. does not 
infest certain kinds of Tupos: 
contrasted with peddurvpov ; 
. 7. 1. «pcéy and especially 

mupos said to change into a. 
under certain conditions: de- 
scribed : Aivov _also said to 
change into a.: comp. with 
aiyidwow (2); 8. 8. 3. produced 
possibly by degeneration of 
xp.) and mvupés, or else specially 
affects such crops; 8. 9. 3. alto- 
gether a wild plant. 

ere nettle, Urtica urens 
withers a Adxavov; needs cooking. 

dxavOa (1) » Atyurria, acacia, Aca- 
cia arabica (and albida) 

4.2.1. peculiar to Egypt; 4. 2. 8. 
described : two kinds G AcvKH 
and  péAava) distinguished 
(see below) ; kes Seep 

axavéa (7 Aiyurria) 7 AevKy, acacia, 
Acacia albida 

4, 2. 3. distinguished from «a. 7 



aKav0a (7 Atyurria) 7 7 wéAauva, acacia, 
Acacia arabica 
4, 2. 8. distinguished from a. 7 
axavOa (2) 7 axavedys (see 4.10.6.n.), 
corn-thistle, Carduus arvensis 
4, 10. 6. root ete. described. 
axavba (3) i Siuas, Acacia tortilis 
4, 7.1. the only tree which grows 
on part of the ‘ Red Sea’ coast. 
axav0a (4) 4 “IvéiKy (see App. (9)), 

Balsamodendron Mukul 
9. 1. 2. sap gummy: gum like 

axavOa (5)  AevKy ‘Hpakdéovs (= 

dxavba (6)), biphorbia anti- 

4. 4. 12. described: uses of wood 

axavOa (6) (peculiar to Gedrosia), 

pra: be (5), Euphorbia anti- 

4, rat 13. described : has a blinding 
axav0a (7) tus, gum arabic, Acantha 
9. 18. 1. said to have the property 
of thickening water. 
axavia (2) Ay (= axavos = téia (2) 
= lsivy = yxapardéwv 6 dAevKds 
9.12. 1. ), pine-thistle, Atractylis 
aKavos (= &xavOa(8) =t&la (2)=iétn= 
Xapad€wy Oo AevKds), pine-thistle, 
Atractylis gummifera 
1. 10. 6. spinous-leaved; 1. 13. 3. 
flower attached above each 
seed; 6.1. 3. has spines on the 
leaves: a wild under- shrub; 
6. 4. 4. many stalks and side- 
growths; 6. 4. 5. one form only ; 
6. 4. 8. root of adyKos contrasted: 
Xapardéwy comp.; 6. 4. 11. fruit- 
case of ckaxros (1) comp.; 6. 6. 6. 
seed of pddov comp.; 9. 12. 1. 
‘head’ of xopardeuy 6 AevKds 
comp.: another name for xapar- 
Aéwr (?)5 9.12. 2. leaf of xapac- 
A€wy 0 pédas comp. 
axdvitov (= OnAvdovov = pvdhovey = 
okopmeds (3)), wolf’s bane, Aconi- 
tum Anthora 
9. 16. 4. localities: described: 
habitat: eaten by no animal; 
9. 16. 5. difficulty of compound- 
ing drug: effects: has no anti- 

SN a ee 


dote; 9.16. 7. use requires ex- 
pert knowledge: legal restric- 
tions: proportion between times 
of gathering and of administer- 

axopva, Cnicus Acarna 

1. 10. 6. erga a & 4.3.a 
‘thistle-like ’ plant; 6. 4. 6. de- 

axtéos(?) (= axry), elder, Sambucus 

3. 4. 2. time of budding. 
axty (=axréos),elder,Sambucus nigra 
ee 4, wood without knots ; 
1. 6. 4. core fleshy : has no core, 
according to some; 1. 8. 1. few 
knots; 4. 13.2. shorter-lived by 
water; 5. 3. 3. character of 
6 Vig 9. 15. 5.) 
arOaia padaxn 7H aypia 0. 9.), 
marsh-mallow, Althaea officin- 

9, 15. 5, a drug, aes te Sd Per 
mene 1 cypta. $ root sal 
ey water: described : 
eodichal use. 
re Atriplex Halimus 
6. 5. very dangerous to trees. 
sdtpdot0s (Spits), see Spvs (3). 
adoivyn, Parietaria cretica 
9.13. 3. leaf of apraroAoxia comp. 
sponernnger, Polypogon monspelien- 

7 Tt. 2. flowers in a spike: de- 

apdpakov (auapaxos), sweet marjor- 
am, Origanum Majorana 

1. 9. 4, evergreen; 6. 1. 1. in list 

of under-shrubs; 6. 7. 4. propa- 
gation: roots described ; 6.8.3. 
flowering time; 9. 7. 3. in list 
of apdpara. 

aumedos (1) (leaf otvapov 9, 13. 5.), 
vine, Vitis vinifera 

1. 2. 1. has tendrils ; hy 2. 7. at 

1. 3.1. a typical ‘ "tree’ Skew. O 
evergreen at Elephantine; 1.5. 2. 
bark cracked and fibrous: bark 
in layers; 1.6.1. core fleshy; 
1. 6. 3. roots thin; 1. 6. 5. roots 
branching upwards ; 1. 8. 5. 
highest shoots ‘ roughest’ ;: ‘eye’ 
analogous to knot in ‘other 

trees; 1. 9. 1. effect of pruning; . 

1.10. 4. leaves broad; 1.10. 5. 

leaf divided; 1. 10. 7. long leaf 
stalk : attachment of leaf-stalk ; 
1. 10. 8. leaves made of ‘ bark’ 
and fiesh; 1. 11. 4. seeds all 
together i in a single case; 1.11.5. 
each seape separately attached ; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2 
taste of “et 1. 35.- 1. ence 
‘downy’: 1.13. 3. flower sur- 
rounds fruit ; 1. 13. 4. some 
kinds sterile; 1. 14.1. bears on 
new shoots; is 14, 4. many cul- 
tivated forms; 2. 1. 3. propa- 
aera 2. 2. 4. degenerates from 
; 2.3.1. sometimes spon- 
taneously changes character ; 
2. 3. 2. &. & Kdémvewos Varies in 
colour of grapes on same bunch; 
2. 3. 3. sometimes bears fruit 
on the stem ; etc.; 2.5. 3. propa- 
gation: cannot be srafted; 
2. 5. 4. propagation; 2 5. 7 
low ground suitable: great 
variety of kinds according to 
soil; 2. 6. 12. cuttings set up- 
side down; 2.7.1. water-loving; 
2. 7. 2. needs much pruning; 
2.7. 5. use of dust; 2. 7.6. root- 
pruning; 3. 5. 4. autumn bud- 

Tia (2) comp.; 3.18.5. flower and 
fruit of pots comp.; 3. 18. 12. 
cluster of berries of cpidaé (2) 
comp.; 4. 4. 8. unnamed Indian 
tree "(eotton-plant) planted in 
rows like a.; 4. 4. 11. in India 
confined to hill-country ; 4.5.4. 
grows on Mount Tmolus and 
Mysian Olympus ; 3, 4.7.7. leaf 
Of Sévdpov 7d éprddopoy comp.; 
4. 7. 8. occurs on island of 
Tylos; 4. 18. 2. some kinds 
short-lived; 4. 13. 4-6. said to 
be longest-lived of trees: rea- 
son: method of prolonging life 
artificially ; 4. 14. 2. young 
plants liable to ‘sun-scorch’; 
4. 14. 6. other diseases ; 4. 14.7. 
effects of injury to roots ; 
4. 14. 8. effect of rain on fruit- 
ing; 4. 7) 9. a special pest at 
Miletus; 4. 14. 10. effect of hot 
winds ; 4.14.13. effects of frost ; 
4. 15. 1. outer bark can be 
stripped; 4. 16. 1. survives 



splitting of stem; 4.16. 6. natu- 
ral antipathy of &. to padavos 5 
5. = 4, character of wood; 
5. 4. 1. the less fruitful trees 
produce more solid wood; 5.9.4. 
wood, if damp, makes an evil 
smell when burnt for charcoal ; 
5. 9. 6. abpayevn comp.; 8. 2. 8. 
a. in Melos; 9.1. 6. time of tap- 
ping; 9. 18. 5. leaf and time of 
growth of mevtamerés comp.3 
9.18.11. peculiar properties of 
certain local kinds. 
aptredos (2) (Mt. Ida), currant grape, 
Vitis ag sh var. corinthiaca 
8. 17. 4. a local Idaean kind; 
3. 17. 6. do. described. 
a&urtredos (3) h rovtia, Fucus spiralis 
4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters; 
4, 6. 9. described. 
dpmedos (4), 4 aypia (= pydrwOpor), 
bryony, Bryonia cretica 
8. 18. 12. fruit of ontdAaé (2) comp. 
9. 14,1. how long drug prepared 
from it will keep; 9. 20. 3. pro- 
perties of root: medicinal use. 
AO almond, Prunus Amyg- 

1. 6. 3. large central root; 1. 9. 6. 
leaves produced early, put not 
shed early; 1. 11. 1. seed imme- 
diately within envelope; 1.11.3. 
seed in a woody shell; 1. 12. 1. 
taste of fruit; 1. 13. "1. flower 
‘leafy’: flower of some kinds 
reddish ; 1. 14.1. bears on last 
year’s wood; 2. 2. 5. degen- 
erates from seed; etc.; 2. 2. 9. 
effects of cultivation; 2. 2. 11. 
do.: effect of tapping gum; 
Dae 5. 6. trees should be planted 
far apart; 2. 7. 6. ‘ punishing’ 
the tree; 2. 7. 7. tapping the 
gum; 2. "8. 1. apt to shed im- 
mature fruit; 3. 11. 4. fruit of 
Media comp.: 3. 12. 1. leaf of 
kpdveca comp.; 4, 4. 7. fruit of 
TépptvOos 7 Tyduxy) comp.; 4.7.5. 
fruit of unnamed Persian tree 
(see App. (13)), comp.; 4.14.12. 
uninjured by specia al winds; 

. 5.9.5. wood-ashes make pungent 
smoke; 7.13. 6. flower appears 
before leaves and (new growth 
of) stem; 8. 2. 2. germination de- 


scribed; 9. 1. 2. sap ee, 
9. 1. 3. gum scentless; ee 
gum useless; 9. 19. 1. ‘eat of 
ovobnpas comp. 

Guwpov, Nepaul cardamom, Amo- 
mum subulatum 
. 7.2. an dpwua, Median or In- 

avdpaxAn, andrachne, Arbutus An- 

Lex Dt pate readily drops bi 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 
mountain tree; 3. 8. 3. ose 
green; 8. 4. 2. time of budding ; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting; 3. 4. 6. 
do.; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?); 
3.16. 5. described ; 3. 16. 6. leat 
of xoxxvyéa comp.; 4. 4. 2. leaf 
of unrA€a 7» Meporxy comp.; 4.7.5. 
an unnamed a tree (see 
App. (14)), comp.; 4. 15. 1. does 
not. perish if bark is stripped ; 
4. 15. 2, bark cracks; 5. 7. 6. 
wood used for parts of loom; 
9. 4. 3. bark of cuvpva comp. 

avdpaxyvyn, purslane, Portulaca ole- 

7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and ger- 
mination ; 7.2.9. root described. 
avemwvn, anemone, Anemone spp. 
7. 8. 3. leaves ‘on the ground.’ 
avenovn, anemone, Anemone coron- 
7. 7. 3. puts forth flower soon 
after season of growth begins; 
7.10.2. flowers in winter 
mere. H Actmwvia, ‘Aneuons pavo-~ 

6. ’8. 1. _flowering-time. 
ee n opeia, Anemone blanda 
6.8.1 . flowering-time. 
avnbov (= avvytos), dill, Anethum 
1. 11. 2. seeds naked; 1.12. 2. 
iv of sap; 6. 2. 8. fruit of 
ipOyé and vap@nxia comp.; also 
is ting of flowers and fruit; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and 
germination; 7. 2. 8. root de- 
scribed ; 7. 3. 2. seeds described; 
%..4. 4 "only one kind; 7.6. 4 
fruit of dpecoréAtvov comp. 
avOcuov, Anthemis chia, etc. (see 
1, 13. 3. flower attached above 

ee ee ee 


each seed; 7. 14. 2. flowering 
begins at top: «flower and fruit: 
several kinds (see below). 
&vOcpov To advdAAavGes, wild chamo- 
mile, Matricaria Chamomilla 
7.8. 3. "leaves ‘ on the ground.’ 
avOenov To hvdAdAHdes, Anthemis chia 
7.8.3. leaves on the stem, 
avOépeKos, see aodddedos. 
ayvyygov, as Pimpinella Anisum 
1. 12.'1. scent. 
avynTos (= = dvyfov.) dill, 
9. 7. 3. in list of apwpara. 
avTippwvov, eerie Antirrhinum 
9. 19. 2. ‘alleged magic properties: 
rae mere Taraxacum offici- 


6. . “8. @) flower of oer 
comprs: RT: Adxavov: 
classed as * chicory-like’ from 
its leaves; 7. 7. 3. season of 
growing; 7. 7. 4. prolonged 
flowering- -time; 7. 8, 3. leaves 
‘on the ground’; 7:10. '2.. C2) 
flowers in winter, earliest of all; 

7. 10. 3. flowers borne in sueces- 

7. 11. 3. flowering-time; 

4, inedible: growth de- 

anapyia, hawk’s beard ,Crepis Colum- 


7. 8. 3. leaves ‘ on the ground.’ 
era, bedstraw, Galium Aparine 
7.8 stem ‘ clasping,’ _ but, for 
aur of support, ‘on the 
ground’; 7. 14. 3. clings to 
clothes: peculiar setting of 
flower described; 8. 8. 4. grows 
specially among ¢daxoi: growth 
described; 9. 19. 2. avrippivov 

amo; (1), pear, Pyrus communis, 
var. sativa 

1,2. 7. bark; 1.3. 3. a tree whose 
stem is not single; 1. 8. 2. 
has less knots than axpas 
1.10. 5. leaves round; 1.11. 4 
seeds all together in’ a i. 4. 
case; 1. 11. 5. seeds in a mem- 
brane; 1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 
1. 13. 1. flower ‘leafy’; 1.13.3. 
flower above fruit-case; 1.14.1 

bears on last year’s wood; 
1. 14. 4. a cultivated form of 
axpas; Many cultivated forms; 
2.1. 2. propagation; 2. 2. 4. de- 
generates from seed ; Z.°2. 5. 
seed produces wild form: 2.2.12. 
cannot be made out of axpds by 
cultivation; 2. 5. 3. grafting; 
2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
eP 2 fi és ‘ pun- 

=e less fruit than &xpds, 
ut ripens more; 8. 3. 2. has 
better fruit and timber in low- 
lands; 38. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 6. 2. formation of buds; 
3. 11. 5. mountain and lowland 
forms comp.; 3. 12. 8. fruit of 
éy comp. as to keeping; 3.14.1. 
leaf of mreA€a comp.; 3. 14. 3. 
leaf of xA7j@pa comp.; 3. 18. 7. 
does not differ in kind from 
axpas; 4, 2. 5. mepoéa comp.; 
4. 3. 1. size of Awrds (4) comp.; 
4.4.2, thorns of pnAéa 7 Meporxy 
comp.; 4. 5.3. abundant in Pon- 
tus; 4. 13. 1. shorter-lived than 
axpas } 4.14.2. apt to get worm- 
eaten; 4. 14. 10. fruit gets worm- 
eaten; 4, 14. 12. uninjured by 
special winds; 5. 3. 2. leaf of an 
unnamed tree comp. (see App. 
salle 9. 4, 2. leaf of AcBavwrds 

arLoS 5 (2). (= ioxds 9. 9.5. =pdda- 
iain H opeta), Spurge, Huphorbia 
9. 9. 5. qeatelal use; 9. 9. 6. de- 
apaxos, Vicia Sibthorpii 
1.6.12. an unnamed plant (see 
App. (1)) comp.; 8.8. 3. (‘the 
* rough hard kind’ ) grows speci- 
ally among ¢axoié. 
apax.dva, Lathyrus amphicarpus 
1.1. 7. fruit underground; 1.6.12. 
root like a second tae 
apia (= ivos = deddddpus 3. 16. 3.), 
holm-oak, Qwercus Ilex var. 
3. 3. 8. doubt whether it has a 
flower; 3. 4.2. time of budding; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 3.16.3. 
Dorian name for eAddspus : 



3.17. a acorn of pedrds comp.; 

4. 7. at) leaf of Sadvyn (6) 
comp. ; "5. 1.1. time of cutting 
timber; 5. 3. 8. character of 

wood; 5.4.2. wood proof against — 

decay; 5. 5. 1. wood" hard 
work; 5.9. 1. wood makes good 
aprstoAoxia, birthwort, Aristolochia 
9.13.2. described : medicinal use; 
9. 14, 1. how long. drug will 
keep; 9.15.5. ea in Arcadia; 
9. 20. 4. cf. 9. 13. 2 
dpkevOos (= xédpas (3)), Phoenician 
cedar, Juniperus ‘phoenicea 
BY 3. pvergcennt; 8.13. 4. a 
mountain tree; 3. 3. ever- 
green; 3.3.8. doxbt whether it 
has a flower; 3.4.1. takes a 
year to ripen fruit ; 3.4. 5. Gane 
of fruiting; etc.; 3. 4. 6. do.; 
8. 6. 1. slow-growing (?); 3.6.5. 
shallow-rooting according to 
Arcadians; 3.12.3—4. described: 
distinguished from kxéSpos (1): 
4. 1.3. grows high on moun- 
tains, but not tall; 5. 7. 4. 
use of wood in house-building ; 
5. 7. 6. other uses of wood: 
does not decay; 9. 1. 2. sap 
apveywaoor (=aredchovpos 7, 11.2., 
according to some, = opru 
7. 11. 2., according to some), 
plantain, ‘Plantago mator 
16OsDs leaves ‘ on the ground’; 
7.10. 3. flowers borne in succes- 
sion; 7.11. 2. flowers in a spike: 
described by comparison with 
apov, cuckoo-pint, Arum italicwm 
1. 6. 7. root fleshy ; 1.6. 8. has a 
stout root and also fibrous 
roots: roots not tapering; 
1. 6.10. cultivation ; 1.16. aD: @) 
flower made of flesh ; fie 
propagation; 7. 9. 4, reat oe 
scribed ; 7. 12. 2. root and leaves 
edible: use in surgery: special 
treatment to promote growth 
of root: one kind inedible (see 
Spaxovtiov); 7.13.1. leaves de- 
scribed; 7. 13. 2. no stem or 


appevoyovov (= OAvyovov), dog mer- 
cury, Mercurialis perennis 
9. 19. 5. properties: described. 
aomddrabos, Calycotome villosa 
9. 7. 3. in list of apdpara, 
donpis (=aiyiAwy (1)), Turkey oak, 
Quercus Cerris 
3.8. 2. one of the four Macedonian 
kinds of oak: acorns and 
acrépicxos, Michaelmas daisy, Aster 
12. 2. seed of pedayxparis 
acrapis, Delphinium Staphisagria 
9. 12. 1. medicinal use. 
sebention asparagus, 
1. 10. 6. spines for leaves; 6.1. 3. 
do.; a wild under-shrub ; 6, 4.1. 
one of very few plants which 
are altogether spinous; 6. 4. 2. 
aohddedos (stem avbépixos), (=md0s 
(2), asphodel, Asphodelus ramo- 

if . 8. belongs to ‘ ferula-like’ 
plants; 1. 10. 7. attachment of 
leaves; 6. 6. 9. leaves of vap- 
kiooos (1) comp.; 7. 9. 4. root 
acorn-shaped; 7% 12. 1. root 
edible; 7.13.1. leaves. described ; 
7.13. 2-3. stem of 7 tpus comp.: 
largest stem of herbaceous 
plants: fruit inflorescence etc. 
described; worm which infests 
it: uses for fore of stem and 
roots; 7.13.4 . grown from seed ; 
9, 9. 6. leaf of ioxas comp.: 
9.10. os a of €AA€Bopos comp. 


by so 
aoxvov, puft-ball, Iycoperdon gigan- 

1. 6. 9. not a root, though under- 
arpaxturts (=ddvos 6. 4. 6.), distaff- 
thistle, Carthamus lanatus 
4. 3. a ‘thistle-like’ plant; 
"6. 4. 6. described: also called 
dovos: reason; 1. juice 
adakn, tare, Vicia sativa var. angus- 
8.1. 4. (a pulse) sown late; 8.5.3. 
shape of pod; 8, 8.3. meAeKivos 


grows specially among a.; 8.11.1. 
seed does not keep. 

apdprn (a natural hybrid between 
avépaxAn and xépuapos), hybrid 
arbutus, Arbutus hybrida 

1.9.3. evergreen; 3.3.1. a moun- 

tain tree; 3. 3. 3. evergreen ; 
3. 4. 2. time of bore 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting; 5. 7. 7. uses of 
wood. - 

aia, lesser celandine, Ranunculus 

7.7.3. puts forth flowers at season 
of growth. 
axpas, ma pear, Pyrus amygdali- 


1. 4. 1. Le aaewe er sgh than culti- 
vated kind; 1. 8. 2. has more 
knots than dimr.0s § 1. 9. 7. time 
of shedding leaves; 1. 14. 4. a 
wild form of amos; 2. 2. 5. pro- 
duced from seed of amos; 2.2.12. 
cannot be made into amos by 
cultivation; 3. 2 1. produces 
more fruit than dos, but ripens 
less; 3. 3.1. a tree of mountain 
and "plain; 3. 3. 2. has better 
fruit and timber in lowlands ; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting; 3. 6. 1. slow 
growing (?); 3. 11. 5. moun- 
tain and lowland forms comp.; 
3. 12. 8. fruit of éy comp. as to 
keeping; 3. 14. 2. bark of Acvcy 

comp.; 3. 18. 7. does not es 

in kind from dar Los ; 4:13 
longer lived than amos; 5. 5.1. 
cobblers’ strops made of the 

awivOcov, wormwood, Artemisia Ab- 
sint. a 
1. 12. taste of fruit; 4. 5. 1. 

seeks Palaselore ; 7.9. 5: leaves 
and stem bitter, yet wholesome ; 
9. 17. 4. said to become by use 
non-poisonous to sheep. 

Bodavos, Balanites aegyptiaca 
4, 2. 1. peculiar to Egypt; 4. 2. 6. 

Badroapov (Z<uM d7oBdéAcapov), balsam 
of Mecca, Balsamodendron Opo- 

9.1. 2. sap gummy; 9.1. 7. time 
of tapping; 9. 4. 1. collection of 

gum; 9. 6.1-4. described : habi- 
tat : method of collection : no- 
where found wild; 9. 7. 3. in 
list of apdéuara. 
Baros, bramble, Rubus ulmifolius 
1p Mat a typical ‘ shrub’; 1.5 3 
thorns on wood; 1. 9. "4. ever- 
green; 1.10.6. leat with spinous 
projections ; 1. 10. 7. stem pres- 
ently spinous; 3. 18. 3. grows 
in wet — dry places alike; 
3. 18. kinds distinguished ; 
5 A 13. cluster of berries of 
omidag (2) comp ; 4. 8. 1. to 
some extent grows in marshes; 
4.12.4. to some extent aquatic; 
6. 1. 3. has spines on the shoots. 
BAnx®, pennyroyal, Mentha Puleg- 


9. 16. 1. leaf etc. of Sikrapvoy 


sechic$ blite, Amaranthus Blitum 

. 2. bears fruit both on top 

ay at sides; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and of germination ; 
7. 2. 7-8. root described ; rg 3.2. 
seeds described; 7. 3. 4. seed 
borne both on top and at side; 
7. 4. 1. only one kind. 

Bodsivyn, star-flower, Ornithogalum 

7. 13. 9. belongs to ra BoABwSdy. 

BodABos, purse-tassels, Muscari como- 
sum etc. (see below). 

1. 6. 7. root in scales; 1. 6. 8. root 
not tapering; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots: (part of) stem under- 
ground; 1. 10. 7. no leaf-stalk : 
attachment of leaves; 6. 8. 1. 
flowering time: used as acoron- 
ary plant; 7. 2.1. propagation ; 
7.2.2. root makes offsets ; 
7. 2. 3. offsets specially numer- 
ous; 7. 4.12. formation of roots 
of xkpozvov comp.; 7. 9. 4., ef. 
MGS ate Zak: example of an 
edible "root; 7. 12. 2. special 
treatment to promote growth 
of root; 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed; 7. 13. 2. flower-stem 
not the only stem; 7. 13. 4-5. 
grown from seed: seed some- 
times takes two years to ger- 
minate; 7. 13. 7. root of vdp- 
Kiogos (1) comp.; 7. 13. 8. 



several kinds; 7. 13. 9. roots of 
various plants comp.; 8. 8. 3. 
grows specially among zrupés. 
BoABos 6 épiddopos, Pancratium 
7. 13. 8. grows on beach: de- 
scribed : uses for food and cloth- 
Bovképas, (=r7Ats), fenugreek. Tri- 
gonella Foenum-Graecum 
4. 4. 10. an Indian plant (see 
App. (8)), comp. 8.8. 5. aiuo- 
Swpov parasitic on Bp. 
on pice ba ash, Fraxinus excelsior 
3. 11. 4-5. described; 4. 8. 2. 
common in Egypt. 
Bovmpnotis, ? 
7. 7. 3. season of growing. 
Rocrenes, sedge, Carex riparia 
1.5, 3. stem very smooth ; 1.10.5. 
pac end in hs point: further 
described; 4. ee in list of ra 
Aoxnody; 4. id. described ; 
10, 6. grows bots on land 
and in water: grows on the 
floating islands of Lake Copais; 
4. 10. 7. part used for food; 
4.11.12. foliage of some kéAapor 
Bpopos, Oats, Avena sativa 
8. 4.1. seed has more coats than 
other cereals; 8. 9. 2. exhausts 
the soil: reason: like a wild 
Bpvov, oyster-green, Ulva Lactuca 
4. 6. 2. occurs generally in Greek 
waters; 4. 6. 6. described. 

y7Ovov, long onion, Allium Cepa var. 
1.6.9. part of stem underground ; 
7.1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 1. 6. germina- 
tion; 7. 1. 7. bears fruit in 
second year: has single stem; 
7. 2. 2-3. root makes offsets; 
7.5.1. likes water; 7.5.3. bears 
transplanting; 7.5.5 seed does 
not keep well; 7. 9. 4. root in 
scales; 7.12. 3. root of bacyavor 
comp.; 9. 11. 6. ‘head’ of 
oTpvxvos 6 pavixds COMP. 

yireov (Attic for y7évov), horn-_ 

onion, Allium Cepa var. 
1, 10. 8. leaves hollow; 7. 4. 10. 


described : cultivation (classed 
as a form of kpomvor), 
yAcivos, Acer creticum 
. 8. 1. name for lowland form of 
opévdauvos ; 3. 11. 2. timber 
ae (se. pica) (=~ piga SxvOcK) g.v.), 
rik oh ; liquorice, Glycyrrhiza 

yAvkvaidy (= Tawwvia g.v.), 9.8. 6., 
peony, Paeonia officinalis. 

yoyyvaAis, turnip, Brassica Rapa 

1. 6. 6. root fleshy ; 1. 6. 7. root of 

bark and flesh; 7.1. 2. time of 
sowing; 7, 1. 7, germination ; 
7. 2. 5. survives and increases 
in size under a heap of soil: 
root described; 7. 2. 8. do.; 
7. 3. 2. seeds described ; 7.3.4. 
seed borne at side; 7. 4. 3. 
doubtful if more than one kind: 
seed, method of sowing, effect 
of weather; 7.5. 3. bears trans- 
planting ; 7. 6. 2. wild form 
Fame gma 7.9.4. root has 

Sadxov (1), carrot, Daucus Carota 
avi 5. Arcadian drug: described 
‘(see note). 
Sadeoy (2), Malabaila aurea 
9. 15. 8. grows about Patrai: 
dpe art root black; 9. 20. 2. 

pin () (7 fimepos), (berry Sadvis, 
» Sweet bay, Laurus 


1. "3. 2. bark thin; 1. 6. 2. roots 
both stout and fine ; 1.6.4. roots 
crooked ; etc.; 1.8. 1. few knots; 
UO Maa: evergreen (cultivated 
he? wild forms, see below); 
f. 3. fleshy seed in a shell 
Garis): 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1.14.4. many cultivated forms; 
2. 1. 3. propagation; 2. 2. 6. 
sometimes improves from seed ; 
2.5.6. trees should be planted 
close together; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 7. 3. (one kind) produces a 
cluster; 3. 11. 3. leaves of wohl 
comp.; 3.11.4. winter-buds of 
pedla comp.; 3. 12.7. leaf of on that of 8. n AerrodhvAdos} 
3. 13. 5. leaflet of axrj comp. to 

nib; ei 

ee ee 



ie a 


leaf of 8. » mAatidvAdos; 3.14. 3. 
flower (?) of KAnOpe comp.; 
3. 15. 4, leaf of répyurvos comp’; 
3.16. 4. leaf of kouapos comp.; 
3.17. 3. leaf of xoAotTia (2) comp 

to 8. mAaridvaAdos; 4. 4, 12. leaf 
of an unnamed Arian, shrub 
comp. (see App. (10)); 4. 4. 13. 
leaf of an unnamed Gedrosian 
tree comp. (see App. (11)); 4.5.3. 
does not thrive in cold regions ; 
4, 5. 4. grows in Propontis; 
4.7.1. a class of marine Atlantic 
plants comp.; 4. 7. 4. leaf of 
an unnamed Arabian tree (see 
App. (126)) comp.; 4.13.3. after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock; 4. 16. 6. ave 
flavour of grape; 5. 3. 3-4. 

character of wood; 5.7.7. wood 
used for walking-stieks; 5. 8. 3. 
grows in lowland parts of 
Latium: abundant on Circeian 
promontory; 5. 9. 7. fire-drills 
made of the wood, meeeniae it 
does not wear away; 9. 4. 2. 
bark of AcBaywrds comp.; 9.4.3. 
leaf of AcBavwrds comp. (by 
some); 9. 4. 9. do.; 9.10.1. leaf 
of éAA€Bopos 6 peAas comp. (by 
some) ; 9.15.5. davKoy (1) comp.; 

9: sos 1. one kind of wémepu (fruit 

Sabyyn (2) 4 aypia (= dvobypas), ole- 
- ander, "Ny ta Oleander 
ay Pd Rod * distinguished from 6. 7 

5 ot (3) 9 “AAcEavdpeca, Alexan- 
- drian laurel, Ruscus Hypophyl- 
1. 10. 8. bears fruit on leaves; 
3. 17. 4. do. 
Sadun (4) 7 AewrédvAdos, sweet bay, 
Ong ay nobilis 
3. 12. 7. (see under ddvn). 
(5) 4 ance anon sweet bay, 
Taurus noi nobi 
3. 13. 5., 3. 17. 3. (see 
“wade 8 abun 
Sagvn (6) (=edda (3) = App. (14)), 
white mangrove, Avicennia 
4.7.1. grows in ‘Red Sea’; 4.7.2. 
described; produces a drug for 
stanching blood, 

Sixranvov, dittany, Origanum Dic- 

9. 16, 1-2. described: medicinal 
use: popular belief about its 
use to goats: comp. with Wevéo- 
dixrapvov; 9. 16. 3. habitat. 
Sixtanvov (&repov), Ballota Pseudo- 
9. 16. 3, Cretan: has nothing in 
common with true 6. except the 
name: described: properties 
mere iets. carnation, Dianthus in- 

6. 7 1. AS list of under-shrubs; 
6.6. 2.a cultivated under-shrub: 
a coronary plant: scentless; 

6. 11. grown from seed : 
woody ; 6. 8. 3. flowering time. 

SvogBadravos (fruit xdpvov Kacravai- 
xov), 4.8.11., chestnut, Castanea 

1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 3. 2. 3. 
evidence that it is really wild; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3.3. 8. 
doubt whether it has a "flower ; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3.4. 4. 
time of fruiting; 3. 5. 5. winter- 
buds; 4. 5. 1. in list of northern 
trees} 4. 5. 4. abundant on 
Mount Tmolus and Mysian 
Olympus; 4. 8. 11. bark of root 
of Awros (2) comp. to shell of 

Svdcrvpos, Diospyros Lotus 

3. 13. 3. fruit of xépaces comp. 

d0Arxos, Calavance, Vigna sinensis 

8. 3. 2. stem; 8.11.1. seed does 
not keep. 

Sovag (=Kddapos 6 AaKwvikds = k, o 
avAnTiKds = k. 6 gupryyias = kK. 6 
Toéixos),pole-reed,Arundo Donax 

4.11.11. a kind of KGAQLOS $ : habit 
pe habitat. 

Spaxovtiov, edderwort, Dracunculus 

G2: %. an inedible and poisonous 
kind of dpov; 9.20.3. medicinal 
use: described, 

Spunis, Drypis spinosa 

1. 10. 6. spinous-leaved. 

Spus (), oak, Quercus Robur 

1.2.1. bas galls (xnkis); 1. 2. 7. 

bark; 1. 5. 2. bark thick: bark 

fleshy ; 1.5. 3. wood fleshy ; 1.5.5. 



wood heavy because it contains 
mineral matter ; 1.6.1. core hard 
and close; 1.6.2. core called 
‘oak-black’: core large and con- 
spicuous; 1. 6. 3. roots many 
and long; 1.6. 4. roots fleshy : 
deep-rooting; 1. 8. 5. diseased 
_ formation (xpaéy); 1. 9. 5. an 
evergreen specimen; 1. 10. 6. 
leaves notched: leaves with 
spinous projections; 1. 10. 7. 
attachment of leaves; 1. 11. 3. 
seed in a leathery shell; 2. 2. 3. 
propagation ; 2. 2. 6. deterior- 
ates from seed ; 3. 8. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain ; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen in some places ; 3.3.8. 
doubt whether it has a flower 
(Bpvov); 3.4.2. time of budding; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting; 3. 5. 1. 
periods of budding; etc.; 3. 5. 2. 
galls ; 5. 5. winter- buds ; 
3. 6: 4. quick growing; 3. 6. 5. 
instance of a deep-rooting tree; 3 
3.7. 4-6. various galls; etc.; 
3. 8. 2. four or five kinds, viz. 
hwepts OF erupodpus, aiyihww, 
mrarvgvaros, nyos, adipdovos OF 
evOudAovos (five recognised by 
inhabitants of Mt. Ida); 3.16.1. 
leaf growth and bark of 
mpivos comp.; 3. 16. 3. pedro- 
Spus Spits and mpivos comp. ; 
4, 2, 8. common in Thebaid ; 
4. 5. 1. in list of northern trees; 
4.5.3. grows in Pontus; 4.14.10. 
infested by knips; 4. 15. 2. 
survives stripping of bark for 
some time; 4. 15. 3. effect of 
stripping bark in winter; 5.1. 2. 
time of cutting timber: reasons; 
5.1. 4. do.; 5. 3.1. core very 
close and heavy; 5. 3. 3. char- 
acter of wood; 5. 4. 1. wood 
hard and heavy; 5. 4. 2. wood 
proof against decay; 5. 4. 3. 
wood does not decay if buried 
or soaked in water: rots in sea- 
water: 5. 4. 8. effect of salt 
water on different parts; 5.5.1. 
wood hard to work; 5.6.1. wood 
contains mineral matter and so 
gives under weight: apt to split; 
5. 7. 2. used for keel of triremes 
and for merchantmen to make 


extra keel for hauling : does not 
glue well on to éAary or rein; 
5. 7. 4. use of wood in house- 
building: 5.8.38. grows in La- 
tium on Circeian promontory: 
5. 9. 1. wood makes good char- 
coal, but inferior to apia and 
koxapos; 5. 9. 2. charcoal of 
this wood less esteemed by 
smiths than that of mev«n; 
8. 2. 2. germination from acorn 
described ; 9. 9. 5. leaf of xanai- 
Spus comp. 
Spvs (2) y aypia (=dnyds 3. 8. 2.), 
io pee oak, Quercus Aegilops 
1. Ba ; ie bark; 3. 8. 2. see 
Spi ys i SXpro.s (=6. 4 evOv- 
provos 3. 8. 2.), sea-bark oak, 
Quercus Pseudo-Robur 
3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida): =6. 7 evOvdAotos; 
8. 8. 3-4. acorns; 3. e 5. habit 
and timber; 3. 8. dackos 
(z.v.) grows on it; 3.8. ? timber; 
5. 1.2. time of cutting timber. 
sia HevOdpaoros (= 6. H GALdAoros 
. 2.), Sea-bark oak, Quercus 
Beoudo. Robur 
3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida). 
Spits (5) 4 n Heepos (= éerupddpus g.v. = 
penis (2)), true oak, Quercus 

8. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida). 
dpis (6) 7 tAarvdvadros, broad-leaved 
oak (scrub oak), Quercus lanu- 
8. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida): fruit; 3. 8. 5. 
habit and timber; 3.8.6. galls: 
one of the four Macedonian 
oaks: has bitter acorns. 
— i (fdxos), Cystoseira ericoides 
2. peculiar to certain waters; 
“— 6. 7-8. described. 
Spis (8) (wovtia), Sargassum vulgare 
4,6. 9. distinguished from pis (7); 
has a useful BaAavos. 

ag’ vise (1), ebony, Diospyros 

1. 5. 4. wood heavy; 1. 5.5. do. 
because of close grain; 1.6.1. 


core hard and close; 4. 4. 6. de- 
scribed : two kinds distinguished 
(see below); 5. 3. 1. wood very 
close and heavy, especially the 
core; 5. 3. 2. colour of wood of 
répuvOos comp.: wood of an 
unnamed tree (see App. ve 
comp. to a variegated é.; 5.4.2 
wood proof against decay ; 
9. 20. 4. colour and medicina! 
use of wood. 

arty (2), Diospyros melanoxylon 

a kind with inferior wood. 

eincrias, ‘see KdAaLOS O elAeTias 



éAda, olive, Olea Europea 

1.3.1. a typical ‘tree’; 1.5. 4 
wood easily broken, not split: 
wood has many knots; I. 6. 5. 
wood easily broken, because 
tough and not of straight grain; 
1. 6. 2. core not conspicuous; 
1. 6. 3. roots both stout and 
thin; 1. 6. 4. roots branching; 
etc. : shallow sya of roots 
crooked; etc.; 2. has less 
knots than a Ne 1. 4 6. liable 
to excrescences; etc.; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 1. leaves in- 
verted in summer ; 1.10.2. colour 
of leaves; 1. 10. 4. leaves nar- 
row; 1.10. 7. leaf-stalk short; 
etc.; 1.11.1. seed enveloped in 
fiesh and stone; 1.11. 3. fleshy 
seed in a stone; 1. 11. 4. effect 
on fruit of rich feeding; 1.12.1. 
taste of fruit; 1. 13. 2. flower 
consists of one ‘leaf’ only partly 
divided; 1. 13. 3. flower sur- 
rounds fruit; etc; 1.14.1. bears 
on last year’s wood ; nies ae 
bears fruit both on top and at 
side; 1.14.4. a cultivated form 
of KOrWOS 5 2.1. 2. propagation ; 
2.1.4. do.; 2.2.5. seed produces 
wild form; 2. 2. 12. cannot be 
made out of Kéttvos by cultiva- 
tion; 2.3.1. sometimes changes 
to xétwos spontaneously ; etc.; 
2. 5. 3. grafting; 2. 5. 4. propa- 
gation; 2. 5.6. do.: trees should 
be planted far apart; 2. 5: 7. 
low ground suitable; Bet. 2: 
needs much pruning: 2. 7. 3. 

requires pungent manure and 
much water; 1. produces 
less fruit than xdrivos but ripens 
more; 3. 12. 2. flower and be 
of OndvKpdveva comp.; 3. 17. 
size of fruit of cvx«y 7 Téaca pis a 
2. 8. common in Thebaid; 

4. 2. 9. character in Thebaid ; 
4. 3.1. grows and bears well in 
Cyrenaica; 4. 4. 1. (?) distribu- 
tion in Asia; 4. 7. 2. leaf and 
fruit of éAda (3) comp.; 4. 7. 4. 
size of fruit of unnamed Arabian 
tree comp. (see App. (120)); 
4. 18. 1. shorter-lived than 
Kotivos; 4. 13.2. story of a very 
old tree at Athens; 4. 13. 5. ex- 
planation of longevity; 4.14. 2. 
diseases; 4. 14. 8. effect of rain 
on fruiting; 4. 14. 9. specially 
apt to shed fruit at Taras; 
4.14.10. other diseases: effect 
of hot winds; 4. 4. 11. suffers 
much from special winds; 4.16.1. 
improved by lopping branches ; 3 
5.3.3. character of wood; 5.3.7. 
images made from the root; 
5. 4.2. wood proof against de- 
cay; 5.4. 4. wood not eaten by 
teredon; 5. 5. 2. core not 
obvious: wherefore wood not 
apt to ‘draw’; 5. 5. 8. core not 
obvious but exists; 5.6.1. wood 
apt to split under pressure ; 
5. 9. 6. wood good for kindling 
furnaces; 5.9.7. wood not suit- 
able for fire-sticks: reason; 
5. 9. 8. articles made of the 
wood have been known to pro- 
duce shoots : instances ; 6321. 
leaf of xvéwpos 6 Aeuxés comp.; 
6. 2. 4. will not grow more than 
a short distance from the sea; 
8. 2. 8. abundant in Melos: 
9.18. 5. fruit of eer comp. 
to Bpvov of ¢.: fruit of a wepeeye” 
vov comp. to undevelope olive 

ie @), eee cuspidata 

. Indian (in hill-country 

‘anda (3) (= dapvn (6) = App.(14)), 

pi mangrove, Avicennia offi- 

4.7.1. grows in ‘ Red Sea’; 4.7.2. 




eAatayvos (properly éAéayvos), goat 
willow, Salix Caprea 
4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of L. 
Copais: described. 
meee (1), silver-fir, Abies cephalonica 
1. 8. branches opposite ; 1.3.6. 
pee aN YE ay 1. Din Ae 
erect and tall; 1. 5.2. bark in 
layers; 1. 5. 3. wood fibrous ; 
1. 5. 4. wood easily split; 1.5.5. 
do. because of straight grain; 
1.6. 3. root single; 1. 6. 4. roots 
fibrous; 1.6.5. roots not branch- 
ing; 1.8.1. many knots; 1.8. 2. 
‘male’ has more knots than 
‘female’; 1.8. 3. branches at 
right angles; 1. 9. 1. growth 
chiefly upwards; 1.9.2. growth 
affected by position ; 1M ee Fi 
evergreen; 1. 10. 5. ieaves de- 
scribed 5 “e 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 1.13. ts 
flower yellow; 2. 2. 2. pro- 
pagated only by seed; 2.7. 3. 
requires pungent manure; 
8.1.2. grows only from seed; 
8.3.1. a mountain tree; 3.3. 3. 
evergreen; 3. 4. 5. time of 
flowering and fruiting; 3.5.1. 
period of budding; 3. 5. 3. 
do.; 3.5.5. winter-buds ; 3. 6.1. 
quick growing: even young 
tree fruits; 3. 6. 2. formation of 
rar ig 3.6.4, not deep-rooting ; 
3.6. 5. deep-rooting according 
to Arcadians; etc.; 3. 7. 1-2. 
dies if topped: formation of 
callus ; 3. 9. 5. timber compared 
with wevxcy: etc.; 3. 9. 6. differ- 
ences between ‘male’ and 
‘female’: described; 3. 9. 7. 
further comparison with TEvKN 2 
produces Aovooov; 3.9.8. do.: 
core and callus; 4. 1. 1. likes 
shade; 4. 1. 2. grows tall in 
shade but has inferior timber; 
4. 1. 3. grows high iy moun- 
tains, but not tall; 4. 4. 1. (?) 
distribution in rete 43 Di 1. 
in list of Northern trees ; 
4. 5. 8. does not grow in 
Pontus; 4. 15. 3. effects of 
stripping bark at various sea- 
sons; 16. 1. topping fatal; 
4. 16. Le not injured by cut- 


ting for resin; 4. 16. 4. said to 
perish if entirely deprived of its 
heart-wood; 5. 1. 1. time when 
timber is of best colour; 5.1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5.1. 4. 
do. 5, 1. 5-6. timber comp. 
with ee 5.1, 7. uses of tim- 
ber; 5.1.8. growth and char- 
acter; 5. 1. 9-10. methods of 
cleaving; 5. 3. 3. character of 
wood; 5. 3.5. used for doors; 
5, 4. "4. less eaten by teredon 
than wevxyn; 5. 4, 6. wood, if 
barked just before time of bud- 
ding, does not decay in water: 
story in proof of this; 5. 5. 1. 
knotty parts of wood hard 
to work; 5. 5. 2. core most 
obvious in é.; 5. 6. 1. wood 

good for struts: behaviour 
under pressure; 5. 6. 2, strong- 
est of all woods; 5. 7. 1-2. use 

of wood in ‘pl igllgings 
5.7. 4-5. uses of wood in house- 
building and crafts: the most 
generally useful of woods : more 
so than zevcn; 5. 9. 8. wood 
has a peculiar exudation ; 9.1.2. 
sap gummy; 9. a *s production 
of resin (pyrivy) ; 2. quality 
of resin. 

éddry (2), silver-fir, Abies pectinata 

5.18. grows "to great size in 
Latium, but finer still in 
Corsica; 5.8.3. grows in hill- 
country of Latium, 

‘trdrn’ (3), ‘sea-fir,’ Cystoseira 

4. 6.2. peculiar to certain waters ; 
4. 6. 7-8. described. 

eAaryptov, See cikvos 0 aypLos 

4. 5. 1. in list of northern plants. 

édevogédwvov (= oéAwvov TO €AcLov), 
marsh celery, Apium graveolens 

7. 6. 3. comp. with céA.vov: medi 
cinal use. 

éAetoxpvoos, gold-flower, Helichry 
sum siculum . 

6. 8. 1. flowering time; 9. 19. 3. 
alleged magic properties: de- 
scribed: medicinal use. 

as tay salvia, Salvia triloba 

6. 4. a spineless wild under- 
ipa: 6. 2. 5. like wild odaxos: 
leaf described. 


teen calamint, Calamintha in- 

2. "3. propagation; 6. 1. 1. in 
list. of under-shruhs ; S.652: 38 
cultivated under-shrub: a coron- 
ary plant: the whole plant 
scented; 6.6.3. woody: only 
one form; 6. 7. 2. said by some 
to have no fruit; 6. 7. 4. roots 

éAikn, crack willow, Salix fragilis 

3.13.7. Arcadian name for willow. 

ercé, ivy, Hedera Helix 

3. 18. 7-8. described : does not 
develop into xitrés; 3. 18. 8. 
kinds; 7. 8. 1. stem ‘ clasping.’ 

cE Aevey, White-berried ivy, | 

Hedera Helix 
iy 18. 8. sph kinds. £188: 
EAE H TOLKiAn (= €. # bY st ‘ 
ivy, odova Hf 
3. 18. 8. prada kinds. 
eAré q xAoepa, ivy, Hedera Helix 
3 described. 
sian rupture-wort, Herniaria 

9. 10. 2. seed mixed with éAA¢Bopos 

© Aevxos to make an emetic. 

€Ad€Bopos, hellebore, Helleborus cyclo- 
phyllus and Veratrum album 
. 5. 1, seeks cold regions; 3 6. 2. 9. 
"pelongs to ‘ferula-like’ plants: 
has a hollow stem; 9.8. 4. what 
part of root cut for medicinal 
use ; ‘bulbous ‘ part a purge for 
dogs; 9. 8. 6. poisonous effect 
on those who dig it; precau- 
tions; 9. 9. 2. medicinal use } 
9. 10. 1-4. kinds distinguished 
(see below); 9. 14. 1. how long 
drug will Keep; 9. 17. 1-3. the 
drug can be made ineffectual by 
use: instances . 

€AAgBopos 6 AcuKds, white hellebore, 
Vemiruge album 

9.10.1 . has nothing in common 

with €. 6 péAas except the name: 
divergent accounts given of the 
resemblances between the two 
plants: described; 9. 10. 2. not 
poisonous to sheep ; ; When in 
season : distribution; 9.10. 3-4. 
very_ local: local’ varieties, 
Otratos, Ilovtikds, "EAcarys, Ma- 
Avwwrys, Llapvactos, AitwArkds$ 


Oiratos the best: properties of 
*EdAearys; 9. 15. 5. grows in Ar- 
cadia; 9.18. 2.restores scorpion 
to life when it has been killed 
with oKoprios (3). 
ss oy 6 pédas (drug onoapoedés 
14. 4.), hellebore, Helleborus 
9. 8. 8. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 10. 1. (see under é. 6 
Acvxds): described; 9. 10. 2. 
poisonous to animals; 9. 10. 3. 
grows everywhere: some local- 
ities specified; 9. 10. 4. called 
by some éxrouov 70 pedaprddcov : 
uses for purification and as 
charm; 9. 14. 4. use of fruit in 
medicine ; 9.15: 6. grows in 
Goer e ‘9.16.6. leaf of edywepov 

EAvpos, italian millet, Setaria italica 
4, 4, inflorescence of dpugov 
cou: 8.1.1. in list of ‘summer 
crops ° distinct from cereals and 
puises; 8. 11. 1. seed keeps 
ge cake ig chervil, Scandix australis 
cP a Adxavov. 
drerivn @) (? mutvivn), Ajuga Ira 
7.8.1. stem ‘clasping,’ _ but, for 
want of support, ‘on the 
*Emcpevidetos, seé oxiddr\a n’E. 
émimetpov, stone-crop, Sedum ano- 
7. 7. 4. flowerless. 
ir wees chick-pea, Cicer arietinum 
4.2. seed soaked before sowing ; 
ag 6. 6. size of some dates comp.; 
4.4.4. size of es of ovK7 7 Ivdixn 
comp.; 4. 4. 9. not found in 
India ; 6. 5. 3. leaf of a kind of 
tpiBodos comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of 
pulses; 8.1.4 Maid both early 
and late ; 8. “3 1. germination 
described ; 8. 2. 3. comes up 
with several leaves: deep-root- 
g; 8. 2. 5. flowering time; 
8. 4 6. time of maturing seed; 
8. 2. stem ; fos fe several 
kinds: three’ ‘mentioned, Kpwot, 
bpoBiator, ot ava pécov: white 
forms sweetest ; 8. 5. 2. pod 
round: seeds comparatively 
few; 8.5.4. attachment of seed ; 



8.6.5. rain hurtful when é. is in 
flower : three kinds mea a 
péAas, Tuppds, AcvKds; ‘e 
comp. with other eae de- 
stroys weeds: suitable soil: 
grows well after kvauos; 8.9.1. 
exhausts the soil most of pulses ; 
8. 10. 1. diseases and pests; 
8.10.5. infested by seeneitteca? 
8.11.2. only seed which does 
not engender ‘ worms’ etc.: 
seed keeps well; 8. 11. 6. do. 
especially in hill ‘country. 
epeixy, heath, Erica arborea 

1. 14. 2. bears fruit on the top; 
| Paatt Pees bs IE AtBavertis ) akapTos 
grows where é. is abundant. 

epevOedavev, madder, Rubia tine- 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

shru bs 7.9.3. roots red; 9.13.4. 
do.; 9. 138. 6. described: habit: 
habitat : medicinal use. 

ahr eas wild fig, Ficus Carica 
1, 8. 2. has more knots than ov«7; 
1. 14.:4. wild form of cuxy; 
2. 2. 12. cannot be made ante 
ovxy by cultivation; 2. 3. 
sometimes changes to fs 
spontaneously; 3. 3.1. a moun- 
tain tree; 3. 4. 2. time of bud- 
ing; 4. 2. 3. fruit of guKH 7 
Kvuzpia_comp.; 4. 13. 1. longer- 
lived than ouvx«q; 4. 14. 4. not 
liable to diseases of cvx7; 5. 6. 2. 
wood tough and easy to bend: 
uses; 5. 9.5. wood makes pun- 
gent smoke. 

(S€vdpov 7d) épdhopor, cotton-plant, 
Gossypium arboreum 

4. 4. 8. (not named) clothes made 

from it; 4. 7. 7-8. described. 

epmvAAos (1) (€. © *jpepos), tufted 
thyme, Thymus Sibthorpii 

1. 9. 4. evergreen; 2.1.3. propa- 

gation; 6. 1. 1. in list of under- 
shrubs; 6. 6. 2. a cultivated 
under-shrub : a coronary plant: 
the whole plant scented; 
6. 6. 3. woody: only one form : 
6. 7. 2. said reg some to have no 
fruit: 6.7.4. roots described ; 
6.7. 5. growth peculiar: wild 
forms ‘ie EpmvaAdAos (2)); 6. 7. 6. 


bt Ne sagt -tree, 

épmvddros (2) 0 aypios, Attic thyme, 
Thymus atticus 
6. 7. 2. produces seeds, unlike 
é.(1); brought from Hymettus; 
sometimes quite like Ovpos : 
6. 7. 5. has various forms. 
épvaiov, Sisymbrium polyceratium 
8. 1. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses, a ‘summer crop’; 
8. 3. 1. leaf; 8. 3. 3. flower; 
8. 6. 1. rain not beneficial after 
sowing; 8. 7. 3. 
eaten green by animals: de- 
peaey (cf épvaiBav, épva.Bwodys 
2.), wheat-rust, Puccinia 
8. 10. 1. a pest common to all 
crops (cereals, pulses etc.). 
érupddpus (= nuepis (2) 3. 8. 2.=Spis 
7 jpepos), true oak, Quercus 
3.8.2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida): = fpepis: fruit; 
3. 8. 7. one of the four Mace- 
donian kinds: has sweet acorns. 
EvBotkdy, see xapva 7 EvBoiky. 
eens rocket, Eruca sativa 
6. 6. root woody; 7. 1. 2-3. 
earh of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7. 2. 8. root described; 
7.4.1, only one kind; 7. 4, 2. 
leaf of a kind of padavis comp.; 
7.5. 5. seed keeps well; 9.11.6. 
leaf of orpvxvds 6 pavixds COMP. 
evOvdotos (Sp33), see Spis (4). 

3. 18. Pn. 13. described]. 
epyepov (= omddak (?)), meadow 
saffron, Colchicum parnassicum 
9. 16. 6. a poison which has an 
antidote: described: effects. 

Ceca, rice-wheat, Triticum dicoceum 
2. 4. 1. seed, ‘unless bruised, pro- 
duces wupos; 4. 4. 10. épugov © 
eh 8. 1. 1. in list of dbrealas . 
8. 2. sown early; 8. 8. 3. 
aid tidy only plants which can 
change into teeiiese eae 7 
different (cf. 2. 4. 1.); 8.9 
exhausts the evil: ‘reason : ices 
rich soil: ¢. and tidy the cereals 
most like TUpoOs 

doubtful if | 


Suyia, maple, Acer campestre 
3. 1. a mountain tree: name 
for mountain form of -cdévéap- 
vos; 3.4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 1. slow growing (2) 
3. 11. 1-2. described; 5. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 1. z 
o.; 5. 8. 3. character of wood ; 
5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 
Gwornp, see bdxos (1) To mAarvdvAAor., 

ndvocpov, (= pivOy), green mint, 
Mentha viridis 
7. 7.1. a Adyavor. 
i erg Heliotropium villosum 
7. 3. 1. length of flowering season 
of Sktpov comp.; 7. 8. 1. stem 
‘on the ground’; 7.9.2. long 
in flower; 7. 10. 5. evergreen ; 
he BOw Le flowering depends on 
the heavenly bodies. 
nuepts (1), gall-oak, Quercus infec- 

3.8.2. one of the five ‘Idaean’ 
kinds of oak: fruit; 3. 8. 4. 
habit and timber; 3. 8. 6. galls, 
npepts (2), (so- -called by, some) (= 
Spus H hmepos = Etupddpvs 3.8.2.), 
true oak, Quercus Robur 

3. 8. 2. bears sweet fruit. 
nmepoxadrg€s, Martagon lily, Lilium 

6. 1. 1. in list of under-shrubs (see 
note); 6. 6. 11. grown from 
seed: a coronary plant. 
jHecoviov, milt-waste, <Asplenium 
. Ceterach 
9. 18. 7. properties of leaf: de- 
scribed: habitat: mules fond 
of it. 
jpaxArcia (=pyxwv » ‘Hpaxdreia), Si- 
lene venosa 
9.15. 5. an Arcadian drug. 
NpakArcwTKH (kapva), see Kapia 7 
Hpryépwv, groundsel, Senecio vulgaris 
“ . & Adyxavov: classed as 
‘ chicory-like from its leaves: 
7. 7. 4. prolonged flowering- 
time; 7.10.2. flowers in winter. 
npvyyov, eryngo, Eryngiwm cam- 
6. 1. 3. has spines on the leaves: 
a wild under-shrub. 

Gaia, Thapsia garganica 

9. 8. 3. most powerful juice from 
root ; 9. 8. 5. superstition as tc 
method of eo he 9. 9. 1. root 
and juice used; 9.9. 5. medi- 
cinal use; 9. 9. 6. described ; 
9.11. 2. leaf of mdvaxes 76 *Ao- 
kAnriecov comp.; 9. 20. 3. medi- 
cinal use: grows specially in 
Attica: properties; effect on 
foreign and native cattle. 

@épyos, lupin, Lupinus alba 

1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation ; 1.7.3. 
seed roots through "under- 
growth; 3. 2. 1. fruits better in 
wild state ; 4, 7. 5. fruit of 
an unnamed Arabian tree (see 
App. (13)) comp.; 4. 7. 6. fruit 
of an unnamed Persian tree 
(see App. (13)) comp.; 4. 7. 7. 
fruit of a tree of the island of 
Tylos (see App. (13)) comp.; 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 2. 1. 
germination described ; 8. 5. 2. 
seeds in compartments ; 8.5. 4, 
attachment of seed; 8. 7. 3. 
not eaten green by any animal; 
8. 11. 2. seed keeps well: like a 
wild plant; 8. 11. 6. seed keeps 
specially well in hill country ; 
8. 11. 8. peculiarities about 
sowing seed. 

OnAvyovov (= appevdyovov), dog-mer- 
cury, Mercurialis perennis 

9,18. 5. properties: described. 

O@nAvkpavea, cornel, Cornus san- 

1.8. 2. has less knots than xpavea ; 
3.3. 1. tree of mountain and 
plain; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 4.3. time of fruiting; 3. 4. 6, 
fruit inedible; 3. 12. 1-2. de- 
scribed; 5. 4. 1. less fruitful 
than xpave.a, 

OyAVrrepis, bracken, Pteris aquilina 

9. 18. 8. properties : distinguished 
from rrepis. 

OnrAdpovoy (= axdvcTov = puddovoy = 
axoprios (3) 9. 18. 2.), wolf’s 
bane, Aconitum Anthora 

9, 18. 2. properties: habit: fatal 
to the scorpion, 

Ojceov, Corydalis densiflora 

7, 12. 3. root bitter: medicinal 

ea 2 


Opadrados, joint-fir, Ephedra campy- 
8. 6. 4. very shallow-rooting: 
many roots; 4.1.3. likes shade 
Opidaxivn (properly, but not always, 
distinguished from @ptéaé), wild 
lettuce, Lactuca scariola 
1. 10. time of leaf-growth: 
stem presently spinous; 1.12.2. 
taste of sap; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and. of ake 
7. 3.2. seeds; 7.4. 1. several 
kinds; 7. 4. Be do. ‘viz. Aevkn, 
TAatvKavAOS, oaTpoyyvAcKavics, 
Aakxwvixy: differences; 7. 5. 4. 
pests; 7. 6. 2. wild form dis- 
tinguished : medicinal use; 
9. 8. 2. juice of stalk collected, 
with a piece of wool ; 9.11.10. 
leaf of AiBaywris n deapros comp. 
to 0. n muxpa.. 
Opidaé, lettuce, Lactuca sativa 
7,2. 4. grows again when stem is 
cut: effect on flavour; 7. 2. 9. 
root described; 7. 5. 3. bears 
@pvadXis, Plantago crassifolia 
aa Al. 12. flowers more or less ina 
* spike. 
Opiov, (a grass), Imperata arundi- 

4,11. 12. foliage of some xcdAapor 

Covaper eat} (= aotpuxveds 6 pavikds 
), thorn-apple, Datura 
O@via (@vera), Odorous cedar, Juni- 
perus foetidissima 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 4. 2. time of 
budding; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 
ing; 4.1. 3. grows on hill-tops. 
(@d.0, ? a madrepore 
4.7.1. grows in Atlantic: turns 
to stone). 
thm (OyuBpov), savory, Satureia 

3.1. 1) a typical under-shrub ; 

BS. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2. 
Haste of sap; 6.1. 4.a ” spineless 
wild under-shrub; 6. 2. 3. seed 
conspicuous : not, like @vx0s, 
particular as to situation; 6.7.5. 
a wild form of épmzvAAos comp.; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 1. 6. germins- 


tion; 7. 5. 5. seed keeps well; 
7.6.1 ia form distinguished. 
Ovuov (1) (@¥uos), Cretan thyme, 
Tans capitata 
1, 12. 2. taste of sap; 3.1.3. re- 
Nae gee itself without seed; 
6. 2. 3. two forms, black and 
white seed inconspicuous ; 
6. 2. 4. requires sea-breezes. 
(‘ hice (2), ? a madrepore 
4.7.2. a marine plant which turns 
to stone: described). 
@vov (6va), thyine-wood, Callitris 
5. 3. 7. described: character and 
use of wood; 5.4.2. wood proof 
against decay. 

iagcwwvy, bindweed, Convolvulus 
ete g 2. flower consists of one 
ixun, ? duckweed, Lemna minor 
4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais ; 4.10.4. requires further 
igia (1), oak-mistletoe, Loranthus 
3.7.6. grows on oak and other 
trees; 3.16. 1. grows On mpivos. 
i€ia (2) (= aKxav0a (9) = dxavos = 
igivn=xXayatdéwv 6 AcvKds), pine- 
thistle, Atractylis gummifera 
ori. Cret tan: produces a gum. 
tfbry fue (axavOcKn) pacrixy 6.4. 9., 
9.1.2.) (= dkav6a (9) = dnavos 
= iéta (2) = xaparéwy 6 AcevKés), 
payee Atractylis gummi- 
6. 4. 3. a ‘thistle-like’ plant; 
6. 4. 4. time of growing; 6. 4. 9. 
described; 9. 1. 2. produces a 
gum called pacrixn. 
tov (=iwvia = tov 7d Acvxér), gilli- 
flower, Maithiola % wre 
1, 9. 4. evergreen; 1. 3. pro- 
pagation; 4. 7. "4. S edtont and 
Scent of unnamed Arabian 
tree (see App. (12a)) comp. ; 
6. 1. 1. in list of under-shrubs; 
6. 6. i. a cultivated under- 
shrub: a coronary plant; sweet- 
scented ; 6.6.5. sweetest-scented 
at Cyrene; 6. 6. 11. grows from 


‘atte ees 


seed; woody; 6.8. 5. position 
and climate important for frag- 
rance: flowers very early in 
Egypt; 6. 8. 6. on mountains 
blooms well, but has inferior 
scent; 7. 6. 4. wild form quite 
distinct, alike only i in leaf. 

tov To AevKéy (=Aevxkédiov (1) =iwvia 7 
Aevxy), gilliflower, Matthiola in- 


3. 18. 13. flower of evervvpos 
comp.; 4. 7. 8. flower of an 
Arabian tree (see App. (15)) 

comp; 6 8. several colour 
forms; 6. 6. 7. distinguished 
from (i. 7d pédAav; 6. 8. 1-2. 

flowering-time; 6. 8. 5. “plant 
lives three years at most: de- 
generates with age: 1 Ge am B 
leaves * on the stem.’ 
lov Td pédAay (=iwvia H pédAava), 
violet, Viola odorata 
1.13.2. has a ‘twofold’ flower; 
63 6.35 only one form ; 6. 6. 7. 
distinguished from ¢. 7d Aevk6v; 
6. 8. 1-2. a coronary plant: 
flowering time. 
imvov, ? marestail, Hippuris vulgaris 
4.10. 1-2. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais; 4.10.4. requires further 
immopdpaboy (=payidapts), Prangos 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub: belongs to ‘ ferula-like’ 
immogéAcvov, Alexanders, Smyrnium 
1. 9. 4. evergreen; 2. 2.1. propa- 
gation; 7.2. 6. root of tevrAcoy 
comp.; 7. 2. 8. root; 7. 6. 3. 
comp. with édctooéAuvov : medi- 
cinal use; 9, 1. 3. root produces 
a gum: which is like opupve. ; 
9. 1. 4. propagated from a 
Sdxpvov: a popular error about 
é. and opupva; 9.15.1. grows 
in Arcadia. 
immopacs, see TLO0jaddos. 
immédhews, spurge, Luphorbia acan- 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
spines; 6. 5. 2. has no spines op 
the leaves. 

tps, iris, Iris pallida, ete. 

. 7. 2. root fragrant; 4, 6. 2. 
"grows best in Illyria on shores of 
Adriatic; 6. 8. 3. a coronary 
plant: flowering time; 7.13.1. 
leaves described; 7. 138. 2. 
flower-stem not the only stem: 
stem comp. with agdddedos: 
9.7.3. in list of a apamara 5 9.7.4. 
only European apwpa: best in 
Illyria: preparation; 9. 9. 2. 

igxatmos, Andropogon Ischaemum 
9.15. 3. Thracian : properties. 
loxds (= a amos (2) 9. 9. 5. = padhavos 
n dpeta), spurge, Euphorbia 
. pios. 
itéa, Willow, Salix spp. 

1. 4. 2. lives near water; 1. 4. 3. 
‘amphibious’; 1. 5. 1. crooked 
and low; 1. 5. 4. wood light; 
3. ii, ‘propagation ; es ees 
seems to have no fruit, yet re- 
produces itself: instance ; 8.1.3. 
sheds its fruit unripened : 3.3.1, 
tree of mountain and plain; 
3.3.4. a question if it bears fruit; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding; 3. 6. L 
quick or slow grower?; 3.13. 7. 
described: kinds (see below): 
called in Arcadia éAikyn 3 3.14. 4. 
leaf of xoAvréa comp.; 4. 1. 1. 
likes wet ground; 4. 5. 7. com- 
mon some Mediterranean 

- regions; 4. 8. 1. grows partially 
in water; 4. 10. 1. in list of 
plants of Lake Copais; 4. 10. 6. 
grows both on land and in 
water; 4. 13. 2. shorter-lived 
by water; 4. 16. 2. grows again 
after being cut or blown down; 
4. 16. 3. instance of a tree which 
survived the lopping of its 

' branches; 5. 3. 4. character of 
wood; 5. 7. 7. uses of wood; 
5. 9. 4. wood makes an evil 
smoke when burnt for charcoal 

itéa 7 yp Neva white willow, Salix 

8.13. 7. described. 
iréa ) pédava, Salix amplexicaulis 
8. 13. 7. described. 
ipvov, spike-lavender, Lavandula 
6. 6. 11. a coronary plant: grown 



from seed; 6. 8. 3. flowering 

ber ? cork-oak, Quercus Suber (G. 

from Plin. 16. 98. Hesych. has 
ys = Kiooos) 
3. 4. 2. time of budding. 

iwvia (Stor g.0. = twvia H AcvKH = 
idv ro Aevkoy = AcvKdiov (1)), 
gilliflower, Matthiola incana. 

twvia % AevKH (= iwvia = lov g.v.), 
‘gilliflower, Maitthiola incana. 

iwvia } péAacva (= lov Td péAaveg.v.), 

violet, Viola odorata. 

kaxtos (1), cardoon, Cynara Cardun- 


6. 4. 10-11. a ‘ thistle-like’ 
Bene: described: peculiar to 

ean 2) artichoke, Cynara Scoly- 

6. “L a has erect ‘stalk’ called 
mwrépvé : described ; edible ; base 
of receptacle called cxadias. 

KaAajos, reed 

1. 5. 2. bark fibrous: bark in one 
layer; 1. 5. 3. stem jointed; 
1.6.2. core membranous; 1. 6. 7 
root jointed; 1.6.10. roots large 
and numerous; 1. 8. 3. joints 
regular ; 1.8.5. ‘joints dittonous 
ae knots’ : 1.9. 4. evergreen; 

. 10. 5. leaves end in a point; 
farther described ; 1.10.9. eaves 
made of fibre: leaf-stalk made 
of fibre; 2. 2. 1. (a kind of) 
propagation ; 4.8.1. in list of 
Ta Aoxpaedyn; 4. 8. 7. KUapyos Oo 
Aiyirruos comp.; 4. 8. 8. thick- 
ness of root of xvapyos 6 Aiyir- 
ros comp.; 4. 9.1. class of rivers 
in which x. grows; 4.9.3. has 

*side-growths’; 4. 10. 1. in list 
of plants of Lake Copais; 4.10.6. 
grows both on land ‘and in 
water; 4.10.7. effect of drought ; 
4. 11. 1. distinguished from «x. 
6 avAnrixds (see below): a stout 
and a slender form (0 Repass 
and 6 7Adkimos) (see below); 
4.11. 10-13. other forms; 6. 2.8. 
setting of leaves of vap@né and 
vapOnkta. comp.; 9.16.1. dixrapvor 
kept ¢ év KOAGKY 
Kadamos 0 avdnriKds (=k. 0 Aakwrixds 


=k, o ov pryyias rat °. fea 
=k. 0 xapaxias = d6vat, pole- 
reed, Arundo Donaz 
4. 10. 1. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais; 4.10. 6. grows only in 
water; 4. 11. 1. distinguished 
from the ordinary form of «.; 
4.11.2. not true that it takes 
nine years to grow; . 12.3, 
conditions of growth; 4.11. 4. 
described by contrast with other 
kdAapor; 4. 11. 4-7. manufac- 
ture of the mouthpieces of 
pipes; 4. 11. 8-9. distribution 
in region of Lake Copais. 
Kaédapos 0 i Ammophila arun- 

4. 11. 13. the ‘male kind’ of «x. 
emiyevos, 80 called by some, 
kddapos (émtyeos), bush-grass, Cala- 
mogrostis Epigeios 
4.11.13. pone oe growth comp. 
to ay Yypwoor 

Kkddapos 0 evans, sweet flag, Acorus 

4. 8. 3. grows in a Syrian lake; 
9.7.1. habitat (east of Lebanon): 
described : fragrance; 9.7.3. in 
list of apapara., 

KdAawos 0 “Ivdixds, bamboo, Bambusa 

4. 11. 13. described. 

kadhamos 6 “Ivéuxds (‘male’), Male 
bamboo, Dendrocalamus striectus 

4.11. 13. distinguished as solid. 

KaAamos 0 Aakwrikds (=K6 avAntiKds 
=k. 0 cupryyias te i Mascred 
= Kk. 0 xapaxias = ddvaé), pole- 
reed, Arundo Donax 

4.11. iz. colour. 

KddAamos 0 mAdKimOSs, spear- 9 
Phragmites communis 

4, Roe * — reed; compared 

Xapaxias: grows on 
floating islands of Lake Copais. 

KaAamos 6 oupryyias (= ='K, ‘6 avAnTLKoS 
=k. 6 Aakwrixds dark kK. tripe aca 
= Kk. 0 xapakias = ddv » pole- 
reed, Arundo Donax 

4.11. 10 described. 

Kadapos 6 TogiKds (Kpyrixés) (=n 6 
avdnrikds = kK. 6 Aakwrikos = k. 6 
ovpryyias = K. 6 xapaxias = 86- 
vaé), pole-reed, Arundo Donax 

4,11. 11. described, 


Rada WLOS O Xapakias (= K. 6 AaxwyiKds 
etc.), pole-reed, Arundo Donax 
4, 11. ae teat form: described: 
grows in reed-beds of Lake 
xaAapos (Other kinds) 
4.11. 10. briefly described. 
eenerss caper, Capparis spinosa 
1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation; 3.2.1. 
‘fruits better in wild state; 
4.2.6. fruit of BdAavos comp.: 
6. 1. 3. has spines on the shoots ; 
6. 4. 1. has spines on leaves as 

well as cn stem; 6. 5. 2. de-. 

scribed; 7. 8. 1. stem on the 
ground‘; 7. 10. 1. grows and 
flowers entirely in summer. 
capdapov, cress, Lepidium sativum 
1, 12. 1. taste of fruit; 7.1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7. 1. 6. germination; 
7.4.1. only one kind; 7.5. 5 
seed keeps well. ; 
kapdduwyov, cardamom, Elettaria 
9.7.2. an apwpa, Median or In- 
dian; 9. 7.3. in list of apwmare. 
Kapva (fruit képvov), hazel, Corylus 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 3. 2. 3. 
evidence that it is really wild ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding; 3. 4. "4. time 
of fruiting; 4.5. 4. abundant 
on Tmolus and Mysian Olym- 
pus; 8. 2. 2. germination de- 
kapva 7 EvBoixy, sweet chestnut, Cas- 
tanea vesca var. (improved form) 
1. 11.3. seed in a leathery shell; 
4.5.4, eae a an 
Magnesia; 5. 
against tae: 5. 4. 4. wood 
does not decay in water (?) 
5. 6. 1. wood makes a noise 
when about to split: instance; 
5.7.7. uses of rack does not 
rapidly decay; 5. 9.2 charcoal 
of this wood used in iron-mines. 
capva % ‘HpaxAcwttxy (‘Hpaxdewris) 
(fruit xdpvov), filbert, Corylus 
avellana vars. 
1. 3. 3. effect of not pruning; 
1.10. 6. leaves notched ; 1.11.1. 
geed immediately witht enve- 

. 2. wood proof’ 

lope; 1.11. 3. seed in a woody 
shell’; 3. 3. 8. doubt whether it 
has a ee a A spr i8: 3. 5. 5-6. 
catkins ; . 2. formation of 
buds; 36 e. " deep-rooting ac- 
cording to Arcadians: etc.; 
3. 7. 3. catkins; 3. 15. 1-2. 
described : kinds. 

Bf i Ilepoixn, walnut, Juglans 

3: 6. 3. Y fontantion of buds; 3.14.4. 
leaf of onuvda comp. 
kacia, Cassia, Cinnamomum iners 
4. 4. 14. in list ~ oriental aroma- 
tic plants; 9. 4. 2. Arabian; 
9. 5. 1. and 8. described: 
method of collection; 9. 7. 2. 
Arabian; 9. 7. 3. in list of apu- 
ciulbaeh bet Tordylium apulum 
7.7.1. @ Adxavoy. 
neyxpos, millet, Panicum miliaceum 
1. 11. 2. seeds in a husk ; 4. 4. 10. 
pirodcnnes of Spugoy sana Be 
4.8.10. fruit of Awrds (2) comp.; 
4. 10. 3. size of seeds of oaidy 
comp.; 8.1. 1. in list of ‘sum- 
mer crops’ distinct from cereals 
and pulses; 8.1.4. sown later 
than cereals and pulses; 8. 2. 6. 
time of maturing seed; 8. 3. 2. 
stem; 8. 3. 3. flower; 8. 
seed abundant; Sake 
little water : comp. with péAc- 
vos; 8. 9. 3. reasons why it 
might have been expected to 
exhaust the soil: contrasted 
with pulses as to ‘lightness’; 
8.11.1. seed keeps well; 8.11. 6. 
do. specially in hill- country ; 
9. 18. 6. fruit of kparavywv comp. 
cedpis, juniper, Juniperus communis 
1. 9. 4. evergreen: a dwarf kind 
(cf. xédpos 3. 13, 7.); 1. 10. 6. 
leaf spinous at tip; 4 Se 
taste of fruit. 
kéSpos (1) (= ofvxedpos S IR: 8.) 
prickly cedar, Juniperus Ozy- 
1. 5. 3. wood not fleshy ; 1. 10. 6. 
leaf spinous at tip; 3. 6. 5. 
shallow-rooting according to 
Areadians; 3.10.2. pidos comp.; 
3. 12. 3-4. described: two kinds, 
H Avxin and 7H PowwiKy (2? Porr- 



xuxyn) (see Kxédpos (3)); 
guished from -apxev@os 5 
has a dwarf form (?xedpis, cf. 
1. 9. 4.); 4. 3. 3. size of fruit of 
madtoupos o “Avyimtios comp 
4.5.2. grows on Thracian and 
Phrygian mountains; 4. 16. 
some think topping fatal; 5.3. 7 
images made from the ‘wood; 
5. 4. 2. wood proof against de- 
cay; 5.9. 8. wood exudes mois- 
ture : hence ‘sweating’ statues; 
9.1.2. sap gummy. 

xédpos (2), Syrian cedar, Juniperus 

8.2. 6. characteristic of mountains 

of Cilicia and Syria ; 4 
grows in Syria and is used for 
ships; 5. 1-2. use of wood 
in ship- pbuilding ; 5. 7. 4. use of 
wood in house-building ; 5.8.1. 
roy ag fine in some regions 

KéSpos (3). , Powvexiey (= dpxevOos), 


Phoenician cedar, Juniperus 
8.12.38. see xéSpos (1); 9. 2.3. said 

to be burnt for pitch i in Syria. 
eos £7 nH Avxin 
8.-12. 3..a kind so distinguished 
by ees from xéSpos (3). 
xevtavpiov, centaury, Centaurea sa- 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 3. 3. 6. 
only bears fruit in hill country; 
4.5.1. seeks cold regions; 7.9.5. 
leaves and stems bitter, yet 
wholesome ; 9. 1. 1. juice blood- 
red; 9. 11. 6. juice mixed with 
aorTpvxvos 6 pavikds to make a 
xevravpis, feverwort, Erythraea Cen: 
9. 8. 7. superstition as to gather- 

ing; 9. 14. 1. how long drug 
will keep. 
KevtTpow.vppivy (=pvaxavOos),butcher’s 

broom, Ruscus aculeatus 
3.17. 4. bears fruit, on its leaves. 
kepdis (= padavos H aypia 9. 15. 5.), 
charlock, Raphanus Raphanis- 
Képacos (= “naxden)s bird-cherry, Pru- 
NUS & 
3.13. 1- 3. scone 4.15.1. bark 


can we stripped; 9. 1. 2. sap 

KEepavviov, ’ thanderceentile, Tuber 
1. 6. 5. has no roots. 
kepxis (1), Judas-tree, Cercis Sili- 
1, 11. 2. seeds in a pod. 
kepxis (2), aspen Pavan tremula 
3. 14. 3. described. 
kepwvia (=ovKy i 7 Aiyurria 1, 11. 2.), 
carob, Pastas Siliqua 
1. 11. 2. seeds in a pod; 1. 13. 2. 
bears on stem and branches ; 
4, 2. 4. described. 
KyAaotpos (xjAagzpov), holly, Ilex 
1.3. 6. refuses cultivation; 1. 9.3. 
evergreen; 3.3.1. tree of moun- 
tain and plain; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green; 3. 4. 5-6. time of fruit- 
ing; said to lose fruit in winter ; 
4. 3. grows in very cold 
positions; 5.6.2. colour of wood 
of gudrten, comp.; 5. 7. 7. wood 
used for walking-sticks. 
kidépwpov, cinnamon, Cinnamomum 

4.4.14. in list of oriental aromatic 
plants; 9.4.2. Arabian ; 9.5.1—2. 
two Kinds, white and black, 
described : habitat: method of 
collection: a story; 9.7.2. in 
list of apdpara. 
kia@os, rock-rose, Cistus spp. 

1... 4 * spineless wild under- 
‘shrub; 2. 2. described : tivo 
forms ie below). 

kta8os 6 appyv, Cistus villosus 
6. 2. i. descri 
kiaGos 6 OnAVS. Cistus salvifolius 
6.2.1. described. 
KUTTOs, ivy, Hedera Helix 
1. 3. 2. a shrub which becomes 
tree-like; 1. 9. 4. evergreen; 

1. 10. 1. leaves change shape 
with age of plant; 1. 10.7. long 
leaf-stalk; 1. 13. 1. flower 
‘downy’; 1.13. 4. attachment 
of flower: 3.4.6. time of fruit- 
ing: 3. 10. 5. fruit and leaf 
of ¢iAvpa comp.; 3. 14. 2. eo 
of xepxis (2) comp.; 3. 18. 

kinds distinguished (see below): 

3. 18. 7. distinguished from 


ecé; 3. 18. 9-10. described: 

habit etc.; 3. 18. 11. cluster of . 

berries of cuidaé (2) comp.: de- 
scribed; 4. 4. 1. distribution in 
Asia; 4. 16. 5. overgrowth of x. 
dangerous to trees; 5. 3. 4. 
character of wood; 5.9.6. wood 
said to make best fire-sticks ; 
5. 9. 7. the stationary fire-stick 
should be made of x. or a@pa- 
yévn; 9. 18. 6. leaf of epevOcdarvov 

KUTTOS o eAr€, see EAE 

KUTTOS O Avett white-berried ivy, 

a Helix 
3.18. 6. pa ; several kinds: 

one=xkopupBias, one=«K. 6 “Axap- 
vixds; 3.°18. 9. roots; 3.18. 10. 
fruit; 9.18. 5. properties of fruit. 

KitTos © péAas, black-berried ivy, 
Hedera Helix 

3. 18. 6. several kinds; 3. 18. 9. 

roots; 3. 18. 10. fruit. 

Ktxoprov (xcxd6pn), chicory, Cichorium 

1. 10. . attachment of leaves; 
Ts bahay & Adxavov 5 a class of 
piants called ‘ chicory-like’ from 
their leaves; 7. 7. 3. season of 
growing; 7. 8. 3. leaves ‘ on the 
ground’ and ‘on the stem’; etc.; 
7.9. 2. long in flower; 7. 10. 3. 
flowers borne in succession ; 

7.11. 8. root, inflorescence oa 

seed-vessel described ; 9.12, 4 
MIKO n fords comp. to x. 7d 
iteete 9. 16. 4. leaf of axévirov 

edpOpa, alder, Alnus glutinosa 
14.3. ‘amphibious’ ; 3.3.1. tree 
‘of mountain and plain; 3. 3. 6. 
does not always fruit; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding; 3. 4. 4, time 
of fruiting; 3.6.1. slow grow- 
ing (?)5 3. 6. 5. roots slender 
and ‘plain,’ according to Arca 
dians; 3. 3. described ; 
3.15. 1. leaf of Kapva 1) “HpaxAew- 
muky comp.; 4.8.1. grows par- 
tially in water. 
mgr sc is (?), Acer Pseudo-platanus 
8.11. 1. a form of odbévdapuvos. 
kAvpevov, honeysuckle, Lonicera 
9. 8. 5. superstition as to time of 

cutting; 9. 18. 6-7. properties 
of fruit. 
xvéwaov (berry Kvidcos 
Daphne Gnidium 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 


shrub; 9, 20. 2. berry de- 
scribed ; medicinal use and pro- 

Kvéwpos ) ee ci Daphne oleoides 
6. distinguished from xk. 6 
uides' use of root. 

npgupes 0 péAas, Thymelaea hirsuta 

. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 6, 2. 2. see 
kK. 0 AcvKds, 

KyyKos (= K. 0 jmepos = Kpdxos 6 axay- 
Owdns), saflower, Carthamus tinc- 
torius etc. (see below) 

. 13. 3. flowers attached above 
“each seed; 6.1.3. a wild under- 
shrub: has spines on the leaves; 
6. 4. 3. a ‘thistle-like’ plant: 
6. 4. 4. a side-growths; 6. 4. 5. 
three forms distinguished and 
described, one cultivated (sce 
below) ; 6. 6. 6. seed of podov 

ya n aypia, Carthamus leucocaulos 

6. 4. 5. distinguished from x, 7 

KvKos 7 éypia (erépa), Cnicus bene- 

6. 4. 5. described. 
KvjKos } jpepos, Carthamus tinctorius 
6. . distinguished from wild 
Kvidios Kéxkos, see kvéwpov 

_ KotE (= xovxiddopov), doum-palm, 

Hyphaene thebaica 
1. 10. 5. reedy leaves; 2.6.10. a 
shrubby palm: Ethiopian. 
koxkvyéa, wig-tree, Rhus Cotinus 
3. 16. 6. described. 
Ronee (fruit coxxvuyAcy), plum- 
tree, Prunus domestica 
1. 10. 10. fruit made of flesh and 
fibre; 1. 11. 1. seed enveloped 
in flesh and stone; 1.12.1. taste 
of fruit; 1.13.1. flower ‘ leafy’; 
1, 13.3. flower above fruit- -Case ; 
3. 6. 4. very shallow-rooting : 
few roots; 3. 6. 5. deep-rooting 
according to Idaeans; etc.; 
4, 2. 3. size of fruit of cu«y 7 
Kumpia comp.; 4.2.5, fruit-stone 
of repoéa comp, 



koxxupnréa ( Aiyvrria) (sebesten), 
Cordia Myzxa 
4, 2. 10. described. 
KoAouTia (1) (xoAovtéa 3. 17. 2.: cf. 
3.17.3. n.), Cytisus aeolicus 
1. 11. 2. tree of Lie islands: 
seeds in a pod; 3. 17. 2. de- 
ee (2), Salix cinerea 
7.3. Idaean: described 
Bie ss gourd, Cucurbita maxima 
1.11. 4, seeds in a row: 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 1. 13. 3. flower 
attached above fruit: 2. 7. 5. 
use of dust; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and of germination ; 
7.1.6. germination; 7.2.9. rcot 
described ; 7. 4.1. several kinds; 
7.5.5. seed does not keep well. 
xodutéa, bladder-senna, Colutea ar- 
B. 14. “te aie ao 16s.) 
Komapos (fruit pewatkvaAov 
ag Arinntenk Arbutus Unedo ‘ 
5 ae 7A bark readily drops off; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 16. 4. de- 
scribed ; 3: Ai 6. leaf of xox- 
kvyéa comp.; 5.9. 1. wood makes 
good charcoal. 
Koun = Tpayora@ywv 7. 7.1. @.v. 
Kovuca, Inula sp 
6. l.4.a spinatoks wild under- 
shrub; 6. 2. 5. two kinds de- 
scribed and compared (‘ male’ 
and ‘female’) (see below); 
7. 10. 1. grows and flowers 
entirely in summer, 
kévuca 7» appnv, Inula viscosa 

Kévuca q OjAca, Inula graveolens 
2. 5. 

seated. coriander, Coriandrum 
sativum . 
1.11.2. seeds naked; 7. 1. 2-3. 

time of sowing and germination; 
1. 6. germination; 7. 2. 8. 
root ‘described; 7. 3. 2. seeds 
described; 7. 4. 1. only one 
kind; 7. 5. 4. effect of hot 
weather; 7. 5. 5, seed keeps well. 
xopup Blas, see KiTTds O AevUKds. 
xopxopos, blue pimpernel, Anagallis 
7.7.2. a Adxavov: proverbial for 


kopwvorovs, hartshorn, Plantago 

7. 8.3. leaves ‘on the ground.’ 

ner Saussurea Lappa 
9. 7. 8. in list of é apwopara 

KOtLvos (? = aypiédatos), wild olive, 
Olea Oleaster 

1. 4. 1. more fruitful than éAda ; 

1. 8.1. many knots; 1. 8. 2. 
more knots than aAda3 178.3. 
knots Pe oat knots opposite ; 
1. 8. liable to excrescences ; 
1.14. Ms wild form of éAda ; 2.2. 11. 
cannot be made into éAda by 
cultivation: effect of transplant- 
ing and removing top-growth; 
2.3. 1. occasionally changes to 
éAda spontaneously; 3. 2. 
produces more fruit’ than ee 
but ripens less; 3. 6. 2. knots 
opposite ; 3. 15. 6. size of fruit 
of kpdravyos comp.; 4. 4, 11. 
Indian olive between «x. and 
éAda; 4. 13. 1. longer-lived than 
eAda; 4. 13.2. story of a very 
old «. at Olympia; 4. 14. 12. 
suffers less than éAda from 
special winds; 5. 2. 4. story of 
a tree at Megara; 5. 8. 3. char- 
acter of wood; 5. 4. 2. wood 
proof against decay; 5. 4. 4. 
wood vot eaten by teredon; 

5. 7. ‘ses of wood for car- 
per’ ols. 
KOUKLEC = «oté), doum-palm, 
Ai mene thebaica 
2. 6. 9. (not named) described; 
4, 2. 7. describe 

kpavea (fruit Kpéveov 4, 4. 5), 
cornelian cherry, Corneis 


1.6.1. core hard and close; 1.8.2. 
has more knots than @ndAv- 
kpavea; 3. 2. 1. fruit sweeter 
and better ripened in wild than 
in cultivated form; 3. 8. 1. tree 
of mountain and plain; 3. 4. 2, 
time of pipes 3. 4. 3. time 
of fruiting; 3.6 xn slow-grow- 
ing (?); 3. 12. 1-2. described ; 
4. 4. 5. fruit of an unnamed 
Indian tree (see App. (6)) comp.; 
5. 4. 1. more fruitful than @yAv- 
kpavea; 5, 6. 4. wood very 

> 4 


Kpatatyovos, willow-weed, Polygo- 
num Persicaria 
9. 18. 6. hits ee oer 
Kparar ‘os ATALYOV 
Crataonie He linerohti 
3. 15. 6. described: perhaps a 
wild form of peoriAn. 
kpyntis, ox-tongue, Helminthia echi- 
7.8. 3. leaves on the stalk. 
«xp.6y, barley, Hordeum sativum 
-6 5. roots numerous; 1. 6. 6. 
do.; 1. 11. 5. each seed separ- 
ately attached : 
turn sometimes into wheat; 
2. 4. 1. wild «. turns into culti- 
vated with cultivation ; 4. 4. 9. 
India has a corresponding cereal 
and a wild form of x.; 8.1.1. 
in list of cereals; 8. 1. 3. sown 
early, before mupés; 8. 1. 5-6. 
time of germination = Hellas 
(and in Egypt ?); 8. 1. ger- 
mination described ; - Sees 
single leaf first appears: roots 
described; 8. 2. 6. time of ma- 
turing seed; 8. 2. 7. time of 
harvest in Hellas and in Egypt; 
8. 2. 9. crop very early in island 
of Chalkia ; 8.3.2. stem ; 8.4.1-2. 
comp. in detail with other 
cereals: kinds’ distinguished 
(see below); 8.6.1. conditions for 
sowing ; 8. 6. 4. suitable soil; 
8. 6. 5-6. rain hurtful when x. 
is in flower: and when itis ripe; 
8. 7. 1. said to change into atpa 
under certain conditions ; 8.7.5. 
in many places comes up again 
next year; etc.; 8.8. 2. favour- 
able localities ; 8.8.3. aiyidwyp (2) 
grows specially among «.; 8.9.1. 
exhausts the soil, but less 
than wvpdés: reason; 8. 10. 2. 
wheat-rust; 8. 10. 3. effects 
of weather ; ; ‘8. 11. 1. seed 
keeps less well than updos; 
8.11.3. grain stored without 
drying; 8. 11.7. at Babylon 
grain jumps on the Nar scr cl 
floor: reason ; 9. 11. 9. riO¥- 
paddAos 6 pupTiTys gathered at 
time of barley-harvest ; 9. 12. 
4. uijKwv 7 pods grows in fields 
of «, 


2. 2.9. said to: 

KpiOat ai aypiac (Indian), Sorghum 

4. 4, 9. can be used for bread. 

KpiOai ai AxiAdrctar, barley, Hordeum 
sativum var. 

8. 4. 2. ear close to leaf; 8. 10. 2. 
specially liable to wheat-rust. 

KpiOat ai “Ivéixai, barley, Hordeum 
sativum var. 

8 4. 2. , branching. 

KpiOav yévus tpiunvov, barley, Hor- 
deum sativum var. 

8. 1. 4. sown late. 

Kpivov (= xp.vwvia, ef. Aeiprov (1)), 
lily, Lilium candidum etc. 

1. 13.2. has a ‘twofold’ flower ; 
2.2.1. propagation from exuda- 
tion; etc.; 4.8. 6. an unnamed 
Egyptian ” plant (see App. (18)) 
comp.; 4.8.9. petals of flower of 
Awtds (2) comp.; 6. 6.3. several 
colour forms; 76. 6. 8. do.; a 
coronary plant: described : pro- 
pagation ; 6. 6. 9. leaves of 
vapxicoos (1) comp.; 6. 8. 3. 
flowering time; 9. 1. 4. ef. 

Kpivoy To rophupody, Turk’s cap lily, 
Lilium chalcedonicum 

6. 6. 3. (see xpivov), 

Kptot, see épéBivOos, 

Kpoxos, crocus, Crocus spp. etc. (see 

1. 6. 6. root fleshy; 1. 6. 7. do. 
4,7. 6... Piveilarge fleshy root ; 
7.7.1. leaf of Tpayorwyov COMP.; 

7. 4. flowering time Short: 
three kinds mentioned, evuopos, 
AevKs, akavOwdys (see below). 
7.9.4. root acorn-shaped ; 7.10 2. 
flowers in winter; 7.13.1. leaves 
described; 7. 13. 2. no stem 
except flower-stem. 

KpoKos 0 aKxavOadns (= KVIjKOs = kK. i 
npepos), Safflower, Carthamus 

7. 7.4. (see xpdxos). 

Kpokos 6 evoouos, saffron crocus, 
Crocus sativus 

4.3.1. abundant in Cyrenaica ; 
6. 5. sweetest-scented at 
Cyrene ; 6. 6. 10. a coronary 
cer described : propagation ; 
6. 8. 3. flowering time: a wild 
(scentless) and a cultivated 



kind; 7.7.4. see npoxos; 9.7. 3. 
in list of apipara, 
Kpdxos 6 AeuKds, CFOCUS, crocus can- 
7.7.4: 7.10. 2. (see xpdxos). 
Kpoxvoyytecovy, Onion, Allium Cepa 


4. 6. 2. root of diKxos 7d wAarv 

Kpomvov, Onion, Alliwm Cepa 

1. 5. 2. ‘ bark’ in layers; 1. 6. 7. 
root in scales; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots; 1. 10. 7. attachment of 
leaves; 1.10.8. leaves hollow; 
7. 1. 7. stem single; 7. 2. 1. 
propagation ; 7. 2. 3. growth of 
y7jOvov and mpdcov comp.: off- 
sets specially numerous; 7. 3. 4. 
seed borne at top; 7. 4. 7-10. 
kinds distinguished, dpéd.or, 
Kyiéstov, ZapoSpaxioy, oynravov, 
aoxiarov, “Agkadwvov: cultiva- 
tion and special points of cx.0- 
tov (see below), *AckadAdvov : 
further local varieties; 7. 4. 12 
formation of roots of oxdpodov 
contrasted ; 7.5.1. likes water; 
7 5. 2. said to dislike rain- 
water; 7. 8. 2. stem smooth, 
not branched; 7. 9. 4. cf. 1.6.7; 
7.18.4. grows in colonies be- 
cause of offsets; 9. 15. 7. root of 
p@Av COMP. 

Kpopvov To cxtorov, shallot, Allium 
Cepa var. 

7. 4. 7-10. distinguished from 
other varieties of xpoyxvoy: cul- 

xpérwv, castor-oil plant, Ricinus 

1.10. 1. leaves change shape with 
age of plant; 3.18. 7. do. 

kvapuos, bean, Vicia Faba 

3. 13. 3. size of fruit of xépacos 
comp.; 3.15.3. fruit of répuivlos 
comp.; 3.17.6 size of berry of 
adpumedos (2) comp.; 4. 3. 1. size 
of fruit of Awrds (4) comp.; 
7. 8. 1. length of flowering 
of @x.ov comp.; 8. 1. 1. in 
list of pulses; 8. 1. 3-4, sown 
early, but can be sown late; 
8. 1. 5. time of germination: 
very slow; 8. 2. 1. germination 
described; 8. 2. 3, comes up 


kuvoppodov, dog-rose, Rosa canina 

with several leaves: roots and 
side-growths contrasted with 
other pulses; 8. 2. 5. flowering 
time; 8. 2. 6. time of maturing 
seed; 8.3.1. leaf; 8.3.2. stem; 
8. 5. 1. more than one kind: 
white form sweetest; 8. 5. 4. 
attachment of seed; 8.6.1, rain 
not beneficial after sowing; 
8. 6. 5. likes water when in 
flower, but not later; 8. 7. 2. 
makes ground fertile for épé- 
B.vOos; 8. 8. 6. causes etc. of 
x. becoming ‘ cookable’ or ‘ un- 
cookable’; 8.9.1. improves the 
soil (cf. 8. 7. 2.); 8. 10. 5. in- 
fested by ives; 8. 11. 1. seed 
does not keep; 8. 11. 3. seed 
keeps well in some localities. 

Kvapos (0 Atyirrios), Nelumbium spe- 


4. 8. 7-8 described; 4. 8. 9. stalk 

leaves and growth of fruit of 
Awrds (2) comp. 

kvdovios (fruit pyAov cvddrov) (= 

aotpovdiov (1)), quince, Cydonia 

2. 2. 5. produced from seed of 

otpovGiov; 4.8.11. size of root 
Of Awrds (2) comp. to pyAoy 


7.18. 9. (in defective sentence): 

belongs to 7a BoABwody. 

kukAdpvos, cyclamen, Cyclamen 


root and juice used; 9. 9. 3. use 
in medicine and as charm; 
9. 18. 2. leaf of oxopmios (38) 

7.9.4. root has ‘bark’; 9.9.1. 

kv¥pvovy, cummin, Cuminum Cymi- 


1.11. 2. seeds naked; 7. 3. 2-3. 

about sowing; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds; 8. 3.5. seed very abun- 
dant and small; 8. 6. 1 rain 
not beneficial after sowing; 
8. 8. 5. a plant parasitic on 
root (see App. (25)); 8.10.1. 
diseases; 9. 8. 8. cf. 7. 3. 2-3. 

seeds described: popular belief 

. 4. 8. an unnamed Indian tree 
(cotton plant) comp. 



xuvoaBaros, Wild rose, Rosa semper- 

3. 18. 4. described; 9. 8. 5. super- 

stition as to method of cutting. 

xkivew, rib-grass, Plantago lanceo- 

7.7.3. time of growing: 7.11.2. (?) 
flowers in a spike. 
KUTAPLTTOS, cypress, 
1. 5. 1. erect and tall; 1. 5. 3. 
wood not fleshy ; 1.6. 4, shallow 
rooting; 1. 6. 5. roots not 


branching; 1. 8. 2. ‘ male’ has 

more knots than ‘female’ 
1. 9. 1. growth chiefly upwards; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 
leaves fleshy; 2 2. Seopa. 
gation; 2.2.6. seed of ‘female’ 
produces ‘ male’ trees; 2. 7. 1. 
dislikes manure and. water ; 
3.1. 6. comes up spontaneously 
in Crete; 3. 2.3. evidence that 
it is really wild (at least ‘ male’ 
form); 3. 2. 6. characteristic of 
the Cretan Ida; 3.12 4. bark 
of xédpos (1) comp.; 5 4.1.3. grows 
very high on Cretan mountains ; 
3. 1. grows in Cyrenaica 
4,5. 2. abounds ia Crete, Lycia, 
Rhodes; 4. 18. 12. beer (Bputés) 
made from x. in Egypt; 4,16.1. 
some think topping fatal; 5.3.7. 
Ovov COMD).: gio ats made from 
the wood; 5. 1. the ‘ mae 
form the more ‘Feuittal, 5, 4, 2. 
wood proof against decay: an 
instance: takes a fine polish ; 
5. 7. 4. use of wood in house- 
KUTeELpor, Conerah rotundus 
9. 7.3. in list of apiuara, 
kvrevpos, galingale, Cyperus longus 

1.5. 3.. stem very smooth; 1.6.8. 
a stout root and also’ fibrous 
roots; 1.8.1, no knots; 1.10. 5. 
leaves end in a point : further 
described; 4. 8. 1. in list of ra 
Aoxpadyn; 4. 8. 12. leaves of 
padwabadAn comp.; 4.110. 1. in 
list of aes of Lake Repele 
4, 10. described; 4. 6. 
grows both on land ae in 
water: grows on the float- 
ing islands of Lake Copais 

4.11.12. foliage of some kéAapur 
KUTLVOS, See poa. 
Kvttcos (1), laburnum, Laburnum 
1. 6.1. core hard and close; 4. 4. 6. 
habit of é8¢vy comp.; 5. 3. 1. 
wood of the core very close 
and heavy. 
KUTLcos (2), tree-medick, Medicago 
4, 16. 5. dangerous to trees. 
kouaKcov, Ailanthus malabarica 
9 2. an Arabian dpwyua (i.e, 
imported through Arabia : 
mixed with other apipara : 

{name also given to fruit of a 
different plant]. 

xovecov, hemlock, Conium macu- 


1.5. 3.  alai fleshy ; 6.2.9. belongs 
to ‘ferula-like’ plants: has a 
hollow stem; 7. 6. 4. leaf of 
opetogéAtvoy comp.; 9.8.3. most 
powerful juice from root; 
9.15.8. localities; 9.16. 8. medi- 
cal experience ; 9. 16. 9. treat- 
ment in Keos; 9. 20. 1. wémepe 
an antidote to k. 

Kkwvdpopos, see [revKn H] Kwvddhopos 

Ad6upos, Lathyrus sativus 
tS Re ga os ee 2 a 7 stem ; 
8. 10. 5. infested by * worms.’ 
Aaxdpy (Adkapa) (= Képacos ? Mace- 
donian name), bird-cherry, Pru- 
nus avium 
3. 3. 1. a tree of mountain and 
plain; 3. 6. 1. slow-growing (?). 
Aamaéos (Adrabor), monk’s rhubarb, 
Rumex Patientia 
1. 6. 6. root single; 7. 1. 2, time 
of sowing; 7. 2. 7-8. root 
described; 7. 4. 1. only one 
kind; 7. 6. 1. wild form distin- 
guished (see below); 9. 11. 1. 
leaf of mdvaxes Td Xeipwverov 
Admabov To aypiov, dock, Rumex con- 
17 "6. 1. distinguished from A. rd 
nPLEPOV 5 . & Adxavov; needs 



Aeimwvia, '(? = oxddvpos 6. 4. 3.), 
golden thistle, Scolymus his- 

6. 4. 3. a thistle-like’ plant: 

leaves spinous. 

Aciptov (1) (=x«pivoy q.v.) Madonna 

lily, Lilium candidum | 

6. flower of axry has the 
Siekiy scent of A.; 3. 18. 11. 
scent of flower of oputdaé (2) 
pa 9.16.6.(?) leaf of ébjpepov 

Aeiptov X», narcissus, 
spp. (see below) 

1. 18. 2. flower consists of one 
‘leaf’ only partly divided. 

Aefpiov, polyanthus narcissus, Nar- 

cissus Tazetta 
6.8.1. flowering time; 7.13. 4. 
grown from seed. 

Aetprov (7d Erepov 6.8.3.) (= vapKiagos 
(1) 6.6.9.), narcissus, Narcissus 

6. 6. 9. a coronary plant: de- 
scribed ; flowering time. 

A€uva, water chickweed, Callitriche 


4, 10.1. in list of plants of Lake 

iepeerdl ee thistle, Silybum 

6. ew 3. a a‘ thistle-like ’ plant. 
Aevxn, wtscles Populus alba 

1. 10. 1. leaves change shape with 
age of tree: leaves inverted 
in summer; 3. 1. 1. propaga- 
tion; 3. 3. 1. tree rg moun- 
tain’ and plain ; 3. 2. time 
of budding 3. 6. é quick- 
arora 3 14, 2. hie a 
Aig hg ay BOM es se aed 4, 
jikes wet ground ; 4. 2. 3 
stem of cvxy 7 Kumpia comp.; 
4.8.1. grows partially in water; 
4, 8. 2. scarce on Nile; 4. 10. 2. 

flower of éAaiayvos comp 
4.13. 2. shorter-lived by Suter: 
4, 16. 3. instance of a_ tree 
which grew again after falling 
down; 5. 9. 4. wood makes an 
evil smoke when burnt for char- 



Aeuxdiov (1) (= lov 7d AcvKdy = iwvia 
m Acvxy), gilliflower, Matthiola 


AcuKéiov (2 snowdrop, Galanthus 
7. 13. 9. (in defective sentence) 
belongs to ra BoABwdn. 
9.9 5. medicinal ee 9.11.10-11. 
two kinds (see belo 
a wc ek N akapTos, Taco graeca 
11. 10-11. described: medi- 
gan use: habitat. 
AiBavwris yn Kapminos, (fruit xaxpv 
ecokia cretica 
9. 11. 10. described : medicinal 

use: habitat : prevents moth in 


A.Bavwros, (guM AiBavos, 
cense: also A.Bavwrds 9. 4. 4-9. 
etc.), frankincense-tree, " Bos- 
weilia Carteri 

4. 4,14. in list of oriental apjpara; 
9. 1. 6. time of tapping; 9. 4. 1. 
collection of gum; Be Be 
Arabian: described : habitat ; 
9.4.3. another account; 9.4. 4-10, 
accounts of travellers ; 9.11.3 
scent of mavaxes Td "HpdxAevov 
comp.; 9.11.10. scent of root 
of AtBavetis 7] KapTipos comp.; 
9. 20. 1. an antidote to xwveor, 
Aivor, flax, Linum percents 
3. 18. 3. seeds oily; 8.7.1. said 
to change into aipa. 
Atvov mipivov 
9. 18. 

6. growth of xparaiyovos 

pigs * 

Awéonaprov, Spanish broom, Spar- 
tium junceum 
1. 5. 2. bark in layers. 
Avxvis, rose-campion, Lychnis coron- 

aria ; 
6. 8. 3. a coronary plant: flower- 

ing time. 
7. 15. 3. many plants called by 
this name which have nothing 
in common but the name. 

Awtos (1), nettle-tree, Celtis aus- — 

1, 5.3. wood not fleshy; 1. 6.1 

core hard and close; 1. 8. 2: 
few knots; 4. 2. 5. colour of 
wood of nepoéa comp.; 4. 2.9. 
wood of olive of Thebaid comp.; 
tree (2? KoxxupndAéda  Alyvrria) 

wood of an unnamed — 



comp.; 5. 3. 1. wood very close 
and heavy; 5. 3. 7. images 
made from the wood; 5. 4. 2. 
wood proof against’ oy: : 
turns black when old; 

core not obvious but pees 
5. 5. 6. treatment of core for 
making door-hinges ; 
grows in some places exception- 

Awtds (2) (aquatic) (root Kdpcrov), 
Nile water-lily, Nymphaea stel- 

4. 8. 9-11. described. 
Awrds (3) (herb), trefoil, Trifolium 
. 8. 3. leaves ‘on the stem’; 
"7, 18. 5. seed sometimes takes 
two years to germinate. 
Awtés (4) (Libyan tree), Zizyphus 

4 3.1. common in Libya; 4.3.1-2. 
described; 4. 3. 4. further de- 
Awrés (5) (aromatic) (= 
Fy td sage graeca 
9. 7. 3. in list of apépara, 


Ses (= immopapabov), Prangos 
1. 6.12. root most characteristic 
part; 6. 3. 7. distinct from 
aidgiov: described: distribu- 

[6, 3. 4. name also given to seed 
of ciAdvor]. 

padovais (=vundaia 9.13.1.), yellow 
water-lily. Nuphar luteum 
wardxn ee mallow, Lavatera ar- 

ve 3.4 2. a herb which becomes 
tree-like under cultivation; 
1. 9.; 4. 15. 1. outer bark 
can be stripped; 9. 18. 1. leaf 
ae and taste of stem of aA@aia 

sala 2), cheese-flower, Malva 
Ae ae a Adxavov 5 needs cooking; 
7. 8. 1. stem ‘on the ground’ 
padaxn (3) 7 aypia (= addaia 9.15.5.), 
pe gh mallow, Althaea offict- 

5. 8. 1.. 

padwwabddrddAn (= pvao.ov), Cyperus 
4. 8. 12. described. 
pavépayédpas (1), mandrake, &andra- 
gora officinarum 
9. 8. 8. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 9. 1. root and juice 
used : medicinal use of leaf and 
mavipayopas (2), ? deadly night- 
shade, Atropa Belladonna 
6. 2. 9. belongs to ‘ ferula-like’ 
plants: has hollow stem: fruit 
Mapabor, fennel, Foeniculum vulgare 
1. 11. 2. seeds naked; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 4. 6. 3. piKxos To 
rTprxopvdAdov comp.; 6.1. 4. aspine- 
less wild under-shrub: be ongs 
to ‘ferula-like’ plants; 6. 2. 9. 
do.: has a fibrous stem; 7. 3. 2. 
seeds described ; 9. 9. 6. leaf of 
Gavia comp. 
paomerov, See aidgvov 
ite eT (= cxotvos 6 Kapmripnos 

pa IS eg Luni: Schoenus 
pabieeret (ueAdurupos), Neslia 

8. 4. 6. infests Tupos O SiKkedds: 
contrasted with aipa; 8. 8. 3. 
(weAdptrupos 6 Tlovrtxos), speci- 
ally affects crops of zrupés. 

pedia, Se ee Fraxinus Ornus 

3. 3. 1. tree of mountain and 
pindic: 3. 4. 4. time of ne 
3. 6.1. slow growing (?); 3.6 5. 
roots numerous matted and 
run deep, according to Arca- 
dians; 38. 11. 3-4. described: 
two kinds, see Bovpércos 3 3.17.1. 
leaf of hedrAds comp.; 4 5. 8. 
grows in Pontus; 4 8. 2. 
common on Nile; 5. 1. 2. time 
of cutting timber: 5. 6. 4. wood 
‘moist’: used for elastic bed- 
steads; 5.7.3. wood used for 
bent-wood work: use in ship- 
building; 5. 7.8. uses of wood 
for carpenter’s tools, 

age (= Awrds (5)), Trigonella 

vir a5. 3. one of the many diverse 

plants called Awrés. 
méAcvos, (in other authors pedcvy: 



see 8. 1. 1. n.), Italian millet, 
Setaria italica 
8. 1. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses; 8. 2 time of 
maturing seed; 8. 3. 2. stem; 
8. 3. 3. flower; 8. 7. 3. needs 
little water: comp with xéyxpos. 
pedccooddvaddoyv, balm, Melissa offici- 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
pemackvaor, See Kduapos 
peoviAn (fruit péomaAov) (= pw. 7 
caravetos), medlar, Mespilus 
8. 12. 5-6. described: three kinds 
(Idaean account, see below); 
8. 18. 1. leaf of xépacos comp.; 
8. 15. 6. leaf, bark and taste of 
fruit of xpararyos comp.; 3.17.5. 
flower of ouxy 7 “Idata comp. 
also taste of fruit; 4.2.10, fruit 
of xoxxupyAéa comp.; 4 8. 12. 
padivadadAdAn comp.; 4. 14. 10. 
fruit gets worm-eaten. 
peoriaAn n avOnSovoeidys, hawthorn, 
Crataegus Oxyacantha 
8. 12. 5. described. 
peotriAn » avO7ydwv, oriental thorn, 
Crataegus orientaliss 
8. 12. 5. described. 
peomiAn } gardavecos, Medlar, Mes- 
pilus germanica 
8. 12. 5. described. 
Mydixy (moe), lucerne, 


8. 7.7. destroyed by sheep sleep- 

ing on it. 
ujkeov, poppy etc., Papaver spp. etc. 
(see below) 

1. 9. 4, evergreen; 1. 11. 2. seeds 
inavessel; 4.8. 7. size of flower 
of Kv¥ayos 0 Aiyimtios cOomp.; 
4. 8. 10. size of ‘ head’ of Awrds 
(2) comp.; 4.10.3. iby comp. (?); 
9.8.2. juice of ‘head’ collected ; 
9, 12. 3-5. kinds (see below) 
having nothing in common but 
the name; 9. medical 
experience; 9. 20. 1. seeds of 
one kind of wérepc comp. 

pyKkov 7 ‘“Hpaxdeia (= “Hpakdcia), 
Silene venosa 

9, 12. 5. described: medicinal 




Mikev 7 Keparirts, horned poppy 

Glaucium flavum var. Serpierit ’ 

9.12.3. described : medicinal use; 

LiKkav 7 pédava, Papaver Rhoeas 
9.11.9. mixed with rr@vuaddAos 6 
pupritns to make a medicine. 

 pijxov (4% doddys), Opium poppy, 

Papaver somniferum 
1. 12, 2. juice. 
Bikwv 7 pods, Papaver hybridum 
9. 12. 4. described: edible: habi- 
tat: medicinal use. 
Mykwviov (= riOvpuadrdAos 9. 8. 2.), 
spurge, Euphorbia Peplus 
9. 8. 2. collection of juice. 
uyrca_ (fruit pyjAov), apple, Pyrus 

1. 3. 3. a tree whose stem is not 
single; 1. 5. 2. bark smooth: 
bark readily drops off; 1. 6. 1. 
core fleshy; 1. 6. 3. few roots; 
1. 6. 4. shallow rooting; 1. 8. 4. 
knots peculiar; 1. 9. 1. trunk 
divides low down; i. 10. 4. 
(?) leaves fleshy; 1. 10. 5. 
leaves oblong; 1. 11. 4. seeds 
all together in a single case; 
1. 11. 5. seeds in a membrane; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 1. 13. 1. flower 
‘leafy’; 1.13. 3. flower above 
fruit-case; 1. 14. 1. bears on 
last year’s wood: some kinds 
bear also on new wood; 1.14. 4. 
many cultivated forms; 2. 1. 2. 
propagation; 2. 2. 4. degene- 
rates from seed; 2. 2. 5. seed 
produces wild form; 2. 5; 3. 
grafting; 2.5.6. trees should be 
planted fairly close together; 
2. 6. 6. some dates round like 
pda; 2. 8. 1. apt to shed im- 
mature fruit; 3. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain; 3.3.2. has 
better fruit and timber in low- 
lands; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting; 3.11.5. 
mountain and lowland forms 
compared; 4. 5. 3. abundant in 
Pontus; 4.5.4. grows on Mount 
Tmolus and Mysian Olympus; 
4.7.7. size of fruit of dévdpov ro 
€p.opopov comp.; 4. 10. 2. leaf of 
éAaiayvos comp. (?); 4. 10. 3, 



size of flower of oidy comp.; 
4. 13. 2. short-lived, especially 
certain kinds; 13. 3.- after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock; 4. 14. 2. apt to get 
worm- -eaten ; 4, 14. 10 fruit 
gets worm-eaten ; 4, 14. 12. un- 
injured by special winds ; 4.16.1. 
survives splitting of stem; 5.3.3. 
character of wood; 5. 4. 1. the 
less fruitful trees produce more 
solid wood; 6. 4. 9 ‘head’ of 
i€(vn comp. ‘to penaAov. 
pnréa 7 yAvxeta, Pyrus Malus var.? 
4, 2. specially short-lived ; 
4.14. 7. has specially weak con- 
stitution; a form of Be  eapery 5 
9. 11. 5. leaf of oOTpUXVOS O UT- 
vadys comp. 
pyréa 7 caprvn, Pyrus Malus var.? 
2. 1. 3. propagation; 4. 7. 7. size 
of cotton-bearing vessel comp.; 
4 18. 2. specially short-lived ; 
4. 14. 7. has weak constitution ; 
(cf. u.  yAuketa). 
pnréa 7 o€eta, Pyrus Malus var.? 
4,.13. 2. comparatively long-lived. 
pnréa H Leparky (Mndixy) citron, Cit- 
rus Medica 
1. 11. 4. seeds in a row; 1. 13. 4. 
only pistillate flower fruitful ; 
4, 4. 2. peculiar to Media and 
Persia : described. 
penaov To Kvdwvov, see Kuédaveos 
BHNA@Opoy (= ses (4)), bryony, 
Bryonia cret 
3.18.11. fruit of of opidak (2) comp.; 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
minasies, Limnanthemum nymphoi- 

4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of 
Lake Copais; 4. 10. 4. requires 
further investigation. 
pidag (= opidraé (2)), smilax, Smilax 

1. 10. 5. leaf described; 1.10. 6. 
leaf with spinous projections; 
6. 8. 3. flower used in garlands. 
pidos, yew, Taxus baccata 
1, 9.) 3. evergreens: 3..8..1. a 
mountain tree; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green; 3. 4.2. time of budding; 
3. 4. 5. time of flowering and 
fruiting; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 


ing; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) 
3. 10. 2. described ; 4.1.3. lik 
shade; 5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 
piven (uivda) (= 7édvdcpov), green 
mint, Mentha viridis 
2. 4. 1. o.ovpBprov turns into p. 
unless often transplanted ; 6.7.2. 
said by some to have no fruit. 
pvaoiov (= padtvabaddAn), Cyperus 
4, 8. 2. used for food in Egypt; 
4. 8. 6. described. 
pudcavbos (= xKevtpouvppivy), but- 
cher’s broom, Ruseus aculeatus 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
puns, Mushroom etc., Fungus 
1. 1. 11. has not all the ‘ parts’ of 
a plant; 1. 5. 3. stem very 
smooth; 1. 6. 5. no roots; 
3. 7. 6. grows on roots of trees. 

[4. 7. 2. marine growths which 
turn to stone]; 

[4. 14. 3. name given to a disease 
of éAda]. 

pudpovor (= axdvtov= OndAvpovov = 

oxoprios (3)), wolt’s bane, Aconi- 
tum Anthora 

6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

shrub: belongs to ‘ ferula-like’ 

plants; 6. 2. 9. do. has a 
fibrous stem. 

pupixyn (1), tamarisk, Tamarix te- 

1. 4. 3. ‘amphibious’; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 4. leaves 

fleshy; 3.3. 2 rag of mountain 
and plain; . 3. evergreen 3 
3. 16. 4. ek ae Komapos COMP.}; 
4, , 6. (?) leaf of Badavos comp.; 
4, ae leaf of dpis (7) comp ; 
6. 241 - leaf of kvéwpos 0 péAdas 
comp.; 6. 4. 8. flower of xapa- 
Aێwv comp 

acc A Os ternal: Tamari« artic- 

5. 4. = esti wood very strong. 
puppivn (wdppivos, uuvpros) (fruit pvp- 
tov), myrtle, Myrtus communis 

1. 3. 3. effect of not pruning; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 2 
leaves close-set and opposite; 

1. 10. 4. leaves narrow; 1.10.8. 




leaves regular; 1. 12. 1. taste 
of fruit; 1. 13. 3. flower above 
fruit-case; 1. 14. 1. bears on 
last year’s wood: flowers borne 
on new wood not fertile ; 1.14.4. 
many cultivated forms; 2. 1. 4. 
propagation ; 2. 2. 6. sometimes 
improves from seed; 2. 5. 6. 
propagation: trees should be 
planted close together; 2. 7 2. 
needs much pruning; 2. 7. 3. 
requires pungent manure and 
much water; 3.6 2. formation 
of buds; 3. 12. 4. fruit of «édpos 
(1)comp.; 3.15. 5. leaf of rv€os 
comp.; 8. 16. 4. flower of «é6- 
papos comp.; 4. 2. 6. (?) leaf of 
Bddavos comp.; 4. 3. 1. arrange- 
ment of fruit of Awrds (4) comp.; 
4.5.3. does. not thrive in cold 
regions; 4. 5. 4. grows in Pro- 
pontis; 5. 8. 3. grows in low- 
land parts of Latium: and on 
Circeian promontory (a dwarf 
kind); 6. 8. 5. very fragrant 
in Egypt; 9. 11. 9. leaf of rvév- 
padAos 0 puptitys Comp. 
podv, moly, Allium nigrum 

. 15. 7. localities in Arcadia: 
said to be like the ». of Homer : 
described: use as charm. 

vaipov ? 
9. 7. 3. in list of apépara., 
vanv, white mustard, Brassica alba 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 7.1. 2-3; 
time of sowing and of germina- 
tion; 7. 8. 2. seeds described ; 
7. 5. 5. seed keeps well. 
vapédov, spikenard, Nardostachys Ja- 
9.7.2. an Indian dpwpa; 9. 7. 3. 
in list of apépara; 9.7.4. an 
unnamed Thracian plant (see 
App. (25)) comp. 
vapOnkia (=vapOné see 6.2.7.), ferula, 
Ferula communis 
6.1.4. spineless: belongs to ‘ferula- 
like, plants; 6. 2. 7. perhaps 
differs only in size from vap@yé ; 
6.2.8. described. 
vapené (= vapOnxta see 6. 2. 7.), ferula, 
Ferula communis 
1.2.7. fiesh turns to wood ; 1.6.1. 
core fleshy; 1. 6.2. core mem- 


branous; 6.2.7. perhaps differs 
only in size from vap@nxia; 
6.2. 8. described; 6. 3. 1. stalk 
of ciAdvov comp.; 9. 9. 6. stem 
of dawia comp.; 9. 10.1. leaf of 
both €AA€fopa comp. by some; 
9. 16. 2. Sikrapvov kept év vap- 

vapxioaos (1) (= Aeiprov (2) 6. 6. 9.), 
narcissus, Narcissus serotinus 
6.6.9. a coronary plant: described; 
7.13.1. leaves described; 7.13.2. 
no stem except the flower-stem ; 
7. 13. 5-7. stem appears before 
leaves, viz. flower-stem: se- 
quence described and comp. 
with oxidAa. 
vapxiooos (2), pheasant’s eye nar- 
cissus, Narcissus poeticus 
6. 8. 1. flowering time. 

vapT T. 

9. 7. 3. in list of apomara. 
(vnrevOés) =pjkwv y b7wHdys, Opium 
poppy, Papaver somniferum. 

9. 15. 1. mythical: supposed 

vuppaia (=padwrais 9.13.1.), yellow 

water-lily, Nuphar luteum 

9. 13. 1. fragrant: habitat and 
localities : leaf described : medi- 
cinal use: called padwvais in 

éipis, gladwyn, Iris foetidissima 
9.8.7. superstition as to gathering. 
Eipiov (= Ethos 7.13.1. = bacyavor), 
corn-flag, Gladiolus segetum 
6. 8. 1. flowering time; 7. 13. 2. 
flower-stem not the only stem. 
Eipos (= éihrov 7. 13. 1.= hacyavov), 
corn-flag, Gladiolus segetum. 

éyxvyn, wild pear, Pyrus communis 
var. Pyraster - 
2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
rather far apart. 
&y {oin), sorb, Sorbus domestica 
2.2 10. becomes sterile in a warm 
place; 2. 7. 7. ‘correcting’ the 
tree; 3.2.1. fruit sweeter and 
better ripened in wild than in 
cultivated form ; 3. 5. 5. winter- 
buds; 8.6. 5. roots shallow but 
strong: thick according to Ar- 
cadians; 8 11. 3. leaf of pedta 

ag ee 2 


comp.; 38. 12. 6-9. described ; 
3. 15. 4. leaf of TépurvOos COMP. 
olvav9y (1), drop-wort, Spiraea Fili- 
6. 6. 11. a coronary plant: grown 
from seed; 6. 8. 1-2. fiowering 
time: flower described. 
oivavOy (2) » aypia, wild vine, Vitis 
5::9.'6. abpayery comp 
oigos (=ayvos), withy, Tr itex Agnus- 
3. 18. 1-2. has two forms, ‘ white’ 
and ‘black’; 6. 2 2. used for 
oAdaxXoLVOs, S€@ GxXOLVOS 0 OA. 
oAvpa, (cultural variety of Gecd), rice- 
wheat, Triticum dicoccum 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 4. 1. comp. 
in detail with other cereals; 
8. 9 2. does not exhaust the 
soil much: reason. 
dvoOjpas (= ddadvy 7 aypia), oleander, 
Nerium Oleander 
9. 19. 1. effect on ‘mind’: de- 
ovorvéos, Onopordon illyricum 
6. 4. 3. a ‘ thistle-like ’ plant. 
bree bugloss, Echium diffusum 
. 3. flowers borne in succes- 
ovevis, rest-harrow, Ononis anti- 


6. 1. 3. has leaves as well as 
spines: a wild under-shrub; 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
spines; 6. 5. 3-4. described: 
troublesome to farmers. 

vévaxavOos, cotoneaster, Cotoneaster 


1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3.1. tree of 
mountain and plain; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen; 3. 4. 2. time of bud- 
ding; 3.4. 4. time of fruiting; 
4.4.2. thorns of pydéa y Heparky 
rot 6.8 3. fruit used in gar- 

Bin (in), beech, Fagus silvatica 
doubt whether it has a 
pe a oad 6. 5. roots few 
slender and ‘ plain’ according to 
Arcadians: shallow - rooting; 
3. 10. 1. described ;) 3. 11. 5. 
mountain and lowland forms 

compared; 5.1. 2. time of cut- 
ting timber; 5.1.4. do.; 5.4. 4. 
wood does not decay in water ; 
5. 6. 4. wood ‘ moist ’: used ior 
elastic bedsteads; 5.7.2. wood 
used for keel etc.of small vessels; 
5. 7. 6. other uses of wood; 
5. 8. 3. grows very fine in low- 
land part of Latium. 
oévKedpos (= Kédpos (1) 3. 12. 3.), 
prickly cedar, Juniperus Oxy- 
3. 12. 3. some, who call apxevOos a 
xéSpos, distinguish xéSpos (1) as 
13. 9. (in defective sentence) 
“belongs to ra BorABwsdy. 
omroBarcaporv, see Badoapov. 
opecocéAcvoyv, parsley, Petroselinum 
7. 6. 3-4. distinguished from other 
forms of oéArvov : medicinal use. 
ere wych-elm, Ulmus mon- 

3.14. L. distinguished from mTeAéa, 
dpiyavov (optyavos) (= 6. 7 méAawva), 
marjoram, Origanum viride etc. 
1.9. 4. evergreen (partly); 1.12.1. 
taste of fruit; 6. 1. 4. a spine- 
less wild under-shrub; 6. 2. 3. 
two forms, ‘ black’ and ‘ white’ 
(see below): seed conspicucus: 
not, like @vu0s, particular as to 
situation ; 7. 1. 3. time of ger- 
mination ; 7. 1. 6. germination ; 
7. 2. 1. propagation; 7. 6 1. 
wild form distinguished. 
bptyavos 7 Aevxy, Marjoram, Ori- 
ganum heracieoticum 
6. 2. 3. distinguished from 6. 7 
optyavos 9 péAawva (= dptyavov), mar- 
joram, Origanum viride 
GID. 3. distinguished from 06. 7 
dpuvov, Salvia Horminum 
8. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses; 8. 7. 3. doubtful if 
eaten green by animals: de- 
say sown at same time as 
on op 
bpopiyxn, " dodder; Cuscuta europaea 
8. 4. grows specially among 
sere reason: anapivy comp. 




dpoBos, bitter vetch, Ervwm Ervilia 
2. 4, 2. more digestible if sown in 
spring; 7.5. 4. used to prevent 
sara in padavis; 7.6.3. size of 
uit of immogéAvwov comp.: 8.1.4. 
sown both early and late ; 8.2.5. 
flowering time; 8. 3. 2. stem; 
5. 1. more than one kind: 
white form sweetest; 8. 5. 2. 
seeds not in compartments ; 
8. 5. 3. shape of pod; 8. 8. 4. 
opoBayxn grows specially among 
6. 8. 10. 1. a pest; 8. 11. 2. 
seed keeps well; 8. 11. 6. do. 
specially in hill- country ; ; 9.20.1. 
shape of one kind of eémepu 
(fruit) comp. 
éptv& (=aredéhovpos according to 
some, 7.11. 2.), plantain, Plan- 
tago Lagopus. 
ee rice, Oryza sativa 
4. 4. 10. described. 
PXts, (1) (néyas), orchis, Orchis pap- 

9.18.3. properties: leaf and stalk. 
opxis (2) (ucxpds), orchis, Orchis 
9.18.3. nhogeutine’ leaf and stalk. 
botpva (ooTpvis) (dorTpvis = doTpus 
3.10.3.), hop-hornbeam, Ostrya 
1. 8. 2. ‘male’ has more knots 
than ‘female’; 3.3.1. tree of 
mountain and plain; 3. 6. 1. 
slow-growing (?); 3. 10. 3. de- 
doTtpus (= dorpva 3.10.3.), hop-horn- 
beam, Ostrya carpinifolia 
3.10 3. described. 
oviyyov, Colocasia antiquorum 
1.1.7. ‘fruit’ underground; 1. . 9. 
grows underground; 1. 6. 

mddos (?=mndds (?)), Prunus Mahaleb 
4.1.3. likes shade. 
Tavovia (= ce 9. 8. 6.), peony, 
Paeonia officinalis 
9. 8. 6, superstition as to time of 
madioupos i), Christ’s thorn, Pali- 
ya australis 
1. 3. 1. atypical ‘shrub‘; 1. 3. 2. 
Eicohee tree-like; 1.5. 3. thorns 
on wood; 1, 10. 6. leaf with 


spinous projections; 1. 10. 7. 
stem presently spinous; 3. 3. 1. 
tree of mountain and plain ; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding; 3.4. 4. 
time of fruiting; 3. 11. 2. fruit 
of opévoanvos comp.; 3. 18. 3. 
kinds: described; 4. 8. 1. to 
—_ extent grows in marshes ; 
4.12.4. to some extent aquatic; 

6.1.3. has spines on the shoots. 

tmadtoupos (2) (6 Aiyvaruos), Zizyphus 

. 1-2. common in Libya 

4.3.3. described : distinguished 
from 7. of Hellas. 

TavaKea (= mavaxes TO Hod ihstaels 
Opopanax hispidus 

9. 15. 7. localities. 

mavaxes (ro Zvpiov ? 9.7.2: 9.10.1.), 

(juice xaABavn(?) 9.7.2: 9.9.2., 

see note), all-heal, Ferulago 
- 1. 2, in list of Smeg whose 

* juice is a gum; 9. 7. 2. Syrian: 
XaABavy made from a.3 9. 7. 3. 
in list of appara; 9. 3. 1. root 
fruit and juice used ; 9. 9. 2. 
uses for medicine and. perfume; 
9. 11. 1. kinds (see below); 
9.11. 4. two further kinds, one 
fine-leaved, the other not: 
medicinal use. 

mavakes TO “Aokdntieov, Ferula no-~ 

9. 8. 7. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 11, 1. described: medi- 

cinal use. 
mévakes TO “HpdkAccov (= Tavdxe.a), 
Opopanax hispidus 
9. 11. 1. in list. of kinds of 7-.; 

9. 11. 3. described: medicinal 
mavakes TO Xetpwvevov, elecampane, 
Inula Helenium 
1. described: habitat: 
“medicinal use. 
nmavrdéovea, star-thistle, Centaurea 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
mamupos (stalk mémupos), papyrus, 
Cyperus Papyrus 
4. 8. 2. useful for food in Egypt; 
4. 8. 3-4. described: uses; 


4. 8. 5. stem of ope comp 
6. 3. 1. belongs to ‘ forula-like / 
map@éviov, bachelor’s buttons, Pyre- 
Seid Parthenium 
. @ Adxavov: needs cooking 
eavh pullin Lycoperdon Bovista 
1. 6. 5. no roots. 
meAexivos, axe-weed, Securigera Coro- 
8. 8. 3. grows specially among 
addéxyn : name explained. 
mevrametés (=mevradvaAdoy 9.13. 5.), 
cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans 
9. 13. 5. described. 
mevTaduAXrov ay torts 9. 13. 5.), 
cinquefoil, Pot ptans. 
aay 244 pepper, Piper nigrum 
20.1, a fruit: two forms: de- 
ected properties: antidote 
to kaiverov; 9. 20. 2. size of 
Kvidvos KdKkos COMP 
mepdixcov, ‘ partridge-plant,” Polygo- 
num maritimum 
1. 6. 11. large fleshy roots. 
mepiTtos (2? otpvxvos 6 mepittés) (= 
oTpixvos 6 pavkds 9. 11. 6.), 
thorn-apple, DaturaStramonium. 
mepaéa (=répovov), Mimusops Schim- 

8. 3.5. not fruitful everywhere; 
4. 2. 1. peculiar to Egypt; 
4.2.5. deseribed; 4. 2. 8. com- 
mon in Thebaid. 
trépovov (= wepoéa), Mimusops Schim- 

2. 2. 10. effects of climate. 
mevkédavov, sulphur-wort, Peuceda- 
num officinale 

9. 14. 1. how long drug will keep; 
9. 15. 1. grows in Arcadia; 
9. 20. 2. properties of root: use 
in medicine: grows in Arcadia. 

mrevkn, fir, Pinus spp. 

1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation; 1.5.1. 
erect and tall; 1.5.4. wood has 
many knots; 1.6.1. core woody ; 
1. 6. 3. root single; 1. 6.5. roots 
not branching; t 8. 1. many 
knots; 1. 9. 3. evergreen (the 
wild and one cultivated kind); 
1. 10. 4. leaves like teeth of 
comb (?); 1.10.6. leaf spinous at 
tip; 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 12. ra taste of sap; 2.2. 2 

propagated only by seed; 2.5. 2. 
instance of very long roots; 
8. 1. 2. grows only from seed: 
8. 2. 3. evidence that it is really 
wild; 3. 3. 1, a mountain tree; 
3. 3. 3. evergreen; 3.3.8. doubt 
whether it has a flower; 3. 4. 5. 
time of budding and fruiting 
3. 4. 6. time of fruiting; 3.5.1 
oo of budding; 3. 5.3. do.; 
38. 5. 5. winter-buds; 3. 5. 6. 
cone; 3. 6. 1. quick’ growing: 
even ‘young tree fruits; 3. 6. 4. 
not deep-rooting ; 3. 7. 1. dies if 
topped; 3. 7. 3. produces a 
‘tuft’ (kdrrapos); 8. 9. 1-8. 
kinds according to various 
authorities (see ogee distinc- 
tion from witvs; 3. 9. 4. timber, 
foliage; 3. 9. ’b. furt ther dis- 
tinction from mitvs: the disease 
‘ pitch-glut’ ; 3.9.7. comparison 
with éAdtn; 3. 9. 8. do.: core 
and callus; 4. 1. 1. likes sun; 
rH Mae 11) shade has inferior 
timber; 4.5.1. in list of North- 
ern trees ; 4.5.3. does not grow 
in Pontus: 4. 15. 3. effects of 
stripping bark at various sea- 
sons; 4. 16. 1. topping fatal; 
4,16. 1-2. not injured by cutting 
for tar; 4. 16. 4. said to perish 
if entirely deprived of its heart- 
wood; 5. 1. 2. time of cutting 
timber; 5.1. 4. do.; 5.1. 9-10. 
methods of cleaving; 5. 4. 2. 
wood (when resinous) proof 
against decay; 5. 4. 4. more 
eaten by teredon than €dAdarn: 
5. 4. 8. effect of salt water on 
different parts; 5. 5. 1. knotty 
par of wood hard to work; 
6. 1. wood good for struts : 

pipaciaes under pressure ; 5.6.2. 
takes glue best of all woods ; 
5. 7. 1-2. uses of wood in ship- 
building; 5. 7. 4-5. uses in 
house- building and crafts ; 5.8.1. 
grows to great size in Latium, 
but finer still in Corsica; 5.8. 3. 
grows in hill-country of Latium ; 
5. 9. 3. charcoal of this wood 
preferred by smiths to that of 
dps ; 9.1.2. sap gummy; 9.1.6. 
time of tapping; 9. 2. 1. pro- 



ductive of resin (Anrivy); 9.2. 2; 
quality of resin ; 9. 2.3-4. Mace- 
donians only burn the ‘ male’ 
for pitch (irra), and the roots 
of the ‘female’; aspect etc. re- 
quired for production of good 
pitch; 9. 2. 5. Idaean account 
different (see mw. 4 “Idatia and 
m. ) wapadia); 9. 2. 6. filling 
up the holes; 9, 2.7. do. Idaean 
account; 9. "2. 8. further rules 
for collecting pitch : age of tree; 
etc.; 9. 3. 1-3. method of pre- 
paring pitch; 9. 1. 4. does not 
grow in Syria. 
eee 5 axapros (= 7. 7 O7jAeva = 7. 7 
a Corsican pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 2. déactibed: 3. 9. 4. one of 
three wild kinds (Idaean ac- 
meven i akaptos (“ male’), Corsican 
pine, Pinus Laricio 
3. 9. 2. comp. with ‘female.’ 
mevkn i) Gxapwos (‘female’), Aleppo 
pine, Pinus halepensis 
3.9. 2. comp. with * male.’ 
ae. ”, aponv (= 1. 7 mapadia = = witus 

.9.5.), Aleppo pine, Pinus 

8. 9. 3. timber: produces ocuvxy 
(Mt. Ida); 3. 9. 4. one of three 

wild kinds (Idaean account). 
wevKy 7 Hmepos (= [1. 7] Kwvddopos), 
stone pine, Pinus Pinea 
3. 9. 1. distinguished from other 

kinds; 3. 9. 4. Arcadians say it 
is a sirvs: timber, foliage, 

mevky 7 OjArcva (= 7. 7 Gkaptos = 7.7) 
*Idaia), Corsican pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 3. timber: contains aiyis; 
8.9. 4. one of three wild kinds 
(Idaean acconnt). 

Tevky 7 ldaia (= 7. akapmTos = 7. yf 
O@yjAcca), Corsican pine, Pinus 

8. 9. 1-2, described ; 9. 2.5. Tdaean 
account of pitch (rirra). 

[mevien x] Kwvddopos (= m. 7 Huepos), 
stone pine, Pinus pinea 

2.2.6. seeds true; 3.9.4. foliage: 
pitch (witra): Arcadians Say it 
is a mitus, 


TevKn 7 Tapadia (= mr.) appyv = nitus 
in 3.9.5), Aleppo pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 1. described; 9. 2. 5. Idaean 
account of pitch (mitra). 

piste (wnyaviov), rue, Ruta graveo- 


1. 3. 1. a typical under-shrub ; 
1.3.4. becomes tree-like ; 1.9.4. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 4. leaves 
fleshy; 2. 1. 3. propagation ; 
6. 1. 1. may be classed as an 
under-shrub; 6. 5. 3. leaf of 
odvevis comp.; 6. 7. 3. strong 
plants of aBpdrovov comp.; 7.2.1. 
propagation: seed slow to ger- 
minate; 7. 4. 1. only one kind; 
7.5.1. dislikes manure; 7.6.1. 
wild form distinguished ; 9. 4, 2. 
colour of leaf of AtBavwrds 

comp.; 9.5.1 leaf of Badcapoy | 

comp.; 9. 9. sos. leaf of icxas 
(dmrvos (2)) co 

andes (?) (2? = ieee 4, 1. 3.), Prunus 

5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 
muxpis, Urospermum picroeides 
7. 11. 4. inedible: flowers in 
spring, but also throughout 
winter and summer. 
mtdos, Polyporus igniarius (2) 
3. 4. produced by Sdpus; de- 
TLdos, pea, Pisum sativum 
8.1.1. in list of pulses; 8. 1.4 
sown late; 8. 2. 3. comes Ld 
with several leaves; 8. 3. 
leaf; 8. 3. 2. stem; 8. 5. Fy 
seeds not in compartments ; 
8. 503. shape of pod ; 8. 10. 5. 
infested by ‘ worms. 
mitus (= witvs 7 aypia = mrevKy n 
appnv in 3. 9. 5. = weven 7 Tapa.- 
Ata in 8. 9. 5.), Aleppo pine, 
Pinus halepensis 
6. 1. core woody; 1. 10. 4: 
‘leaves like teeth of comb; 
1. 10. 6. leaf spinous at tip; 
1.12.1. taste of fruit; 2 2.2 
propagated only by seed ; 3.1.2. 
do.; 3. 3. 3. evergreen ; 3.3. 8. 
doubt whether it has a flower 
(k¥rrapos); 3.4 5. time of bud- 
ding and fruiting ; 3.5.5. winter- 
buds; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?): 



even young tree fruits; 3.9 4-8. 

meven and mitus; 3 9. 6. dis- 
tinction from zevecn; 3. 11. 1. 
bark of cpévdanvos comp.; 3.17.1. 
bark of ¢eAAos comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
does not grow in Pontus: 
4. 14. 8. if topped, becomes 
barren, but is not destroyed; 
4.16. 1. topping fatal; 5. 1.2 
time of cutting timber; bs 1. rs 
do.; 5. 1. 5-6. timber comp. 
with edam™; 5 7. 1. used in 
Cyprus for ship- building instead 
of wevxn; 5. 7. 3. wood used for 
bent-wood work in triremes; 
5. 7. 5. use of wood in ship- 
building and _ house-building : 
soon rots; 5. 7.8. use of wood 
for carpenter’s tools; 5. 9. 2. 
charcoal of this wood used in 
silver mines ; 9.1.2. sap gummy ; 
ee a 2 production of resin 
(enrivyn); 9. 2. 2. quality of 
resin ; 9.2.3. said to be burnt 
for ‘piteh (wirta) i in Syria. 
mitus H aypia (= mitvs = mevKyn 1 
appnv=revKy 7) wapadiain 3.9.5.) 
Pinus halepensis (mountain 
1. 9. 3 evergreen; 3. 3. 1. a 
mcuntain tree (Macedonian). 
mitus i b¥epoto.ds, Pinus brutia 
2. 2. 6. seeds come true. 
mAdtavos, plane, Platanus orientalis 
1. 4. 2. lives near: water; 1. 6. 3. 
roots many and long; 1 7.1. 
example of long roots; 1.8. 5. 
diseased formation (xpady) ; 
1. 9. 5. evergreen eas ee ha 
1.10. 4. leaves broad; 0. 7. 
attachment of leafatatk: 8 1. cs 
propagation; 3.1 3. produces 
seed and seedlings ; 3.3. 3. ever- 
green in some places ; Sone 2; 
time of budding; 3. 6.1. quick 
growing; 3.11 1. leat of odbev- 
Savos comp.; 3. 11. 4. has a 
sort of winter-bud like that 
of pedia; 4. 5. 6. found at 
only one place on Adriatic 
coast: rare in Italy; 4. 5. 7. 
common in some Mediterranean 
regions; 4.7. 4. size of unnamed 

Arabian tree (see App. 12a) - 

comp,; 4. 8. 1. grows partially 

in water; not common on Nile; 
4.13. 2: trees said to have been 
planted by Agamemnon; 4.15.2. 
bark cracks; 4. 16. 2: grows 
again after being cut or blown 
down: instances; 5.3. 4. char-— 
acter of wood; 5. 7. 3. wood 
used for bent-wood work: soon 
decays ; 5. 9. 4. wood makes an 
evil smoke when burnt for char- 
coal; 9. 11. 6.‘ head’ of otpvx- 
vos 0 pavixds comp. to fruit of 7. 
mraripvddos (Spts) see dpis (6). 
76a, grass 
7. 8. 3. leaves ‘ on the ground.” 
Toa  Mydixy, see Mydcxy. 
mé600s (1), larkpur, Delphinium 
6. 8. 3. a coronary plant : flowers 
in summer: flower like taxcvGos. 
7600s (2) (= aopdédcdos), asphodel, 
Asphedelus ramosus 
. 8.3. a coronary plant: flowers 
in summer: flower white: used 
in connexion with funerals. 
méAcov, hulwort, Teuwerium Polium 
1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy: prevents 
moth in clothes; 2. 8. 3. used 
for caprification; 7 10. 5. ever- 
ToAvaKxavOos, Carduus acanthoides 
6. 4. 3. a ‘ thistle-like’ plant. 
wodurédiov, polypody, Polypodium 
9.13. 6. peculiar shape: described: 
named from cuttle-fish (soAv- 
mous), and used as charm to 
prevent polyp (zoAvrovs) ? other 
medicinal use: habitat; 9.20.4. 
comes up after rain: “has no 
mpao.ov, Marrubium spp. 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

shrub; 6. 2. 5. two kinds; 
see below. 

mpacvov (1), horehound, Marrubium 

6. 2. 5. leaf described: used by 
mpacvov (2), horehound, Marrubiwm 
6. 2. gt leaf described. 
mpagov (1), leek, Allium Porrum 
2-3. time of sowing and of 
“germination; 7. 1. 6. germina- 



tion; 7. 1. 7. bears fruit in 
second year: stem single; 
7. 2. 2 3. root makes offsets; 
7.3. 4. seed borne at top: me- 
thod of sowing ; 7. 4. 10. coat 
often like yjrecov; 7. 4. 11. size 
of ‘head’ of one year old oxo- 
peter comp.; 7.5. 3. improved 
pt transplanting ; 7.5.4. pests; 

5. 5. seed keeps well; 7. 8. 2. 
LAA smooth, not branched ; 
9. 10. 1. leaf of €AA€Bopos g 
Aevxes comp. by some. 

aphoes (2) (= pated 4. 6. 2. = hodxos 

)): grass-wrack, Posidonia 

produces itself: instance; 3.1.3. 
do.: proof; 3. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain: 3.3.4. a 
question if it bears fruit; 3.4.2. 
time of budding; 3. 6. 1. quick 
growing; 3. 7. 8. eepeees a 
Botpus and jeaf-galls; 3 Pes ta 
mountain and lowland forms 
comp.; 3. 14. 1. description: 
kinds; 3. 15. 4. leaf-galls of 
tTépu.vOos Comp.; 3. 17. 3. leaf of 
Idaean rodouria. comp.; 3. 17. 5. 
leaf of cuxy 7 Idaia perm 3.18.5. 
leaf of povs comp.; 4. 2. 3. leaf 
of ovxy 7 Kumpia comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
grows in Pontus; 4. 5. "7. com- 

mon in some Mediterranean 
regions; 4. 9. 2. ane of tpi- 
Bodos (3) comp.; 15. 2. sur- . 
vives stripping of feels ap Was 
time of cutting timber; 5. 3. 4. 
character of wood; 5. 3. 5. : 
method of making door-hinges 

of the wood; 5. 4. 3. wood does 

4. 6. 2. = gHornp, 
mpacov (3)(=didKos (23). riband-weed, 
Laminaria saccharina 
4.6.4. carried by current from 
Attantic into Mediterranean : 
described ; 4.7.1. refers to 4 6.4. 
mptvos, kermes-oak, Quercus coccifera 
1. 6. 1. core hard and close ; 1.6.2. 

core large and conspicuous; 

9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 6. 
leaves with spinous projections ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3.3.3. 
evergreen; 3. 3. 6. does not al- 
ways fruit: 3. 4. 1. takes a year 
to ripen fruit; ge 4.4-6; time 
of fruiting; 3. 6. 4. deep root- 
ing; 3. 7. 3. produces a searlet 
‘berry’; 3. 16. 1. described ; 
3. 16. 2. optdaé (1) comp. ; 
3. 16. 3. heAAddpus Spds and z. 
comp.; 3. 16. 4. leaf of KOmapos 
comp.; 4. 3. 1, leaf of Awrds (4) 
comp.; effect of stripping bark 
in winter; 5. 4. 8. wood of 
mupixyn (2) comp. for strength; 
5. 5. 4. core not obvious, but 
exists; 5. 7. 6. uses of wood; 
5.9.7. wood used for fire-sticks: 
9. 4. 3. leaf of cpvpva comp. by 

not decay if exposed to air; 
5. 6. 4. wood strong: used for 
door-hinges; 5. 7. 3. wood used 
for bent-wood work: use in 
shipbuilding; 5. 7. 6. other 
uses of wood; 5. 7. 8. uses of 
wood for carpenter’s tools; 
9.1.2. sap gummy: gum con- 
tained in the ‘bag’; 9. 4. 3. 
leaf of opvpva comp. (by some). 

mrepis, fern, Nephrodium Filiz-mas 
1. 10. 5. frond described ; 4.2.11. 

leaf of an unnamed Memphian 
shrub (see App. (2)) comp.; 8.7.7. 
destroyed by manure or by 
sheep sleeping on it; 9. 13. 6. 
leaf of roAv7éé.0ov comp. to 7. 7 
peyddAn; 9. 18. 8. distinguished 
from @yAvmrepis; 9. 20. 5. root 
only of use: medicinal use: 
time of gathering. 

some de ot box, Buxus sempervirens 
mpovprn (= orodias), bullace, Prunus . 5.4. wood heavy; 1. 5. 5. do. 
ansititia “pecause of close grain; 1. 6. 2. 
9.1. 2. sap gummy. core not conspicuous; 1.8. 2. 
mredéa, elm, Ulmus glabra few knots; 1. 9. 3. evergreen; 
1 eased formation (kpady) ; 3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3.3.3. 

ue 10. 1. leaves inverted in sum- 
mer; 1. 10. 6. leaves notched; 
3. 1. 1. propagation; 3. 1. 2 
seems to have no fruit yet re- 


evergreen ; 3.4 6. time of fruit- 
ing: fruit inedible ; 3. 6.1. slow 
orn (?); 3.15. 5. described ; 

4. 4.1. hard to grow in Baby- 


lon; 4. 5. 1. in list of Northern 
trees; 5.3.1. wood very close 
and heavy; 5. 3. 7. images 
made from the wood; 5. 4.1. 
wood hard and heavy; 5. 4. 2. 
wood proof against decay; 
5.4. 5. pees not attacked by 
oKwAré 5 5. 2. core not ob- 
vious : wherefore wood not apt 
to ‘draw’; 5. 5. 4. core not 
obvious Dut exists ; 5. 7. 7. uses 
of wood: that grown on Mount 
Olympus useless; 5. 7. 8. uses 
of wood for carpenter’ s tools; 
9. 20. 4. wood of éBevos comp. 
meets, wheat. Triticum vulgare 

1.5.2. ‘bark’ fibrous; 1.6.5. roots 
numerous; 1.6. 6. "do.; a2 1..2. 
seeds in a husk; 1 11.5. each 
seed separately attached ; 2.2.9. 
said to turn sometimes into 
«py; 2.4.1. turns into apa: wild 
x. turns into cultivated with 
cultivation ; 4.4.9. mvpot grow in 
India; 4. 10. 3. taste of seeds of 
cidy comp.; 7.11.2. inflorescence 
and general appearance of oreA€- 
gdovpos comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of 
cereals; 8. 1. 8 sown early, but 
after pdr, § 1. 4. one kind 
sown late; ’g. e 5. time of ger- 
mination; 8. 2. 1. germination 
described ; 8. 2. 3. single leaf 
first appears: roots described ; 
8. 2. 6. time of maturing seed; 
8. 2. 7. time of harvest in Hellas 
and in Egypt; 8. 3. 2. stem; 
8. 4. 1-2. compared in detail 
with other cereals; 8. 4. 3-5. 
kinds distinguished, local and 
other (see below); 8. 6. 1. con- 
ditions for sowing; 8. 6. 4. suit- 
able soil; 8. 6. 5-6. rain hurtful 
when vr. is in flower: and when 
it is ripe, is less so than to 
kph; 8. 7. 1. said to change 
into aipa adie certain condi- 
tions; 8. 7. 4. effect of cutting 
down or grazing young crop in 
Thessaly andin Babylon; 8.7.5. 
in many places comes up again 
next year; etc.; 8.8.2. favourable 
localities; 8. 8. 3. degenerates 
into aipa,—or else aipa is 
specially apt to grow among 7,; 

8.9.1. exhausts the soil most of 
cereals; 8. 10. 1. a pest of 7.; 
8. 10. 2. wheat-rust; 8. 10. 3. 
effects of weather ; 8.10.4. effects 
of ‘ worms’ in various localities ; 
8. 11. 1. seed keeps better than 
xploy; 8. 11. 3. grain stored 
without drying; 8. 11. 7. effect 
of mixing earth with the grain 
in some places: at Babylon 
grain jumps on the threshing- 
floor: reason. 

mupos © Alyvmrios, Triticum vulgare 

8. 4. 3. in list of varieties of 7.; 

8. 4. 6. escapes apa. 

mupos 0 ’AAcEdvdpetos, Triticum vul- 
gare var. 

8. 4. 3. in list of varieties. 
mupos 6 “Acavpios, Triticum vulgare 

8. 4. 3. in list of varieties. 
mupos 6 Bowtios, Triticum vulgare 

var. ; 
8. 4, 5. heaviest grain. 
“yen 7 Opdxios, Triticum vulgare 

8. ‘L 3. grain has many coats. 
mupos © Kaxpudias 
8. 4. 3. ick stem. 

Tupos 0 KpiOavias 

8. 2. 3} branching. 

8. 4. 8. grain not long in husk 
thick stem. 
mupos 6 TlovtiKés 
8. 4. 3.—4. lightest grain; 8. 4. 5. 
variation in grain; 8.4. 6. escapes 


reo 6 ovravias 

8. 4. 5. heaviest grain of 
‘kinds imported to Hellas ; 8.4.6. 
fairly free from aipa, especially 
that of Akragas: infested with 

poe © orde 

8. 4. 3. in Yee of varieties, see note 
paves, buckthorn, Rhamnus spp. 

1. 5, 3. stem fleshy ; 1. 9. 4. ever- 
green; 3. 18. iD cluster of ber- 



ries of optdat (2) comp.; 5. 9. 7. 
wood used for fire-sticks, es- 
pecially for the stationary piece. 
er ti stapes buckthorn, Rhamnus 

3. 8. 2. distinguished from p. 7 
pauvos H pédawva, buckthorn, Rham- 
nus oleoides 
3. 18. 2. distinguished from p. 7 
parerts, radish, Raphanus sativus 
2. flesh of root turns to 
“wood : 1. 6. 6. root fleshy; 
1. 6. 7. root of ‘ bark’ and flesh ; 
7.1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7.1.5. do.; 7.1.7. 
germination : 7. 2. 5. survives 
and increases in size under a 
heap of soil; 7. 2. 5-6. root de- 
scribed; 7. 2. 8.-do.3 75.3: 2. 
seeds described; 7. 3. 4. seed 
borne at side; 7. 4. 1-2. several 
kinds (described) Kopuv6ia, 
KAewvaia, Aetobagia, (or Opaxia), 
apwpéa (see below), Bowria, and 
one with leaf like ev¢wmov ; 7.4.3. 
effects of weather; 7. 5. 3. im- 
proved by transplanting : 7.5.4. 
pests; 7. 6. 2. root of wild yoy- 
yuAts comp.; 7. 6. 3, root of 
immooéALvov comp.; 4 7.8. 2. stem 
branched; 9. 9. 1. method of 
cutting root of poardpaydpas- (1) 
comp.; 9.12.1. method of cut- 
ting up Xapathkéwy 6 AevKds for 
medicinal use comp. 
papavis 7 duwpéa, horse-radish (?) 
. 4, 2. in list of varieties of A p. 
pa pavos, cabbage, Brassica cretica 
3. 4, becomes tree-like; 1. 6. 6. 
“root single; 1. 9. 4. evergreen ; 
0. 4. leaves fleshy ; 1. 14. 2. 
bead fruit on top and at side; 
4.4.12. sizeof an unnamed Asian 
shrub (see App. (10)) comp.; 
4.16.6. spoils flavour of grape : 
vine-shoot turns away from p; 
whence use of B. as cure for 
effects of wine; 6. 1. 2. may be 
classed as an Tied arab : 
7. 1. 2-8. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 2. 1. propaga- 
tion; 7, 2. 4. grows again when 
stem is cut; effect on flavour ; 


7. 4. 1. several kinds; 7. 4. 4. 
three kinds distinguished, ovaAd- 
gvaros, AcrdpurXAos, aypia (see 
below); 7. 5. 8. bears trans- 
planting; 7.5.4. pests; 7.6.1-2. 
wild form distinguished, 2 
papavos 7 aypia (=Keodis 9.15. 5.), 
charlock, Raphanus Raphanis- 
7.4. 4, see padavos; 7. 6. 1-2. see 
padavos; 9. 15. 5. Arcadian : a 
drug: also called Kepais. 
papavos H dpeia (= amos (2)=ioxas), 
spurge, Euphorbia Apios 
9. 12. 1. used to kill a pig, mixed 
with xoporréiav 6 Aeukés. 
pod (pod), (flower xvrivos), pome- 
granate, Punica Granatum 
1. 3. 3. a tree ope has not how- 
ever a single stem; 1. 5. 1. 
crooked and low; 1. 6. 1. core 
fleshy ; 1. 6. 3. few roots ; 1.6. 4. 
shallow rooting; 1. 6. 5. roots 
branching upwards; 1. 9. 1. 
much branched; 1. 10. 4. leaves 
narrow; 1. 10. 10. fruit made of 
fibre and skin; 1. 11. 4. seeds 
all together in a single case; 
1. 11. 5. each fruit separately 
attached (?); 1. 11. 6. arrange- 
ment of stones: 1. 12. 1. taste 
of fruit: 1. 13. 1. flower red; 
1.13.3. flower above fruit-case ; 
1. 13. 4. some kinds sterile; 
1.13.5. flower described ; 1.14.1. 
bears on last year’s wood; 
1.14. 4. many cultivated forms ; 
2.1. 2-3. propagation ; 2. 2. 4. 
degenerates from seed ; 2. 2. 5. 
do. details; 
places improves from seed; 
2. 9. effects of cultivation ; 
eiiia-wet tee Sie 222212 
effect of good cultivation ; 2315 
sometimes changes character ; 
2; 3. 2. ref. to 2. 2. 7.4 2, 3.3. 
sometimes bears fruit on the 
stem; 2. 5. 5. propagation; 
2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
close together; 2. 6. 8. size of 
fruit of a kind of dowré (1) 
comp.; 2. 6. 12. cuttings set up- 
side down; 2.7.1. water-loving ; 
2.7.3. requires pungent manure 
and much water; 2. 8. 1. apt to 

2. 2. 7. in some ~ 


shed immature fruit; 3. 5. 4. 
autumn budding; 3. 6. 2. for- 
mation of buds; 3. 18. 4. fruit 
and growth of cvvéa0Baros comp.; 
3.18.13.size and leaf of evwivupos 
comp.; 4.3.3.stones eaten with 
fruit; 4. 5. 3. grows well in 
Pontus with shelter; 4. 5. 4. 
grows on Mt. Tmolus and 
Mysian Olympus; 4. 10. 3. 
flower of oién comp.: seeds of 
aiéy contrasted ; 4. 13. 2. short- 
lived, especially the stoneless 
form (see below); 4.13.3. after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock; 4. 14. 10. fruit gets 
worm-eaten; 4. 14. 12. unin- 
jured by special winds; 4.16.1. 
survives splitting of stem ; 6.1.3. 
has spines on the shoots; 7.13.4. 
fruit kept by inserting stalk 
in bulb of oxidAdAa; 9. 5. 2. size 
of BdAgapov comp. 

poa 7% amvpnvos, Punica Granatum 

4. 13. 2. specially short-lived. 

podwvia (flower podov, fruit pyAov 
e 6. 6.), rose, Rosa centifolia 

1; 9. 4. evergreen; 1.13. 1. colour 
alluded to; 1.13. 2. has a ‘two- 
fold’ flower; 1. 13. 3. flower 
above fruit-case; 1.13.5. flower 
of pod comp.; 2. 2.1. propaga- 
tion ; 4. 8. 7. colour of flower of 
Kvamos 0 Aiytmrvos = ae ¥ 4.10.3. 
sepals of ody comp.; 6.1. 1. in 
list of under-shrubs; 6.1.3. has 
spines on the shoots; 6. 6. 4-6. 
a cultivated under-shrub: a 
coronary plant: many kinds: 
localities : propagation and cul- 
tivation ; 6.8.2. flowering time ; 
6. 8. 5. bush lives five years 
and then degenerates unless 
pruned: position and climate 
important for fragrance: flowers 
very early in Egypt; 6. 8. 6. 
blooms well on mountains, 
but has inferior scent; 9. 19. 1. 
colour of flower of dvo@jpas 

pésov 7d aypiov, wild rose, Rosa 
6, 2. 1. flower Of ki¢@os comp. 

povs (drug pois 3.18. 5.), sumach 
Rhus Coriaria 
3. 18. 1. has more than one form 
(see below) ; 3. 18. 5. ‘male’ 
and ‘ female’ forms: described : 
used for dyeing: produces a 
drug called pods. 
povs 7 AevKy 
3.18. 2. "distingnished from p. 7 
pods 7 7 péAava 
er on distinguished from p. 7 

Pie ee : slobe- thistle, Echinops spin- 

6. 4. 4. a ‘thistle-like ’ 

plant : 
branches from the top. 

odpe (stalk odpr), Cyperus auricomus 
4. 8. 2. useful for food in Egypt ; 
4, 8. 5. described. 
nae, celery, Apium graveolens 
2.2. takes two years to mature; 
ss 6. 6. root single, but with 
large side-growths ; 1. 9.4. ever- 
green (partly); 1. 10. 7. time of 
leaf-growth ; 1. 12. 2. taste of 
sap; 2. 4. 3. effect of trampling 
and rolling in seed; 6. 3. 1. leaf 
of ciAdvov comp.; 7. 1. 2-3. time 
of sowing and germination ; 
7. 1. 6. germination; 7. 1. 7. 
bears fruit in second year; 
7. 2. 2. root makes offsets; 
7.2. 5. root described ; 7. 2. 8. 
do.; 7. 3. 4-5. methods of sow- 
ing and transplanting; 7. 4. 6. 
kinds distinguished; 7. 5. 38. 
bears transplanting ; 7.6.3. wild 
forms (immogéAuvov, éAstoréAwor, 
operoaéAcvov) distinguished. 
aoédtvov Td Edevov (= EAELoTEALVoOL), 
marsh celery, Apium graveo- 
4. 8. 1. in list of marsh plants; 
9.11. 1. leaf of AcBavwris 7 Kap- 
Tios COMP. 
céoekt, hartwort, Tordylium offi- 
9. 15. 5. an Areadian drug. 
onpvsa (?), Judas-tree, Cercis Sili- 
3. 14. «4. described; 5. 7. 7. (?) 
wood used for walking-sticks. 


ojoopov (seed ayjoayn), sesame, planting; 7. 5. 5. seed does not 
Sesamum indicum keep well; 7. 5. 6. seed not 
1.11.2. seed- vessel ; 3.13.6. seeds liable to pests ; 7.13. 1. leaf of 

apov comp. 

of berry of a EKTH comp.; 3.18.13. : 
a © dyptos, (drug éAaryjpiov 

fruit of evdvvyos comp.; 4.8.14. 

size of fruit of an unnamed 
Egyptian plant (see App. (20)) 
comp.; 6. 5.3. seed of a kind of 
7piBodos comp.; 8. 1.1. in list of 
‘summer crops’ distinct from 
cereals and pulses; 8. 1.4. sown 
later than cereals and pulses ; 
8 2. 6.time of maturing seed; 
8.3.1. leaf; 8.3.2. stem; 8.3.3. 
flower; 8. 3. 4. seed abundant ; 
8. 5.1. a white kind, which is 
the sweetest; 8. 5. 2) seeds in 
compartments; 8. 6. 1. rain 
not beneficial’ after sowing ; 
8.453: not eaten green by any 
animal: Epvoijpov comp.: sown 
at same time as dpucvov; 8.9.3 

exhausts the soil; 9. 9. 2. fruit 
Of €AA€Bopos comp.; 9. 14. 4. do. 

avn, , Waterlily, Nymphaea alba 

10. 1-2. in list of plants of 
Lake Copais; 4. 10. 3-4. de- 
scribed : size of fruit of Bovromos 
comp. (to seed of a.) ; 10. 6. 
grows only in water; 4. 10. 7. 
part used for food. 

ouKva., bottle-gourd, Lagenaria vul- 

1. 11. 4. seeds in a row; 1.13. 3. 
flower attached above fruit ; 
7.2.9. root described ; 7. 3. 5. 
takes shape of vessel in which 
it is grown. 

gixvos (cixvoy), cucumber, Cucumis 


1. 10. 10. fruit made of flesh and 
fibre; 1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 
1. 13. 3. flower attached above 
fruit; 1. 13. 4. some flowers 
sterile; 2. 7. 5. use of dust; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and 

germination ; 7. 1. 6. germina- 

tion; 7. 2. 9. root described ; 
7. 3. 1. long in flower; flower 
described; 7. 3. 5. ar of 
soaking seed in milk; 7. 4. 1. 
several kinds; 7. 4. 6. do. a 
AakwviKds, oxvradlas, Bowdreos 5 
7. 5. 2. said to dislike rain- 
water; 7. 5 3. bears trans- 



9. 4.), squirting cucumber, 
Ecballium Hlaterium 

4. 5. 1. in list of Northern plants ; 

7. 6. 4. quite distinct from cul- 
tivated c.; 7. 8. 1. stem ‘on the 
ground’ ; 9. 9. 4. medicinal use: 
éAatiptov made from seed ; 

9. 4. 1-2. how long drug wi 

keep: conditions; 9. 15. 6. 
grows in Arcadia. 

atddiov (leaf zdorerov 6. 3.1), (seed 

PvAdov, payvdapis 6. 3. 4), sil- 

phium, Ferula tingitana 

1. 6. 12. root most Recep sn 

part; 3. 1. 6. comes up spo 
taneously ; 3. 2. 1. fruits better 
in wild state ; 4. 3. 1. grows in 
Cyrenaica ; 4, 3. ie considera- 
tion postponed ; 6. 3. 1-2. de- 
scribed: belongs to ‘ferula- 
like’ plants: rules as to cutting 
and treatment; 6. 3. 3. distri- 
bution; 6. 3. 4-6. another ac- 
count, inconsistent in some 
points ; 6.5.2. grows in mountain 
country ; 7.3. 2. seeds of adpa- 
gdaévs comp.; 9.1. 3. stem and 
root produce a gum; 9. 1.4. 
gum pungent; 9. 1. 7. time of 
tapping: details about juices 
of stem and root. 

whip seer bergamot-mint, Mentha 
5, 1. (2) a a typical ‘ bree ser'cn 

binds propagation ; 2. 4 
turns into pivén, unless often 
transplanted ; 6. 1. 1. in list of 
under-shrubs; 6. 6. 2. a culti- 
vated under-shrub ; a coronary 
plant: the whole plant scented ; 
6. 6. 3. woody: only one form ; 
6. 7. 2. said by some to have no 
fruit: but the wild form cer- 
tainly seeds; 6. 7. 4. roots de- 
scribed; 6. 7. 6. cultivation ; 
9. 16. 3. leaf of Sixrapvov (Zrepov) 

Barbary nut, Iris 

1. 10. 7. attachment of leaves; 

a —————— 


7.13.9 (in defective sentence) 
belongs to 7a BoABwdy: peculiar 
growth of root: upper part 
okadias, See kaxros (2). 
oKoppovia, scammony, Convolvulus 
4, 5. 1. seeks cold regions; 9.1.3. 
root produces a gum; 9. 1. 4. 
gum has medicinal properties ; 
9. 9. 1. root and juice used; 
9. 20. 5. juice only used. 
oxavdré, wild chervil, Scandix Pec- 
7.7.1. a Adxavoy ; a class of plants 
called oxavdexud ; ; 7.8.1. stem 
‘en the ground.’ 
~~ oKiAda, squill, Urginea maritima 
. 6. 7.\xoot in scales; 1. 6. 8. 
root fleshy and park-like : root 
not tapering; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots; 1. 10. 7. no leaf-stalk: 
attachment of leaves; 2. 5. 5. 
cuttings of cux«y etc. set in the 
bulb. of o.; 7. 2.2. root makes 
ofisets ; 7. 4. 12. formation of 
roots of xpéuvov comp.; 7. 9. 4., 
cf. 7.12.1. root edible (of 
the kind called n ’Emipevideros) 
(see below); 7.13.1. leaves de- 
scribed: 7. 13. 2. flower-stem 
not the only stem; 7. 13. 3. 
‘successive ” flowering of aodd- 
SeAos comp.; 7. 13. 4. very 
tenacious of life: hence various 
uses: use aS a Charm; 7.13.5-7. 
stem appears before leaves: 
sequence described and comp. 
with that of vdpKirgos (1); 
9. 18. 3. leaf of épxes comp. 
oxidda 7 Emipevidecos, French spar- 
row-grass, Ornithogalum pyren- 
7. 12. 1. see above. 
oKddupos (=? Acipwrvia 6.4.3.), golden 
thistle, Scolymus hispanicus 
6. 4. 3. a ‘thistle-like’ plant: 
leaves spinous; 6. 4. 4. time of 
flowering; 6. 4.. 7, ‘described ; 
7. 4. 5. leaf of Opidaxivn H axes 
vexy comp.; 7. 10. 1. grows and 
flowers entirely in summer; 
7. 15. 1. flowering depends on 
the heavenly bodies; 9. 12. 1. 
leaf Of xapatAdwy 6 AcvKds COMP.; 

9.13. 4. an unnamed plant of 
Tegea comp. 
oxodorevdpov, hart’s tongue, Scolo- 
pendrium vulgare 
9. 18. 7. leaf of jurdviov comp. 
oxdépodov (axdpdov), garlic, Allium 
1. 6. 9. no side-roots; 1. 10. 7. 
attachment of leaves; 7. 1. 7. 
stem single; 7. 2. 1. propaga- 
tion; 7. 2. 3. offsets specially 
numerous ; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds ; 7.4.7. do.; 7. 4.11. do.; 
€.g. 70 "Kvmpuov : cultivation etc.; a 
7. 4. 12. formation of roots of 
kpouvov contrasted; 7. 8. 2. 
stem smooth, not branched; 
7.13. 4. grows in colonies be- 
cause of offsets; 9.8. 6. eaten 
as precaution by diggers of 
oxoprios (1), Genista acanthoclada 
6. has spines for leaves; 
6. 4. 1. one of very few plants 
which are altogether spinous; 
6. 4. 2. described. 
oxoprios (2), leopard’s bane, Doro- 
nicum cordatum 
9.13.6. peculiar shape, resembles 
scorpion, and is useful against 
its sting. 
oxoprios (3) (2? cxopriov) (= axovitov 
= Onrv jhovov 9.18.2.—pvddovor), 
wolt’s bane, Aconitum Anthora 
9. 18. 2. properties : : habitat : 
fatal to scorpion. 
oKvOixy (= yAvKeta, sc. piga 9.13.2.), 
liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra 
9. 18. 2. fragrant : grows on Lake 
Maiotis: medicinal use: use 
against thirst. 
aye (1), holm-oak, Quercus Ilex 

3. 1 6.2. described 
aperaents < (2) (2) (= pidaé), smilax, Smi- 
Ax a 
3. 18. T-12. described; -7. 8, 1. 
stem clasping. 
ophvpva (gum opvpva 9.1. 2. )s myrrh, 
Balsamodendron M yrrha 
4.4.12. gum ofan Arian axavda (see 
App. (9))comp.; 4. 4. 14. in list 
of Oriental apjpara; 9.1. 2. ie 
gummy (called ouvpva) ; 9.1.6 
time of tapping; 9. 4. 1 . collec- 



tion of gum; 9. 4. 2. Arabian: 
habitat; 9. 4. 3. described (two 
accounts) ; 9. 4. 4-10. accounts 
of travellers ; 9. 7. 3. in list of 
odyxos, Sow-thistle, Sonchus Nymani 
4.6.10. growth of dotmé (2) comp.; 
6. 4. 3. a ‘ thistle-like’ plant, 
but has not the characteristic 
‘head’ of such plants; 6. 4. 5. 
stalk of a kind of axavos comp.; 
6. 4. 8. root. 
onadaé (?) (= édyjpepov), Meadow 
saffron, Colchicum parnassicum 
16.11. large fleshy roots. 
oretpaia, privet, Ligustrum vulgare 
1.14. 2. bears fruit at top; 6.1. 4. 
a spineless wild under-shrub. 
(oroyyia, sponge 
4. 6.5. found on North Coast of 
“Crete ; 4. 6. 10. distinguished 
from ‘ * plants. *) (= mpovprvy), bullace, Prunus 
3. 6.4. very shallow rooting: few 
aredchoupos (= apvdyhwooor 7,11. 2. 
according to some) (= oprv& 
7. 11. 2. according to some), 
plantain, Plantago Lagopus 
atopy (= déews 6. 1. 3.), Poterium 
1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 6. 1. 3. 
has leaves as well as spines: i. 
wild under-shrub; 6. 5. 1. 
list of such plants ; 6. 5. 2. ‘sacs 
no spines on the leaves. 
aotpov@iov (1) = (xvdHrvios), quince, 
Cydonia vulgaris 
2. 2. 5. seed produces xvdevios. 
orpovbiov (2)(= oTpovGos), Soap-wort, 
Saponaria officinalis 
6. 4. 3. a ‘ thistle-like’ plant, but 
has not the characteristic ‘head’ 
of such plants; 6. 8.3. a coro- 
nary plant: flowering time: 
oTpovéos (= otpovbiov (2)), soap-wort, 
Saponaria officinal is 
9. 12. 5. leaf of pyjKxwv H “Hpaxdrcia 
. 15. 4. several plants called by 
‘this name, which have nothing 
in common but the name : three 


mentioned (see seed de 9.11. 5-6. 
kinds (see below) ; 9. 15. 5. two 
kinds grow in Arcadia. 
ore os 6 edwédimos, garden night- 
ade, Solanum nigrum 
3. 18.11. fruit of opida€ (2) comp.; 
7. 7. 2. a@ Adxavov: can be 
eaten raw; 7. 15. 4. more or 
less cultivated : has berries. 
oTpUXVOS O pavixds (= Opsopos 9.11 6, 
= mepittés 9.11.6) thorn-apple. 
Datura Stramonium 
7.15. 4. causes madness, or, in a 
large dose, death; 9. 11. 6. de- 
scribed : medicinal use; 9.19.1. 
effect on ‘ mind.’ 
oTpuxvos 0 Urvedns, Withania somni- 

7. 15. 4. induces sleep; 9. 11. 5. 
Hee. : medicinal use : habi- 
arvpaé, storax, Storax officinalis 
9. 7. 3. in list of apépara, 
ovxap.ivos, Mulberry, Morus nigra 
1. 6.1. core hard and close: 1. 9.7. 
time of leafing; 1. 10. 10. 
fruit made of fibre and skin; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1.13. 1. 
flower ‘downy’; 1.13. "4. attach- 
ment of flower; 5. 3. 4. charac- 
ter of wood; 5. 4. 2. do.: wood 
little liable to decay: turns 
black when old; 5. 6. 2. wood 
tough and easy to bend: 
uses; 5. 7. 3. wood used for 
bent-wood work: use in ship- 
cuKépivos 7 Atyvrtia, 
Ficus Sycamorus 
1. 1. 7. position of fruit; 1. 13.2. 
bears on stem; 4. 1. 5. barren 
in uncongenial climate ; 4.2.1—2. 
peculiar to Egypt: described 3 
4. 2. 4. kepwria distinguished. 
ovxy (1) (fruit cdxor), fig, Ficus 
1.3. 1.-a‘typical ‘ tree®s"1. 3.5, 
evergreen at Elephantine; 1.5.1. 
crooked and low; 1. 5. 2. bark 
smooth: bark in one layer; 
1. 5. 3. wood fleshy; 1. 5. 3. 
wood not fibrous; 1. 6. 1. core 
fleshy; 1. 6. 3. eer many and 
long; 1. 6. 4. roots crooked; 
1.7 2. roots very long; 1. 8. 1. 



no knots ; 1.8. 2. has less knots 
than epiveds 5 1. 8. 5. young 
branches ‘roughest’ ; 1.9.7. time 
of shedding leaves; 1. 10. 4. 
leaves broad; 1. 10. 5. leaf 
divided : etc.; 1. 10. 8. leaves 
made of ‘ bark’ and flesh; 1. 11. 
4. seeds all together in a single 
case; 1. 11. 6. arrangement of 
seeds; 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 1.14.1 
bears on new shoots: some- 
times also on old wood (?); 
1. 14. 4. cultivated form of 
épiveds ? Many cultivated wae 
2. 1. 2. propagation; 2. 2. 
degenerates from seed : bias I 
2. 12, cannot be made 
out of épiveds by cultivation ; 
2. 3. 1. sometimes changes to 
épiveds Spontaneously; 2. 3. 3. 
sometimes bears fruit from be- 
hind the leaves: other anoma- 
lies; 2. 5. 3. grafting; 2. 5. 4; 
propagation ; 2. 5. 5. cuttings 
set in a bulb of oxiAAn; 2. 5. 6. 
easily propagated : trees should 
be planted far apart; 2. 5. 7. 
low ground suitable; 2. 6. 6. 
dates said to vary as much 
as figs in colour etc.; 2. 6. 12. 
cuttings set upside down; 
2. 7. 1. effects of watering; 
2. 7. 5. use of dust; 2. 7. 6. 
root-pruning etc.; 2. 8 1. apt to 
shed immature fruit: caprifica- 
tion; 2.8.2—-4. do. and pseudo- 
caprification ; 3. 3. 8. sheds 
épiva ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3.5.4. autumn budding; 3.6.2. 
formation of buds; 3. 7. 38 
produces épuvd and sdvvOc; 
[8. 17. 4. a local Idaean kind 
(see below); 3.17. 5. do. de- 
seribed ;] 4. 2. 3. taste of fruit of 
o. ) Kunpia comp.; 4. 4. 4. fruit 
of 7 ovKy “Ivduxy comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
grows well in Pontus with shel- 
ter; 4. 7. 7. size of marine trees 
of island ot Tylos comp.; 4.13.1. 
shorter - lived than  épiveds; 
4.18.2. short-lived ; 4.14. 2. apt 
to get worm- -eaten : young 
plants liable to “sunscorch’ ; 

. 14. 3. destroyed by ‘ worms’ 

which breed in it: gets scab 
in some regions; 4. 14. 4-5. 
other diseases; 4. 14. 8. effects 
on fruit of rain and drought; 
4. 14. 10. infested by knips; 
4. 14. 12. suffers most from 
special winds; 4. 15. 2. survives 
stripping of bark for some time ; 
4. 15. 2. instance of bark grow- 
ing again; 4. 16. 1. survives 
splitting of stem; 5. 8. 3. char- 
acter of wood; 5. 6. 1. wood 
strong only against a vertical 
strain; 5. 9. 5. wood makes 
pungent smoke; 5. 9. 6. wood 
good for kindling furnaces; 
7. 13. 2. root of agdddedos eaten 
with figs. 
cuxy (2) 4 Aiyutria (= Kepwvia 
1.11.2.), carob, Ceratonia Siliqua 
ovky (3) 7 “Idaia (fruit cdKxov), Ame- 
lanchier vulgaris 
3. 17. 4-5. described. 
ovxy (4) 7 “Ivitey, banyan, Ficus 
1. 7.3. roots again from branches 3 
4. 4. 4-5. described. 
aukyn (5) 7 Kvapia, sycamore, Ficus 
Sycamorus var. 
4, 2. 3. described. 
ouvxy (6) 7 Aaxwyixy, Ficus Carica 
2. 7. 1. water-loving; 2. 8. 1. 
caprification not used. 
ovK7y (7) i *ApaBuxy), Ficus Carica 

4.7.8. an evergreen Arabian kind. 
(cu (8) (? an alcyonidian polyp) 
4.6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 
4. 6. 9. described). 
7 sage, Salvia calycina 
4. a spineless wild under- 
Telaruats 6. 2. 5. like cultivated 
éAchiobakos : leaf of one kind of 
mpao.ov COMp. 
odévdanvos, Maple, Acer monspes- 
8. 3. 1. a tree of mountain and 
lain; 3. 3. 8 doubt whether it 
as a flower; 3. 4. 4. time of 
fruiting ; 3. 6. 1. slow-grow- 
ing (?); 3. 6. 5. roots shallow 
Hei few according to eee 
3. 1-2. described ; a i; 
ine of cutting timber ; Sis ri 



do.; 5. 8. 3. character of tim- 
her.3).5z, 72:6. uses of wood. 
axivos (fruit oxivis 9.4,7.), mastich, 
Pistacia Lentiscus 
9.1. 2. produces a gum;-9. 4. 7. 
ABaywrds comp. by some. 
oxotvos (1), rush, Juncus spp. ete. 
1.5. 3. not jointed ; 1. 8.1. no 
knots; 4. 8. 1. in list of ta 
Aoxuwdn 3 ; 4. 12. 1-3. kinds dis- 
axotvos (2) (6 evwdns ?), ginger-grass, 
q ambepes on Schoenanthus 
9.7.1. habitat (E. of Tehanga) ° 
‘described : fragrance ; 9. 7. 
in list of apwpara, 
oXotvos (3) 0 Kdpmimos, (= wedayKpa- 
oe 4. cy a ), bog-rush, Schoenws 

4, 1. 13. “described. 
axotvos (4) 6 odAdaxo.vos, 
4. 12.2. described; 9 12. 1. used 
for stringing pieces of xapardéwr 
6 Acuxds. 
roles (5) 0 ofvs, Juncus acutus 
2 12. 1-2. described. 
oxoivos (6) 
4.7. 3. stone ‘ 


in ‘ Red 


TéppvOos (repéBvG0s), terebinth, Pis- 

tacia Terebinthus 
1, 9. 3. evergreen (wild form); 

3. 2. 6. characteristic of Syria; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3. 3.3. 
evergreen ; 3. 4, 2. time "of bud- 
ding; 3. 4.4, time of fruiting ; 
3. 15. 3-4. described ; 4. 4. 7. 7. 
7 “Ivéuxy comp.; 4. 16. 1-2. not 
injured by cutting for resin; 
5.3.2. character of wood: uses; 
5 fruit and resin ‘useful, 
wood not used in crafts; 9.1. 2: 
sap gummy; 9. 1. 6. time of 
tapping; 9. 2. 1. method of 
tapping ; 9. 2. 2. produces best 
resin (pyrivn); 9, 2.2. said to 
be burnt for pitch (irra) in 
Syria: cf. 3. 2. 4, 
method of preparing pitch in 
Syria; 9. 4. 7. ouvpva comp. by 
some; 9. 4. 8.some say cpuvpva 
= ee "9. 5. 1. fruit of BadAcapov 


Terpayentt, Euonymus latifolius 
2. time of panes 3. 4. 6; 
time of fruitin 
tetpadré, yellow staan. Cen- 
taurea solstitialis 
6. 4. 4. a ‘thistle-like’ plant: 
time of growing. 
. 2. a Adxavoyv; needs cooking. 
redTAov (revTALov) (= TedrALs, beet, 
Beta maritima 
1. 3. 2. becomes large in cultiva- 
tion; 1.5.3. stem fleshy; 1.6.6. 
root single, be with large side- 
SPO WES Seid . 6. 7. root fleshy ; 
di; G. Asi flaoks & 2; 1. 10. 4. 
leaves fleshy ; 7. 1. 2°3. time of 
sowing and germination ; isisOe 
do.; 7. 1. 6. germination ; 7.2.2 
root makes offsets; 7. 5. 5-6. 
root described; 7. 2.7. root of 
AdraGov comp.; 7. 2. 8. root; 
7. 8. 2. seeds; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds; 7. 4. 4. two kinds, 7d 
Aeukév (SuxeAckdv) and 7d pedav3 
7.5. 5. seed keeps well. 
THALs (= BovKépas), fenugreek, T'rigo- 
nella Foenum-graecum 
3.17. 2. leaf of coAovtéa (KoAoiTia 
(1) comp. 

TLOvpadrAos (produces  immodaés ? 
9. 15. 6. see note) (= unxwriov 
9. 8. 2.), spurge, Huphorbia 
Peplus etc. 

9. 8. 2. juice of stalk, how col- 
lected; 9. 11.1. several kinds ; 
9.11. 5. do.; leaf of orpixvos 6 
brvedns comp.; . 9.11. 7-9. kinds 

(see below); 9. 15. 6. Arcadian : 
TiOspmadros O appHy, Euphorbia Sib- 
9. 11. 8. described: medicinal 

TLOspadrAos O puptitns (fruit Kapvov 

9.11 9.), Huphorbia Myrsinites 

9.11. 9. described: habitat : time 
of gathering : medicinal use. 

TLOvpahrAos 0 mapddos, Sea-Spurge, 

Euphorbia Paralias 

9. 11. 7. described: 


tidy, one-seeded wheat, Triticum 

1. 6. 5. roots numerous; 

medicinal — 

2. 4. In 


a Oe ee ee a 


seed, unless bruised, produces 
mupos 3 8. 1. 1. in list of oa apm 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 2.1. ger- 
mination described; 8. 2. 6. 
time of ripening seed; 8. 4. 1. 
comp. in detail with other 
cereals; and Gera only 
plants which can change into 
something quite different (cf. 
2. 4. 1.); 8.9 2. exhausts the 
soil less than any other cereal: 
reason: likes light soil: 7. and 

Gevd the cereals most like 

tibvor, autumn squill, Scilla autwm- 

7. 13. 7. flower appears before 
leaves and stem. 
tpaydxavOa, (1), tragacanth, Astra- 
galus creticus 
9. 1. 3. produces a gum: now 
known to grow not only in 
Crete (see r. (2)); 9. 8. 2: no 
cutting needed to collect gum. 
Tpayaxavéa (2), tragacanth, Astra- 
galus Parnassi 
9. 15. 8. abundant in Achaia and 
not inferior to the r. of Crete. 
Tpayorwmywv (= Kdéuyn 7.7.1.) goat’s 
beard, T’ragopogon porrifolius 
7. 7. 1. described : a Adxavor. 
TpiBodros (1), caltrop, Tribulus ter- 
3. 1. 6 comes up spontaneously 
in damp places; 6. 1. 3. has 
leaves as well as spines: has 
spines on the fruit-vessel: 
6. 5. 3. distinguished from rpi- 
Bodos (2); 7.8.1. stem ‘on the 
ground’; 8. 7. 2. (as a weed) 
destroyed by épéBuvos. 
ar age (2), caltrop, Fagonia cretica 
6. 1. 8. has leaves as wel as 
spines; 6. 4. 1. do.; 6. 1. in 
list of such plants ; 6. Ps 3. dis- 
tinguished from rpiBodos (1); 
grows near enclosures. 
tpiBodos (3), water chestnut, Trapa 
4. 9. 1-3. described. 
tpirdAcov (?), Aster Tripolium 
9. 19. 2. use as charm. 
Tpixouaves (2? = adiavrov 7d AcvKdv) 
‘ft. 1., English maidenhair, 
Asplenium Trichomanes 


Tn, bar vias Typha cageerar 
5. 3. not jointed ; 1. 8. 1. no 
On Sp 4,10. jist of plants 

of Lake Copais; 4. 10. 5. de- 
scribed; 4. 10. 6. grows both on 
land and in water : some doubt 
this; 4.10.7. part used for food. 

vakivOos 7 aypia, Scilla bifolia 
6. 8. 1- 2, flowering time. 
ue n omapT, larkspur, Del- 
phinium Ajacis 
6. 8. 2. flowering time: flower of 
600s (1) comp. 
vdvor, truffle, Tuber cibarium 
1. 11. has not all the ‘ parts’ of 
a plant; 1.6.5. no roots; 1. 6.9. 
vroxoipis, cat’s ear, 
ixelan La & AdXavor ; ; classed as 
‘chicory-like’ from its leaves; 
7.11. 4. growth contrasted with 
udeap, mistletoe, Viscum album 
3. 16. 1. grows On zptvos. 


paxés, lentil, Hrvum Lens 
2. 4.2. seed sown in dung; 3.15.3. 
fruit of tépprvO0s comp.; 3.17, 2. 
size of fruit of KoAoria (1) comp.; 
3. 18. 5. arrangement of fruit of 
pods comp.; 4. 4.9. not found in 
India; 4. 4. 10. a so-called ¢. in 
India; 8. 1. 4. sown late; 8.3.2. 
stem; 8. 3. 4. seed; 8. 5. 1. 
several kinds; white form 
sweetest; 8. 5. 2. seeds com- 
paratively few ; 8. 5. 3. shape 
of pod; . 3. a&pakos os 
specially among ob. 8. 8. 
also amapivyn; 8. 8. 6. causes nae 
of od. becoming ‘cookable’ or 
* uncookable.’ 
haioyavoy (= Fidrov = Ethos 7. 13. 1.), 
corn-flag, Gladiolus segetwm 
7. 12. 8. use of root in food: root 
described; 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed ; 7. 13. 4. grown from 
aoxos, tree-moss, Usnea barbata 
3. 8. 6. borne only on Wg ites 4 (1). 
eddAddpus (= apia 3.16. 2.), holm- 
On, Eppes Ilex var. amriforia 
by °, 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 3, 



3. 16. 3. described: called apia 
by Dorians. 
perrAds, (2?= ios cf. Plin. 16. 98.), 
cork-oak, Quercus Su 
2.7. bark; 1. 5. 2..bark rough 
and fleshy; 1. 5. 4. wood light; 
3. 17. 1. grows in Tyrrhenia: 
‘described; 4. 15. 1. is the 
stronger for having its bark 
ieee 5. 3. 6. wood of dotvé 
(1) com 
déws (= edhe 6. 1. 3.), Poterium 
‘ hag ns a ), Val k, 
myos pds y wypia), Va onia oa 
Quercus rebel eee 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding; 3. 6. 1. slow- 
growing (?); 3. 8. 2. one of the 
five ‘Idaean’ kinds of oak: de- 
scribed : fruit; 3.8. 3—4. acorns; 
3. 8. 4. timber; 3. 8. 7. one of 
the four ‘Macedonian’ kinds of 
oak; 4. 13. 2. ancient trees at 
. 2. time of cutting 
Pidvxn, p< a Rhamnus Alila- 
OS ee evergreen ; 3. 3. 1. a moun- 
tain tree; 3. 8. 3. evergreen ; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting ; 5. 6. 2. easiest 
wood for turning. 
didvaa (= idvpa 7H OyAeca), lime (or 
silver lime), Tilia platyphyllos, 
(or tomentosa) 
1, 5. 2. bark thin: bark in layers ; 
1.5.5. wood pliable; 1. 10. 1. 
leaves inverted in summer; 
“1. 12. 4 leaves, but not fruit, 
eaten by animals ; 3 ae ae eae 
mountain tree; 3. 4. 2. time of 
budding; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 
ing: fruit. inedible; 3. 5. 5-6. 
winter-buds; 3. 10. 4-5. de- 
scribed: ‘male’ and ‘female’ 
forms distinguished (see below); 
8. 11. 1. bark of odévdapuvos 
comp. 3. 13.1. bark of xépacos 
comp. ; 8. 138. 3. grows where 
Képagos grows; 3. 17. 5. leaf of 
ovKy 7 Idaia comp.; 4.4. L. hard 
to grow in Babylon; 4. 5.1. in 
list of Northern trees ; . "8. 1. 
grows partiallyin water 3 4.15.1. 
outer bark can be stripped; 


4. 15. 2. survives Se se . 

bark for some time; 

time of cutting timber ; b. 1, 4, 

do.; 5. 3. 3. character of wood ; 

blunts tools; 5. 6. 2. wood so 
and easy to work ; 5.7.5. various 

5. 1. wood easy to ie 

uses of wood and. bark ;. 5. 9. 7.8 

wood used for fire-sticks. 
pidvpa 7m appnv (= GuNue tt mock- 
privet, Phillyrea m 


e, Tilia tomentosa 
3. 10. “Ls. distingalined from ¢. 9 
appyv. . ; 
gtAvpéa, mock-privet, Phillyrea 

1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 4. 6. (?) 
time of fruiting. 
sae (prctis), Erianthes Ravennae 
in list of ta Ao ody; 4.10.1. 
. jist of plants ot Lake Copais ; 
4. 10. 4. described; 4. 10. 6. 
grows both on land and in 
water; grows on the floating 
islands of Lake Copais; 4. 10. 7. 
part used for food; 4. 11. 12. 
foliage of some xéAapor Comp. 
Adywov (= Gddé), wall-flower, Cheir- 
anthus Cheirr 

1-2, a coronary plant: © 

‘flowering time. 
baAduos 7 wéAava, Mullein, Verbascum 
9. de ° leaf of ujKwv 7 Kepatitis 

$ase vi = = pAdy.vov), 
Cheiranthus Cheirt 
6. 6. 2. a cultivated under-shrub ; 
a coronary plant: scentless ; 
6. 6. 11. grown from seed. 
she ele (1), date-palm, Phoenix dacty- 
Ar Qiots 


‘flesh’ turns to wood; 

1. 4. 3. (?) tolerant of sea-water: 

1. 5. 1. few branches; 1. 5. 2 
rough bark; 1. 5. 3 wood 
fibrous; 1. 6.2. core not dis- 
tinguishable ; : 
chiefly upwards ; 1. 9. 3. ever- 
green; 1. 10. 5. reedy leaves; 
1.11.1. seed immediately within 
envelope: envelope not single; 

3. 10. 4%, distinguished trom aoa 
a  Birea (= diAvpa), silver- 7 

1. 9. 1. growth > 




1. 11. 3. seed solid and | ‘dry’ 
throughout; 1. 13. 5. ‘male’ 
only flowers ; 1.14.2. bears fruit 
at top;. 2. 2. 2. propagation ; 
2. 2. 6. seeds come true; 2. 2.8. 
effect of locality ; 2.2. 10. effects 
of climate ; 2. 6. .¥ propagation 
from fruit ; 2. 6. 2. propagation 
from ‘ head’; 2. 6. 3. cultiva- 
tion; 2. 6. 4. ‘do.; 2. 6. 5. culti- 
vation in Syria; 2. 6. 8. various 
kinds; [2. 6. 9. branching kind: 
see Koux.ddopor] ; [2. 6 10. 
shrubby kind: see xoié]; 2.6.12. 
cuttings set upside down ; 
2. 8. 1. apt to shed immature 
fruit; 2. 4. artificial fertilisa- 
tion; 3. 3.5. not fruitful wher- 
ever it grows; 3. 13. 7. dwarf 
form (? $ 0 xaparppipys); 4.1.5. 
Cf. 2: 2. 103 4.2.7. KovKudpopov 
comp.; * 3.1. grows in parts of 
Libya; 4. 3. 5. grows well in 
waterless Libya: salt in soil, 

water supply; 4.3.7. kept alive 
by dew in dry regions; 4. 4. 3. 
sown in pots; 4.4.13. dangerous 
to eat unripe dates (in Ged- 
rosia); 4. 7. 8. occurs on the 
island of Tylos ; 4.18. 2. story 
of the very old ¢. on Delos; 
4. 14. 8. if topped, becomes 
barren, but is not destroyed : 
4, 15. 2. survives stripping of 
bark; 5. 8. 6. character of 
wood : used for images; 5. 6. 1. 
wood strong: behaviour under 
pressure: 5, 9. 4. wood makes a 
very evil smoke when burnt for 
charcoal ; 6. 4. 11. seed-vessel 
of xdak«ros (1), when eixipped of 
seeds, comp. to ‘brain’ of ¢.; 
9. 4. 4. mats in Arabia made of 
leaves of 9. 

rt (2), Nannorhops ritchiana 
4.4.8, Bac rian. 

otvee (3), 0 xaparpprpys, dwarf palm, 
Se ig ee aot humilis 
2. 6. 11. described; 3. 13. 7. (?). 

dotnet (4), Cailophyllis laciniata 

6.2. peculiar to certain waters ; 

ae 6. 10. described. 

dovos (=arpaxrvaAts 6. 4. 6.), distaff- 
thistle, Carthamus lanatus 

6. 4, 6. reason for name 

saa (1) To TAaTIpvAdOV (= SHoTHP 
. = mpagov (2)), grass- 
pea Posidonia oceanica 
46-2. occurs generally in Greek 
waters : root described. 
dvKos (2) Cavpacrdy rd Méye@os, ri- 
band-weed, (= mpdcov  (8)), 
Laminaria’ saccharina 
4,6. 4. described: grows in Atlan- 
tic: washed into ray Wiha 
eee refers to 4. 6. 4 
bdxos (3) 7d wévTLov 
4.6.4. collected by sponge-fishers. 
dixos (4) 7d tpixdhvAdrov, Cystoseira 
4, 6. 3. described. 
ddxos (5), litmus, Roccella tinctoria 
6. 5. Cretan: dye described. 
dvxos (6), grass-wrack, Cymodocea 
nodosa (and Zostera marina) 
4. 6. 6. described: comp. to 


XoABavy, see mavakes (TO SVpror). 
Py ae Carlina corymbosa 
4. 3. a ‘ thistle-like’ plant. 
XaxLaiBocros (= faros), Rubus ulmi- 
3. 18. 4. described. 
setae ean periwinkle, Vinca her- 

3. is. 43. leaf of evaévupos comp. 
xapaidpus, germander, Z'eucriuns 
9. 9. 5. medicinal use: described. 
xXapatdkéwv, Chamaeleon 
6. 4. 3. a ‘thistle-like’ plant, but 
inoves, not spinous (see n. on 
6. 4, 8.); 6.4.8. flower turns into 
‘down’; 9. 12. 1-2, kinds (see 


Xemathéwy O AcvKds (= axavOa (9) 
9.12.1. = axavos = igia (2) = 
iéivm), pine-thistle, Atraciylis 


9.12.1. described : medicinal use: 
fatal to dogs and pigs: how 
administered: grows every- 

Xapatrkéwy Oo pédas, 


9, 12. 2. described: medicinal 
use: habitat: fatal to dogs; 
9. 14. 1. how long drug will 




xeAdéviov, greater celandine, Cheli- 
donium maius 
7. 15. 1. flowering depends on the 
heavenly bodies. 
xovdpvaAra, Chondrilla juncea 
{Ce Pe AdxXavor : classed as 
‘chicory-like’ from its leaves; 
7. 11. 4. growth of wtzoxorpis 

Wevdodixranvov, Ballota acetabulosa 
9.16.2.comp with dixrayvor as to 
appearance and properties : said 
by some to be only a degene- 
rate form of Sixrayvov: method 
of keeping. 

wart basil, Ocymum ee dF 
: 6-7. root woody; 1. 10. 7. 

time of leaf-growth; 7. 1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7.2.1. propagation; 7.2.4. 
grows again when stem is cut; 
- 7,2. 7-8. root described; 7.3. i 
long in flower; 7. 3. 2-3 seeds 
described; 7. "3. 4. seed very 
abundant: seed borne at top; 
7. 4. 1. only one kind; 
- watered at mid-day; 7. 5. Ae 
effect of hot weather; 7. 5, 5. 
seed does not keep well; 7.7.2. 
leaf of xépxopos comp.; 7. 9. 2. 
flowers borne in succession, “ef. 9.18.5. leaf of appevd- 
yovov and of O@nAvyovoy comp. 
&xpo;, Lathyrus Ochrus 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8.3.1. leaf; 
8.3.2. stem ; 8. 10. 5. infested 
by ‘ worms.’ 


The following plants (arranged in the order of mention) which are 
described or indicated, but not named, in the Enquiry, seem possi 

to identify :— 

1. (Ouovoy to apaxe), tine-tare, La- 

thyrus tuberosus 
1. 6. 12. root described. 

2. (vAjpa dcov Te mepi Méwdiv), Mi- 

mosa asperata 
4. 2.11. described: ‘sensitive.’ 

3. (Sévdpov . . . weyaddxaprov), Jack- 

fruit, Artocarpus integrifolia 
4, 4. 5. used for food by Indian 

4. (pvAdAov . . « Tols THY oTTpoVIaV 
TTepoits omovov), banana, Musa 

4. 4. 5. described. 

5. (kaprds akodtds eoSiduevos 88 

puicts). mango, Mangifera in- 

4, 4. 5. fruit described: causes 
« (kapmds dmoros Tots “ounces ju- 
;. me Zizyphus Jujuba 

484 u ; 

7. (Gnovov repuivewm), pistachio-nut, 
Pistacia vera 
* % 4. 7, described. ) 
dmovov TH OWer Kal Td BovKepas), 
Phaseolus Mungo 
4, 9-10. called by Hellenes 
axds, and similarly used. 
9. (axavOa ed’ hs yivera Sax vov) (= 

axavOa (4) 7 “Ivédixy), Balsamo- 
dendron Mukul 

4, 4, 12. grows in Aria: de- 

10. (vAnua HAckov pddavos), ASa- 
foetida, Scorodosma foetidum 
4, 4. 12. described: fatal to 
11. (Guovov rH Sédvy PVAAOV €ExOY), 
Nerium odorum 
4, 4, 13. effect on animals. 
12a. (dévdpa poe mangrove, 
i gymnorhiza 
4. 7. 4. described. 


12b. (Sévdpov dvddrAov Exov Smorov TH 
éadvy) mangrove, Rhizophora 

4, 7. 4. described (as if identical 
with 12a.). 

13. (kapmds duor0s Tots Oéppors), Aegi- 
ceras MaiUs 

4.7.5, 6, and 7. described. 

14, (Sévdpa spo rH avdpaxdan (= 
Séadvyn (6) = édAada (3)), white 
mangrove, Avicennia officinalis 

4, 7. 5. described. 

15. (S€vépa 7d avOos ExovTa omovoy TO 
Aevkotw) ( = (16)), tamarind, 
Tamarindus indica 

4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 

16. (SévSpov modvdudAdrov) ( = (15)), 
tamarind, Tamarindus indica 
4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 
Tylos: opening and closing of 
17. (cvxyj ov dvdAdopootca), Ficus 
4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 
18. (Sov0v Tots xpivots) Ottelia alis- 

4. 8. 6. Egyptian marsh-plant: 
bitat and leaves: medicinal 


19, (ev te yévos ev rats Atuvats), 
Saccharum biflorum 
4. 8. 13. use for fodder. 
20. (yévos mapadhudpevov cv TH ate), 
Corchorus trilocularis 
4. 8. 14, treatment as fodder: 
fruit described. 
21. (Sévdpov), Sissoo-wood, Dalbergia 
5. 8. 2. wood described: use for 
making furniture. 
22. (évAov), teak, Tectona grandis 
5. 4. 7. wood stands sea-water well. 

23. (SévSpov), calamander wood, 
Diespyros quaesita 
5. 4. 7. wood described. 
24, (opovov aBpordve), Artemisia 

6.3.6. properties : effect on sheep. 
25. (rd TH vapdm mpoceudhepH THY 
oopnv ێxov), Valeriana Dios- 
9. 7. 4.a Thracian dpepa, 

26. (irodudpuevov evOis Ex THs pi¢ys 
T® kupive), broom-rape, Oro- 
banche versicolor 

8. 8. 5. parasitic on xvptvov. 

27. (piga Gavarnddpos), Somali arrow- 

poison, Acokanthera Schimperi 
9. 15. 2. Aethiopian: used for 
poisoning arrows. 


vip P12 Way TP re) Dol ee hee 
ECAC H Nai Ayibtlealiaeg Se ra if 
et site Ate 1s 

hy nite i aha 
wt ng o . ral pene mas = », 
io), hearer al = th Saal 

: Lh epi wns | ee 
estos qytitecs Bot) it iss m3 
Divine Wet e'? = mnacuaky rites (cheep \% we oF i Pe & dy ie A : 
eM iPOOk «keeles tae” 2 Ligeia are Vidertt phat 

aehyira as hae : per 

Aer, © 

< Wy a se + 
Pet Uist A oe oh 
| tan 
nia hbue te rahe 
ts “Ei 
ot aires. 

Sy Sh (yonhign, IR a 

face AW Theres a “ 

hes 4G FONE. 5 COV RS ne, 



Abies cephalonica 
—— pectinata 
Acacia albida 

—— arabica 

— tortilis 

Acantha arabica 
Acer campestre 

— creticum 

— monspessulanum 
—— pseudo-Platanus 
nae Schim- 

enutsabs Anthora 

Acorus Calamus 

Adiantum Capillus- 

Aegiceras majus. 

Aegilops ovata 

Ailanthus malabarica 

Ajuga Ira 

Allium Cepa and vars. 

—— nigrum 

— Porrum 

— sativum 
Alnus glutinosa 
Althaea officinalis 

Amaranthus Blitum 
Amelanchier vulgaris 
Amomum subulatum 

eAary (1) 
édarn (2) 
axav0a (3) 
axavOa (7) 

App. (27 

dovov, pud- 
eee okop- 
KdAapos 6 Eve- 
a&diavtov, a. TO 
App. (13) 
aiyiAwy (2) 
yuOvov, yyret- 
ov, Kpouvor, 
K. TO oXLC- 
TOV, Kpop.vo- 

eB (1) 


KANO pa 

adOata, padda- 
Xn 7) aypia 


ovKy 7 Idaia 


Anagallis caerulea 
Anchusa tinctoria 
Andropogon Ischae- 

Anemone blanda 

—— coronaria 
—— pavonina 

—— spp. 
Anethum graveolens 
Anthemis chia 

Antirrhinum Oron- 
Apium graveolens 

Arbutus Andrachne 

—— hybrida 

— Unedo 

Aristolochia rotunda 

Artemisia Absinthium 

—— arborescens 

— camphorata 

Artocarpus integri- 

Arum italicum 

Arundo Donax 

Asparagus acutifolius 
Asphodelus ramosus 

Asplenium Ceterach 
— Trichomanes 




a Vv ep avn v 

a. v) Actwvia 

a. n Actmovia. 

avOemov, a. TO 

oéALvor, o. 
Td Edevov 
App. (24) 
App. (3) 


dovag, KaAaLOS 
& avAntiKds 


aapddedos, 16- 
Gos (2) 


adtavTov 7d 
Acuxév, Tpt- 


Aster Amellus aoTépirKos 
— Tripolium TpLTOALOV 
Astragalus creticus TpayaxavOa (1) 
—— Parnassi Tpaydxava (2) 
Atractylis gummifera akxav@a (8), 
&KaVvOS, gta 
(2), ¢ cé VN)» 
Atriplex Halimus a@ALpLov 
—— rosea, adpadatus 
Atropa Belladonna mepnoyiors 
Avena sativa pdmos 
Avicennia officinalis Sadvy (6), 
éAaa (3), 
App. (14) 
Balanites aegyptiaca Bddravos 
Ballota acetabulosa Wevdodixkrap- 
— pseudo-Dictam- dixrapvor (ére- 
nus v) 
Balsamodendron Mu- dakrav@a_ (4), 
kul pp. (9) 
— Myrrha onvpva 
—— Opobalsamum Badcapov 
Bambusa arundinacea kddAasmos 6 *Iv- 
Beta maritima TEvTAOV 
Brassica alba vary 
— cretica padavos 
— Rapa yoyyvais 
Bruguiera gymnorhiza App. (12a) | 
Bryonia cretica apmredos 7 ay- 
Buxus sempervirens mvéos 
Calamintha incana éA€viov 
Calamogrostis Epi- xddAapos (emi- 
geios ‘yevos 
Callitriche verna — 
Callitris quadrivalvis  6vo 
Callophyllis laciniata going (4) 
Calycotome villosa aoradabos 
Capparis spinosa KaTrTrapis 
Cardopatium corym- yxapyarewv 06 
bosum péAas 
Carduus arvensis axavOa (2) 
— acanthoides moAvaKavOos 
Carex riparia BovTomos 
Carlina corymbosa XaAKkevos 
Carthamus lanatus arpaxtvaAis, 



Carthamus leucocaulos xvijKxos » aypia 

—— tinctorius 

Castanea vesca 
—_ |+~—S—s ——. var. 
Celtis australis 
Centaurea calcitrapa 
— salonitana 
—— solstitialis 
Ceratonia Siliqua 
Cerris Siliquastrum 

Chamaerops humilis 
Cheiranthus Cheiri 
Chelidonium majus 
Chondrilla juncea 
Cicer arietinum 
Cichorium Intybus 
Cinnamomum Cassia 
—— iners 

Cistus salvifolius 


Citrus medica 

Clematis vitalba 
Cnicus Acarna 
— benedictus 

Colchicum parnassi- 

Colocasia antiquorum 

Colutea arborescens 

Conium maculatum 

Convolvulus Scam- 

— sepium 

Corchorus trilocularis 

Cordia Myxa 

Coriandrum sativum 

Cornus Mas 

—— sanguinea 

Corydalis densiflora 

Cotoneaster Pyra- 

Corylus avellana 


Crataegus Heldreichii 
— orientalis 

KVnKOS, K. cu) 
Kos 0 akav- 
ge an Ev- 


peste ) 





kepxis (1) on- 

Kia8os 0 OnAUS 
Kig8os, kK. 0 
prea 7 Iepor- 
Ky (Mydixy) 
KVHKOS 7) wypia. 
edbymepov, ora= 

ov iyyov 

App. (20) 
pate (n 


kapva 7 “Hpa~ 


eoTiAn 7 ave 


Crataegus oxyacantha 

Crepis Columnae 

Crocus cancellatus 

— sativus 

—— spp. 

Cucumis sativus 

Cucurbita maxima 

Cuminum Cyminum 

Cupressus semper- 

Cuscuta europaea 

Cyclamen graecum 

Cydonia vulgaris 

Cymbopogon Schoen- 
Cymodocea nodosa 
Cynara Cardunculus 
— Scolymus 
Cynodon Dactylon 
Cyperus auricomus 
— esculentus 

—— longus 

—— Papyrus 

— rotundus 

Cystoseira Abies ma- 

—— ericoides 

— foeniculosa 

Cytisus aeolicus 

Dalbergia Sissoo 
Daphne Gnidium 
— oleoides 

Datura Stramonium 

Daucus Carota 
Delphinium Ajacis 

—— orientale 

— Staphisagria 

Dendrocalamus stric- 

Diospyros Ebenum 

—— Melanoxylon 

Dracunculus vulgaris 

Drypis spinosa 

Eecballium Elaterium 
Echinops spinosus 
Echium diffusum 

peoTiAn 7 ave 


K. © Aeukés 

K. 0 eVOoMOS 






axotvos (2) 

ddxos (6) 
Kaxros (1) 
Kaxtos (2) 
eddy (3) 

Spis (7) 
dkos (4) 
KoAouria (1) 

App. (21) 
Kvéwpos 6 Aev- 
Opvopov, TepiT- 
TOs, oOTpUx- 
vos 0 LaviKds 
SadxKov (1) 
vadkivOos 7 
000s (1) 
KdAapos 6 “Iv- 
éBévy (1) 
€Bévy (2) 

oikvos 6 ayptos 


Elettaria Cardamo- 


Ephedra ‘campylo- 

FErianthus Ravennae 

Erica arborea 

Lruca sativa 

Ervum Lens 

Eryngium campestre 

Erythraea Centat- 

Euonymus europaeus 

— latifolius 

Euphorbia antiquo- 

— Apios 

—— Myrsinites 
—— paralias 
—— Peplus 
—— Sibthorpii 
—— spp. 

Fagonia cretica 
Fagus silvatica _ 
Ferula communis 

—— nodosa 

—- tingitana 
Ferulago galbanifera 
Ficus bengalensis 
— Carica 

— _— ——_ val. 

— laccifera 

—— Sycamorus 
= a var. 
Fraxinus excelsior 
— Ornus 

Fucus spiralis 

Galanthus nivalis 
Galium Aparine 
Genista acanthoclada 






axavéa (5), (6) 

amvos (2), io- 
xas; padpavos 
H Opeta 
TiOvpadArAos 0 
TLbvpadhrAos 0 
PNKo@vioy, TLOV- 
appyv : 
tmobéws, TL 

TpiBodos (2) 


vapOnkia, vap- 

nm ¢ 9 la 
ovky 7 TvdtKy 
ovky (1 

ovK7 7 

App. (17) 

ouKkap.ivos 7 

ovky n Kumpia 



aptredAos (3) 



Aevxotor (2) 
oxopmrios (1) 


Gladiolus segetum 

Glaucium flavum var 
Glycyrrhiza glabra 

Gossypium arboreum 


Hedera Helix 
Helichrysum siculum 
Heliotropium  villo- 
Herniaria glabra 
Hippuris vulgaris 
Hordeum = sativum 
and vars. 
Hyphaene thebaica 


lex Aquifolium 
Imperata arundi- 

Inula Helenium 
—— graveolens 
—— viscosa 

—— spp. 

Tris foetidissima 
— pallida etc. 
—— Sisyrinchium 

Juglans regia 

Juncus acutus 

—— Spp. 

Juniperus communis 
— excelsa 

—— foetidissima 
—— phoenicea 

— Oxycedrus 

Laburnum vulgare 
Lactuca graeca 
—— sativa 

— scariola 


Eiduov, Eidos, 
LAKwVY q Kepa- 

yAuketa (piga), 
(Sévdpov Td) 

ede ; KUTTOS 

é. 0 médas 

KOtE, KovKLodo- 


Kovuga 7 Oy- 

ova ] appyy 

Kapva 7 Ilep- 
oxoivos 6 oEvs 

apxevOos, Ké= 
Spos (3) 

Kédpos(1), o€v- 

Kvticgos (1) 


Lagenaria vulgaris 
Laminaria saccharina 
Lapidium sativum 
Lathyrus amphicar- 

— sativus 

— tuberosus 
Laurus nobilis 
Lavandula spica 
Lavatera arborea 
Lecokia cretica 

Lemna minor 
Ligustrum vulgare 
Lilium candidum ete. 

— chalcedonicum 

—— Martagon 
Limnanthemum nym- 
Linum usitatissimum 
Lolium temulentum 
Lonicera etrusca 
Loranthus europaeus 
Lupinus alba 
Lychnis coronaria 
Lycoperdon Bovista 
—— giganteum 

Malabaila aurea 

Malva silvestris 

Mandragora  offici- 

Mangifera indica 

Marrubium  peregri- 

Matthiola incana 

Matricaria Chamo- 

Medicago arborea 
—— sativa 

Melissa officinalis 

Mentha aquatica 
— Pulegium 
—— viridis 

Mercurialis perennis 

madaxn (1) 
AiBavwtos 4H 
Kpivoyv, Kpivw= 
via, Acéprov(1) 
Kpivov TO Top= 


iéia (1) 

SadKov (2) 
podrdxn (2) 

App. (5) 


tov To Aevkor, 
iwvia (7 Aev= 
Kn), AeuKOiov 

avOenov To 
KvTigos (2) 
(76a) 7 Mndixy 
nOVOT HOV, jLiv= 



Mespilus germanica 

Mimosa asperata 
Mimusops Schimperi 

Musa sapientum 
Muscari comosum etc. 
Myrtus communis 

Nannorhops ritchiana 
Narcissus poeticus 
—— serotinus 

— Tazetta 

—— spp. 

Nardostachys Jata- 


Nephrodium  Filix- 


Nerium Oleander 

— odorum 
Neslia paniculata 
Nuphar luteum 

Nymphaea alba 
— stellata 

Ocymum basilicum 
Olea cuspidata 
—— europaea 

— Oleaster 

Ononis antiquorum 
Onopordon illyricum 
Opoponax hispidus 

Orchis longicruris 
—— papilionacea 
Origanum Dictamnus 
—— heracleoticum 

——- Majorana 
'— — viride etc. 

Ornithogalum pyre- 
— umbellatum 

peorihy, peo- 
Tidy n cata 
App. (2) 
App. (4) 


dotveé (2) 
vapkicaos (2) 
Aetprov (2), 

Asipvov (2) 
Acipcov (2) 

Kvamos & Ai- 
yuTrvos ° 

dagdyy n aypta, 


padwrvais, vup- 


Awtds (2) 

TWAavaKeLa, TaV- 
akxes TO “Hp- 
dplyavos 7 
dptyavos, dpi- 
yavos ) pé- 
oKidAa 7’ Em- 

Orobanche cruenta 
—— versicolor 
Oryza sativa 
Ostrya carpinifolia 
Ottelia alismoides 

Paeonia officinalis 

Paliurus australis 

Pancratium mariti- 

Panicum tmniliaceum 

Papaver hybridum 


—— somniferum 

—— spp. 
Parietaria cretica 
Petroselinum sativum 
Peucedanum  ofifici- 
Phillyrea media 
Phoenix dactylifera 
rae commu- 

Pinus brutia 

—— halepensis 

—— Laricio 

—— pinea 

SSE 4° 
Pimpinella Anisum 
Piper nigrum 
Pistacia Lentiscus 
—— Terebinthus 
—— vera 

Pisum sativum 
Plantago Coronopus 
— crassifolia 

—— Lagopus 

— lanceolata 

—— major 

Platanus orientalis 

Polygonum  mariti- 

App. (26) 

oaTpva, OaTpUS 

App. (18) 

BodABds 6 épid= 
PHKwVY 7) poras 
Mykov n me 
pHKov (n OTa- 
Sys), vyrev= 


> 4 


docvré (1) 
Kdhawos 0 Xa- 
mitus 7 pberpd- 
mitus 3; see also 
under zitus 
TevKN N akap= 
OyjAcLa, 7. 7 
wevKn % ipe- 
pos, 7. 7) K@~ 
App. (7) 
optvé, oatedé= 



Polygonum Persicaria 

Polypodium vulgare 

Polypogon mouspeli- 

Polyporus igniarius 

Populus nigra 

— tremula 

Portulaca oleracea 

Potentilla reptans 

Poterium spinosum 
Prangos ferulacea 

Prunus Amygdalus  ~ 
— avium 

— domestica 
— insititia 

—— Mahaleb 
Pteris aquilina 
Puccinia graminis 
Punica Granatum 

aaa — var 

Pyrethrum Parthe- 

Pyrus amygdalifor- 

— communis 

—— —— var. Pyraster 

— Malus 
——- —— vars. 

Quercus Aegilops 

—— Cerris 

— coccifera 

—— ilex typica 

er eeeeet) VAL. 

—— infectoria 

—— lanuginosa 

— Pseudo-Robur 

—— Robur 

—— Suber 



aie (2) 
oro.By, pews 
kKEépacos, Aa- 
Lio mh oTro- 

mados (3ndds ?) 

poa n amvpnvos 



dirLos (1) 



unréa q yAv- 
keto, fe - 7 
capuvy, fh. 7 

aiyihwy (1), 

omidag (1) 


Spis, 9. 7 me- 
pos, eTUMO- 
Spus,, nuwepis 

bedrAds, tWos (?) 

Ranunculus Ficaria 

Raphanus Raphani- 

— sativus 

Rhamnus alaternus 

—— graeca 

—- oleoides 

——— Spp. 
Rhizophora mucro- 
Rhus Coriaria 
— Cotinus 
Ricinus communis 
Rosa canina 
—— centifolia var. 
— dumetorum 
—— sempervirens 
Rubus ulmifolius 

Roccella tinctoria 

Rumex conglomera- 

—— Patientia 

Ruscus aculeatus 

— Hypophyllum 
Ruta graveolens 

Saccharum biflorum 
Salix alba 

—— amplexicaulis 
—— cinerea 

—— fragilis 

—— Spp. 

Salvia calycina 

— Horminum 
—— triloba 
Sambucus nigra 
Saponaria officinalis 

Sargassum vulgare 
Satureia Thymbra 
Saussurea Lappa 
Scandix australis 
—— Pecten-Veneris 
Schoenus Holoschoe- 
—— nigricans 

Scilla autumnalis 
—— bifolia 

—— . 


_ Kepais, paba- 

vos 7 ayplia 
Pap.vos n AcuKy 
pauvos H Mé= 
App. (126) 






podsov 70 aypLov 


Paros, xXapat- 

uxos (5) 

AdmaGov 7 ay- 



Sadun 7 AAcE- 


ir€a. q AcuKy 
itéa 7 peda, 
koAouTia (2) 

atpov@iov (2), 

Spvs (8) 
oxotvos & OAd- 


axotvos 0 

(Kap ULos 
vakww9os H ay- 


Scolopendrium vul- 

gare : 
Scolymus hispanicus 

Scorodosma foetidum 
Securigera Coronilla 
Sedum anopetalum 
Sempervivum ~ tec- 
Senecio vulgaris 
Sesamum indicum 
Setaria italica 

Silene venosa 

Silybum marianum 
Smilax aspera 
Smyrnium Olusatrum 
Solanum nigrum 

Sonchus Nymani 
Sorbus domestica 
Sorghum halepense 

Spartium junceum 
Spiraea filipendula 
Storax officinalis 

Tamarindus indica 
Tamarix articulata 
—— tetrandra 
Taraxacum officinale 
Taxus baccata 
Tectona grandis 
Teucrium Polium 
Thapsia garganica 
Thymelaea hirsuta 

Thymbra capitata 
Thymus atticus 
— Sibthorpii 
Tilia platyphyllos 
— tomentosa 

Tordylium apulum 
—— officinale 

Tragopogon porrifolius 


Aciwvia oKo- 

App. (10) 




Aves pédu- 
“Hpaxdela, pH 
kwv 7 “Hpa- 
opirag (2) 
aoTpuxvos 06 
KpiOat ai aypiar 
otvavOy (1) 


App. (15) (16) 
mupixy (2 
pupixy (1) 

aon. (22) 


re 32 Oo pé- 

Binoy (1) 
EpmudAdos (2) 
epmvAdos (1) 
bide. 6.5 Or 


Trapa natans 

Tribulus terrestris 

Trifolium fragiferum 

Trigonella Foenum- 

— graeca 

Triticum dicoccum- 
— monococcum 
—— vulgare 

— — _ vars. 
Tuber aestivum 
—— cibarium 
Typha angustata 

Ulmus glabra 
— montana 
Ulva Lactuca 
Urginea maritima 
Urtica urens 
Usnea barbata 

Valeriana Dioscoridis 
Veratrum album 

Verbascum sinuatum 

Vicia angustifolia 
— Ervilia 
— Faba 

—— Sibthorpii 
Vigna sinensis 
Vinca herbacea 
Viola odorata 

Viscum album 

Vitex Agnus-castus 

Vitis vinifera 

—— — var. 

—— silvestris 


Zizyphus Jujuba 

— Spina-Christi 

tpiBodos (3) 

TpiBodos (1) 

Awrtés (8) 

Bovképas, TH- 

Awrds (5) 

Gerd, OAVPAa 







> , 


App. (25) 

€AA€Bopos ) 

Prspos H pé= 


tov 7 BéAaY, 
iwvia n mé- 
, Aaa. 

&yvos, oloos 
dumredos qd) 
aurreAos (2) 

oivaven n aypia 
App. (6) 
AwTds (4) 
madioupos 6 Ai= 





— ____. Anemones 

— hybrid 

Tisoe-nelson (So- 


—— Asparagus 



Bachelor’s buttons 


—— Balsam of Mecca 


Barbary nut 

Bay (sweet) 



~——_/ Blite 


ee (1), (3) 


App. (27) 

Kkaxtos (2) 
App. (10) 


BoupeAcos, e- he 


kepkts (2) 

agpddedos, 76- 
os (2) 


KdAaLOS 6 *Iv- 
avy H IvdiKy 
Sagyn (1) 
iaciwvy sel 
Képagos, Aa- 





_- Bracken 

Broadleaved oak 




Butecher’s broom 



—— Nepaul 


Castor-oil plant 
Cat’s ear 
Cedar, odorous 

— prickly => 

—— Syrian 





Baros, xXapat- 

Spits n wAaTi- 

App. (26) 

oKopmios (1) 

d&prehos H ay- 
pia, pyAwO- 

aus. prrdny 

iy > cA 
KdAauos (émt- 



App. (23) 


KGTT Apts 
Kaxtos (1) 
KEepwvia, TUK 
57] Aiyurria 

ee (1), o&v- 
xéSpos (2) 




Chamomile, wild 



— wild 

Christ’s thorn 




Cornelian cherry 



Crack willow 

—— squirting 



—_ na aot eau eee 

av@emov 7d 
“ advAdavGes 
Kepais, p padavis 
7] aypia 
ayvos (oigos) 
padrdxn (2) 
Kapva 7 Ev- 
KU OpLov 
pndéa 7 Iep- 
adpary evn 
ey. ), per- 

Eiduov, Eidos, 
axav6a (2) 
(Sévdpov 7) 
aixvos 0 ayptos 
GptreAos (2) 

> LA 

goivee (1), 

avnfov, avyvn- 






Dog’s tooth grass 

Dwarf palm 



Admabov Td ay- 


oivdvOn (1) 

dotvég 6 xa- 


Spaxdv tov 

aKTéos, axTy 





Bovrépas, TH- 

> s ul t4 
——— adiavTov, nuto- 

yuov, O@ndv- 

TTEpts, TOAU= 

mS.ov, ™TE- 

—— pis, TpLXopa- 


Fig, wild 





French sparrow- 



vés, oKkodo- 

vap9nkia, vap- 

cUVKy, oC F 
*ApaBixy, o. 
1 *ITvécKxy, 
pp. (17) 
Kapva 1 “Hpa- 
mevKn, CAAT 
okidda 4 ’Em- 

muepis (1) 

Garden nightshade ozpvxvos 6 

€bwdi 2.05 




Goat’s beard 
Goat willow 
Gold flower 
Golden thistle 


Gum arabic 

Hart’s tongue 
Hawk’s beard 


Horned poppy 







M@AV, oKOpO- 

tov To AcuKov 
dys (2) 
Acimwvia (2), 
aiyidwyy (2), 
Gpvov, 700, 
pee (7) 

MEeoTrIAn 7] av- 


apia, ios, out- 

Aa€ (1), ded- 


ooTpva., doTpus 
MiKwV 7 KEepa- 

pahavis N ape 

wpéa (2?) 

tpes, Eipis, oe- 

App. (3) 


App. (6) 

kepxis (1), on- 






Leopard’s bane 




Madonna lily 

—— English 

— Mandrake 

—— white 


—— sweet 
Marsh celery 
Marsh mallow 

apxevos, Guia, 
Kedpis,  Ké= 
Spos, o€vKe- 


kvtigos (1) 
actadbis, 600s 
(1), baxcvOos 
n oTapTy 
mpacov (1) 
aKos re 
okoprtrios ( 
Opidag, Opida- 

(1160) 1 Myduxy 
Oépuos ° 

«pivoy, Aéiptov 
adiavtov, a. TO 
adiavtov To 
pahaxn (1) 

Sadun (6), €Ada 


yActvos, guyia, 




é€Acvoo €A Lvov 

GAPaia, madd- 
X7 7 a&ypla 

Martagon lily Hepoxadrés 
Mastich oxivos 
Meadow saffron geinePors omd- 
Medlar BeoTiAn, fe. 7 
Michaelmas daisy aorépickos, 
Milk-thistle AcukdkavOa = =~ 
Milt-waste mcoviov 
Millet KéyXx pos 
— — EXupos 
Mints novoopov, ive 
6n, = arovp- 
ion ee 
Mistletoes igia (1), theap 
Mock-privet bidvpa n appnv 
Moly p@Av 
Monk’s rhubarb = Adraos 
Mulberry oUKaELVOS 
Mullein daAduos 7H Mé= 
Mushroom puns 
Mustard, white vary 
Myrrh oMUpva 
Myrtle puppivyn 
Narcissus Aciptov (2), 
_, vapKioaos 
Nepaul cardamom dapwpov 
N ae axarigny 
Awtds (1) 
Nightshade, deadly a) meas 
garden orpaese 0 €b0- 
Oaks aiyiAwy (1), 
apia, aompts, 
Spis, érupd~ 
Spus, mmepis, 
twos, mpivos, 
opidrag (1), 
Giyés, ged- 
Addpus, ed- 
Oak-mistletoe téia rel 
Oats Bpopos 
Oleander na) 2 aypia, 
Olives éAda (1), (2) 
Olive, wild ayptéAa.os, Kd- 



Opium poppy 


t= Orchis 

Oriental thorn 





— wild 

hig eelagse blue 






Pop ar, black 
—— white (abele) 


ynevov, yj 
TELOV, Kpom- 
MUOV, Kkpo- 

Bykev (H o7e- 
dys), (vytrev- 

Kote, KOUKLO- 
dopov, hoté 
dimvos (1) 
axpas, oyxvn 
mevKn, TITUS 
a kava (8), 
akKaV 0S, igia 
(2), t&tvn, 
6 AevKds 
Opvarris, KO- 
Pwvormrous, KU= 
vows, dprvé, 
7a80s, mpov= 
BY, orrodias 
Sdévaf, KaAanos 
6 AaKkwvikées 



K K 





Saffron crocu3 

Scrub oak 

Sea-bark oak 

Sea spurge 







atpovd.ov (2) 

J 4 


Bead, KaAa- 
(Os, Tamrupos 



opucov A 

Ceca, bAvpa 
kuvdppodov, KU- 
voaBaros, p po- 

°  aKavOwdys 
Kpokos, Kk. 0 
Spis 7» mAatv- 

TLOvpuadAos 6 
amtedos (3), 
Bpvor, dpis 
(7), (8), €Aa- 
7™ (3), potveg 
(4), ddxos 
Koxkuunrca 7 
Kpoupvov = TO 

pidvpa, go. 7 
App. (21) 
opiraf (2) 
Aevxdiov (2) 



Spanish broom 




— —— yellow 

Sweet bay 
Sweet flag 





orpové.or (2), 





KdAamOs 0 TAG- 
KYLOS, K. 0 




evwovupos (Te- 

dxavGa (5), (6), 
amos (2), ixr- 
Tropéws, ig- 
Xas,  eNKed= 
viov, papavis 
H dpeia, TLOv- 

TE wae 

pes Mi 


Saebvy (1) 

KaAG4LOS O Eevee 

ouKduivos 7 
Aiyurria, o. 
H Kumpia 

App. (15), (16) 

pUTpos, oKO- 
Avjos, ooy- 
kos, XxdA- 
KELOS, Xapat- 

Thorn, oriental 
Thyme, Attic 

— Cretan 
— tufted 

Traveller’s joy 
Turk’s cap lily 
Turkey oak 
Valonia oak 

Vetch, bitter 


eoriAn 7 ave 

pvopov, TEptT= 
TOS, oTpUX- 
vos 0 “aviKes 


EpmuAAos 6 ay- 

abnor (1) 
EpmuAdos (6 
App. (1) 
KUTuoos (2) 
Awtos (3) 
Kepavvioy, vud- 
Kpivov To Trop- 
dupodv | 
aiyiawy (1), 

Spis y aypia, 


, Pnyos 
aptedos (1) 

Vine, wild 


Water chestnut 
Water chickweed 
Water-lily, Nile 
— white - 

— yellow 


-—— one-seeded 

Wolf’s bane 



oivavOn 7 7 aypia 
tov To wéAay 

prsyvor, brook 
Kapva  Tlep- 

TptBoros ( 3) 

padwvais, vup- 





eAaiayvos, ێX- 
KN, itéa, Ko- 
Aovria (2) 



vov, pvO0- 
govov, oKop- 
mtos (3) 



: . = : “=< ~ 4 ise ~ 
eee: Agere 
2) a el ak ay 8 

<2 5 
on py “a 

© - series 

; - 
« Pinte, 
Moma e <: 

> ares 

Ji wera ee 

‘ + 
» Faye 


ht Ba J iN 

ae pod fess IN fal | 
fy (orgy a 

re Na 
ne. oe 




| -PA Theophrastus 

| 4448 Enquiry into plants and 

| AS minor works on odours and 
1916 weather signs 

| cop.2 


| Wallace 


fae sty 


i pacastayectiess 

ateye rely 
DAtana aes 

aiehate ats 


LJ . . 

Bye ea et 




peesee teres 



+2 2